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GB/T 25296-2022 PDF in English


GB/T 25296-2022 (GB/T25296-2022, GBT 25296-2022, GBT25296-2022)
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GB/T 25296-2022: PDF in English (GBT 25296-2022)

GB/T 25296-2022
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 29.020
CCS K 09
Replacing GB/T 25296-2010
Guidelines on general tests for safety of electrical equipment
ISSUED ON: JULY 11, 2022
IMPLEMENTED ON: FEBRUARY 01, 2023
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 4
Introduction ... 6
1 Scope ... 7
2 Normative references ... 7
3 Terms and definitions ... 9
4 General ... 10
4.1 General principle ... 10
4.2 Testing methods ... 10
4.3 Testing rules ... 10
4.4 Checking test ... 11
5 Basic laboratory conditions ... 11
5.1 Ambient temperature ... 11
5.2 Ambient relative humidity ... 11
5.3 Altitude and correction factor ... 12
5.4 Influence of other factors ... 12
6 Testing of safety item ... 12
6.1 Environmental suitability test ... 12
6.2 Surface checking ... 12
6.3 Safety extra-low voltage inspection ... 12
6.4 Enclosure protection level test ... 13
6.5 Protective grounding checking ... 13
6.6 Fault additional protection testing ... 13
6.7 Functional grounding inspection ... 13
6.8 Noise test ... 13
6.9 Manufacturing material limit inspection... 13
6.10 Safe handling checking ... 14
6.11 Clearance checking ... 14
6.12 Creepage distance checking ... 14
6.13 Insulation resistance test ... 14
6.14 Leakage current test ... 14
6.15 Inspection of insulation penetration distance ... 14
6.16 Surface tracking resistance test ... 15
6.17 Test of ability to withstand impulse voltage test ... 15
6.18 Test of ability to withstand AC power frequency voltage test ... 15
6.19 Internal temperature rise test ... 16
6.20 Basic insulation protection test ... 16
6.21 Insulation structure protection inspection ... 16
6.22 Heat resistance test ... 16
6.23 Flame retardant properties test ... 16
6.24 Test of ability to withstand shock test ... 16
6.25 Test of ability to withstand impact test ... 16
6.26 Test of ability to withstand free drop test ... 17
6.27 Test of ability to withstand vibration (sinusoidal) test ... 17
6.28 Mechanical stability inspection ... 17
6.29 Checking and test of mechanical structures for protection ... 17
6.30 Inspection of screws and couplings for electrical connections ... 17
6.31 Internal wiring structure checking ... 17
6.32 Terminal inspection of external conductors... 17
6.33 Power connection and external cord inspection ... 18
6.34 Power control test ... 18
6.35 Checking of startup and operation ... 18
6.36 Surface temperature test ... 18
6.37 Operational structural protection inspection ... 18
6.38 EMC characteristic test of electronic circuit ... 19
6.39 Safety color checking ... 19
6.40 Graphical symbol checking ... 19
6.41 Safety sign checking ... 20
6.42 Nameplate checking ... 20
6.43 Instruction manual checking ... 20
Bibliography ... 21
Guidelines on general tests for safety of electrical equipment
1 Scope
This document gives general test methods for safety to which electrical equipment shall
be subjected after it has been designed.
This document applies to the testing related to electrical equipment including type test
and routine (exit-factory) test.
NOTE: Due to the different types of electric shock protection for electrical equipment, the testing
items will be different. For example, there are power supply systems with double insulation structure
and extra-low safety voltage.
2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this
document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references,
the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
GB/T 1002-2008, Single phase plugs and socket-outlets for household and similar
purposes - Types, basic parameters and dimensions
GB/T 1003-2016, Three phases plugs and socket-outlets for household and similar
purposes - Types, basic parameters and dimensions
GB/T 1031-2009, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) - Surface texture:
Profile method - Surface roughness parameters and their values
GB/T 2099 (all parts), Plugs and socket-outlets for household and similar purposes
GB/T 2423.1-2008, Environmental testing for electric and electronic products - Part
2: Test methods - Tests A: Cold
GB/T 2423.2-2008, Environmental testing for electric and electronic products - Part
2: Test methods - Tests B: Dry heat
GB/T 2423.3-2016, Environmental testing - Part 2: Testing method - Test Cab:
Damp heat, steady state
GB/T 2423.5-2019, Environmental testing - Part 2: Test methods - Test Ea and
guidance: Shock
GB/T 17626.2, Electromagnetic compatibility - Testing and measurement techniques
- Electrostatic discharge immunity test
GB/T 17626.4, Electromagnetic compatibility - Testing and measurement techniques
- Electrical fast transient/burst immunity test
GB/T 17626.5, Electromagnetic compatibility - Testing and measurement techniques
- Surge immunity test
GB/T 17626.6, Electromagnetic compatibility - Testing and measurement techniques
- Immunity to conducted disturbances, induced by radio-frequency fields
GB/T 17626.11, Electromagnetic compatibility - Testing and measurement
techniques - Voltage dips, short interruptions and voltage variations immunity tests
GB/T 17627-2019, High-voltage test techniques for low-voltage equipment -
Definitions, test and procedure requirements, test equipment
GB/T 25295-2010, Guidelines on safety designs for electric equipment
GB/T 26125-2011, Electrical and electronic products - Determination of six
regulated substances (lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium,
polybrominated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers)
GB/T 26572-2011, Requirements of concentration limits for certain restricted
substances in electrical and electronic products
GB/T 29481-2013, Signs for electrical safety
GB/T 33980-2017, Guide on inclusion of electrical safety aspects in electrotechnical
product instructions
GB/T 34662-2017, Electrotechnical equipment - Temperatures of touchable hot
surfaces
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions defined in GB/T 4776-
2017 as well as the followings apply.
3.1 testing
The activity of procedurally determining one or more characteristics of a product or
service.
3.2 checking
The activity of relying on professional judgment to compare one or more characteristics
of a product or service with specified requirements to determine its compliance.
3.3 inspection
The activity of comparing one or more characteristics of a product or service with
specified requirements by performing measurements, tests, or metrics to determine its
compliance.
3.4 test
The activity of conducting some or various special tests on one or more characteristics
of a product or service according to a prescribed procedure.
[Source: GB/T 2900.83-2008, 151-16-13, modified.]
3.5 verification
The activity confirmed by test.
4 General
4.1 General principle
The testing rules proposed in this document are generic to electrical safety items.
Electrical equipment can generally be tested according to product or professional
standards. In the absence of product or professional standards, this document may be
relied upon.
4.2 Testing methods
The testing methods used in this document include checking and inspection.
4.3 Testing rules
4.3.1 Type test
Type inspection shall be carried out in any of the following situations:
- When a new product is completed;
- When changes in design, materials or workmanship are sufficient to cause changes
in certain properties;
- When there is an unacceptable deviation between the results of the exit-factory
inspection and the previous type inspection results.
5.3 Altitude and correction factor
It is generally stipulated that the altitude shall not exceed 2000m.
The correction of temperature rise and dielectric strength when the altitude is above
2000m is in accordance with the provisions of GB/T 25295-2010.
5.4 Influence of other factors
Other factors during the test include the rate of change of environmental parameters,
air quality (including harmful gases, various particles), no water (condensation, rain,
seepage), vibration, electromagnetic environment and sunlight radiation.
6 Testing of safety item
6.1 Environmental suitability test
Carry out the low temperature test according to the provisions of GB/T 2423.1-2008.
Carry out high temperature test according to GB/T 2423.2-2008.
When evaluating the ability of the test sample to withstand temperature changes and
the allowable ability under the environment of temperature changes, it shall be carried
out in accordance with the provisions of GB/T 2423.22-2012.
The constant damp heat test is carried out according to the provisions of GB/T 2423.3-
2016. The severity level is: test temperature is (30±2)°C, relative humidity is (85 ± 3)%,
and duration is at least 16h.
6.2 Surface checking
The surface roughness shall be inspected according to the provisions of GB/T 1031-
2009. Check the surface for sharp edges, burrs, scratches, overflows, obvious cracks
and so on.
The requirements for surface roughness do not apply to surface defects. Surface defects
(such as grooves, pores, scratches) are not included in the determination. If necessary,
the requirements for surface defects are specified separately.
6.3 Safety extra-low voltage inspection
The inspection shall be carried out according to the provisions of Chapter 6 in GB/T
3805-2008.
6.4 Enclosure protection level test
The acceptance conditions for the test when the equipment has drain holes and
ventilation holes are specified by the relevant products or professional standards. If
there are no such regulations, the inspection shall be carried out according to the
regulations of GB/T 4208-2017, including the tests for the protection of access to
dangerous parts (see Chapter 12 in GB/T 4208-2017), tests for preventing the entry of
solid foreign objects (see Chapter 13 in GB/T 4208-2017), and tests for preventing the
entry of water (see Chapter 14 in GB/T 4208-2017).
6.5 Protective grounding checking
The requirements for protective earthing are inspected by checking (such as visual
inspection, check wrench).
6.6 Fault additional protection testing
Test according to the relevant regulations of fault additional protection products.
6.7 Functional grounding inspection
The inspection contents are as follows:
The functional grounding sign of the product is clear and durable. The functional
grounding sign cannot be mixed with the protective grounding sign. The functional
grounding device cannot be directly connected to the protective grounding device.
For Class II and Class III equipment, live parts and functional grounding parts are
separated by double insulation or reinforced insulation.
6.8 Noise test
According to the relevant provisions of the state on the noise limit (or the noise limit
after noise reduction measures), it can be carried out in accordance with the provisions
of GB/T 3222.2-2009.
6.9 Manufacturing material limit inspection
It can be carried out according to the provisions of GB/T 26125-2011 and GB/T 26572-
2011.
6.16 Surface tracking resistance test
The test is carried out as specified by product or professional standards. If the product
or professional standard does not specify, it can be carried out according to the
provisions of Chapter 6 in GB/T 4207-2012.
6.17 Test of ability to withstand impulse voltage test
The test is generally carried out according to product or professional standards.
The test adopts 1.2μs/50μs waveform, voltage value, test polarity and number of tests
specified in the product or professional standard. The test simulates the atmospheric
overvoltage. It is also suitable for over-voltages caused by the operation of low-voltage
equipment. The verification of solid insulation can be carried out according to the
provisions of 6.1 in GB/T 16935.1-2008.
Pay attention to product or professional standards for temperature and relative humidity.
During the test, the solid insulation has no breakdown or partial breakdown, but partial
discharge is allowed. The local breakdown phenomenon, which occurs early in
successive pulses, will show up on the voltage steps on the waveform graph of the
recorded results. The breakdown of the first pulse is an indication of complete damage
to the insulation system. It can also indicate that the overvoltage limiting device in the
equipment operates.
NOTE 1: If an overvoltage limiting device is installed in the equipment, pay attention to checking
the waveform to confirm that the overvoltage limiting device in the equipment operates and not the
insulation damage. Impulse voltage distortion (no change from pulse to pulse) may be caused by
the action of such overvoltage limiting devices and does not indicate a (local) breakdown of solid
insulation.
NOTE 2: Partial discharges in air gaps can cause very short localized dents. And it may happen
repeatedly during the pulse.
6.18 Test of ability to withstand AC power frequency voltage test
The test is carried out as specified by product or professional standards. If the product
or professional standard is not specified, it can be carried out according to the provisions
of 6.1 in GB/T 16935.1-2008.
The sinusoidal power frequency test voltage is basically a sinusoidal waveform. This
requirement is met when the ratio of peak value to effective value is .
Increase the AC test voltage uniformly from 0V to the specified voltage value within
no more than 5s. Maintain the specified time at this voltage. The test equipment is
selected according to the provisions of GB/T 17627-2019.
6.19 Internal temperature rise test
The test is carried out as specified by product or professional standards. If the product
or professional standard is not specified, it can be carried out according to the provisions
of 6.1 in GB/T 14048.1-2012.
6.20 Basic insulation protection test
The test is carried out as specified by product or professional standards. Or test basic
insulation protection by checking.
6.21 Insulation structure protection inspection
The test is carried out as specified by product or professional standards, or by checking.
6.22 Heat resistance test
The test is carried out as specified by product or professional standards. If the product
or professional standard is not specified, it can be carried out according to the ball
pressure test specified in GB/T 5169.21-2017.
6.23 Flame retardant properties test
When the test is carried out on electrical equipment, it shall be carried out in accordance
with the provisions of GB/T 5169.11-2017.
When the test is carried out on materials, they are carried out as specified in the product
or professional standard.
6.24 Test of ability to withstand shock test
Test according to GB/T 2423.5-2019. The test severity level is agreed upon between the
manufacturer and the user.
6.25 Test of ability to withstand impact test
Test according to GB/T 2423.5-2019. The test severity level is agreed upon between the
manufacturer and the user.
6.33 Power connection and external cord inspection
Verify power connections and external cords using appropriate external force
intervention or tools.
The type, size and parameters of the power cord plug shall be tested in accordance with
the provisions of GB/T 1002-2008 and GB/T 1003-2016. The technical requirements
shall be tested according to the provisions of GB/T 2099 (all parts) or GB/T 11918 (all
parts).
6.34 Power control test
According to the provisions of the product or professional standard, test the on-off and
control performance of electric energy, the performance of automatic power cut off, the
switch or system performance of emergency power cut off.
6.35 Checking of startup and operation
Check according to product or professional standards.
6.36 Surface temperature test
Carry out the test as specified by product or professional standards. If the product or
professional standard is not specified, according to GB/T 34662-2017, use
thermometers and other instruments to test the allowable temperature rise of various
accessible surfaces of electrical equipment.
6.37 Operational structural protection inspection
The inspection contents include, but are not limited to:
- Inspect the hazard protection measures of the exposed moving parts of the product
as specified by the product or professional standard. Check the reliability of safety
measures, such as the strength and stability of mechanical barriers. Check the
protective measures and reliability of the fugitives generated when the product is
working. Check the reliability of the measures to prevent danger with the protection
system or the speed-limiting system, that is, the reliability of the circuit.
- Inspect whether the discharge or discharge device of product dust, vapor and gas
has corresponding safety measures and whether it will directly contact the human
body. Check whether the dust, steam and gas discharged or discharged from the
product reach the inspection qualified level of the corresponding substance discharge
standard;
- According to product or professional standards, check whether the liquid spilled
during operation has an effective collection device, or whether it is effectively
isolated from the insulation, or whether it will form a conductive circuit in the
environment, or whether it will cause corrosion and rust to metal parts. will come
into direct contact with the human body;
- According to the regulations of the product or professional standards, check
whether the shell of the product and the parts that are easily touched by people have
overheating and low temperature that are harmful to the human body. Inspect that
there are safety measures in places where overheating and low temperature occur.
6.38 EMC characteristic test of electronic circuit
Considering the diversification of equipment and environmental conditions, according
to product or professional standards, the electronic circuits providing safety-critical
functions (SCF) must pass at least the following tests:
- Electrostatic discharge immunity test, which is carried out according to the
requirements of GB/T 17626.2;
- Electrical fast transient burst immunity test, which is carried out according to the
requirements of GB/T 17626.4;
- Surge test, which is carried out according to the requirements of GB/T 17626.5;
- Conducted disturbance immunity test induced by radio frequency field, which is
carried out according to the requirements of GB/T 17626.6;
- Voltage dips and short-term interruption tests, which are carried out according to
the requirements of GB/T 17626.11.
6.39 Safety color checking
Check the safety color according to the chromaticity and other requirements specified
in GB/T 2893.1-2013.
Other requirements regarding the color of switch actuators, covers are checked by
visual inspection.
6.40 Graphical symbol checking
Check according to the corresponding national standards and product regulations.
......
 
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.