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GB 50016-2014 (2018 Edition)
UDC
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
P GB 50016-2014
Code for Fire Protection Design of Buildings
(2018 Edition)
ISSUED ON: AUGUST 27, 2014
IMPLEMENTED ON: MAY 1, 2015
Issued by: Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the
People's Republic of China;
General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection
and Quarantine of the People's Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 7
1    General Provisions ... 14
2    Terminologies and Symbols ... 16
2.1 Terminologies ... 16
2.2 Symbols ... 19
3    Factory‐buildings and Storages ... 20
3.1 Classification of Fire Hazards ... 20
3.2 Fire Resistance Class of Factory-buildings and Storages ... 22
3.3 Storeys, Occupied Area and Plane Arrangement of Factory-buildings and
Storages ... 26
3.4 Fire Separation Distance of Factory-buildings ... 34
3.5 Fire Separation Distance of Storages ... 41
3.6 Explosion Prevention of Factory-buildings and Storages ... 44
3.7 Safe Evacuation of Factory-buildings ... 47
3.8 Safe Evacuation of Storages ... 49
4    Class A, B, C Liquid and Gas Tanks (Tank Farm) and Stackyard for Combustibles . 51
4.1 General Requirements ... 51
4.2 Fire Separation Distance of Class A, B, C Liquid Tanks (Tank Farm) ... 51
4.3 Fire Separation Distance of Combustible and Combustion-supporting Gas
Tanks (Tank Farm) ... 56
4.4 Fire Separation Distance of LPG Tanks (Tank Farm) ... 63
4.5 Fire Separation Distance of Stackyard for Combustibles ... 65
5    Civil Buildings ... 69
5.1 Classification and Fire Resistance Class ... 69
5.2 General Layout ... 72
5.3 Fire Compartment and Storeys ... 75
5.4 Plane Arrangement ... 79
5.5 Safe Evacuation and Refuge ... 88
6    Building Construction ... 104
6.1 Fire Wall ... 104
6.2 Building Elements and Pipe Shafts ... 105
6.3 Roof, Blind Ceiling and Joints ... 108
6.4 Evacuation Staircases and Stairs ... 109
6.5 Fire Door, Window and Fire Roller Shutter ... 115
6.6 Overpass, Trestle and Pipe Trench ... 117
6.7 Building Insulation and Exterior Wall Finish System ... 117
7    Fire Fighting and Rescue Facilities ... 121
7.1 Fire Lane ... 121
7.2 Field for Fire Fighting ... 123
7.3 Fire Elevator ... 124
7.4 Helicopter Landing Pad ... 126
8    Arrangement of Fire‐fighting Facilities ... 127
8.1 General Requirements ... 127
8.2 Indoor Fire Hydrant System ... 129
8.3 Automatic Fire Extinguishing System ... 130
8.4 Fire Alarm System ... 136
8.5 Smoke Control and Smoke Exhaust System ... 138
9    Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning ... 140
9.1 General Requirements ... 140
9.2 Heating ... 140
9.3 Ventilating and Air Conditioning ... 141
10    Electric System ... 146
10.1 Fire Power Supply and Distribution ... 146
10.2 Power Line and Electric Equipment ... 148
10.3 Fire Emergency Lighting and Evacuation Indicating Sign ... 150
11    Timber Buildings ... 153
12    City Road Tunnel ... 159
12.1 General Requirements ... 159
12.2 Fire Water Supply and Fire Extinguishing Equipment ... 161
12.3 Ventilating and Smoke Exhaust System ... 163
12.4 Fire Alarm System ... 164
12.5 Power Supply and Other Requirements ... 165
Appendix A ‐‐ Calculation Method of Building Height and Storeys ... 166
Appendix B ‐‐ Calculation Method of Fire Separation Distance ... 168
Appendix  C  ‐‐  Temperature‐rise  Curve  for  Fire  Resistance  Rating  Test  and 
Performance Criteria of Load‐bearing Structure in Tunnel ... 169
Explanation of Wording in This Code ... 170
List of Quoted Standards ... 171
1 General Provisions
1.0.1 This code is formulated with a view to preventing fire accidents in buildings,
reducing fire hazards and protecting personal and property safety.
1.0.2 This code is applicable to the following constructed, renovated and extended
buildings:
1 Factory-buildings;
2 Storages;
3 Civil buildings;
4 Class A, B, C liquid tanks (tank farm);
5 Combustible and combustion-supporting gas tanks (tank farm);
6 Stackyard for combustibles;
7 City road tunnels.
If special national standards are available, the fire protection design of buildings for
civil air defense engineering, petroleum and natural gas engineering, petrochemical
engineering, thermal power plants and substations should comply with such
standards.
1.0.3 This code is not applicable to the fire protection design of buildings such as
factory-buildings (storages) for gunpowder, explosive and their products as well as
fireworks and firecrackers.
1.0.4 Where occupancies for different purposes are arranged in the same building,
fire separation shall be provided between them. The fire protection design for this
building and their functional occupancies shall be determined according to the
relevant requirements of this code.
1.0.5 The fire protection design of buildings shall comply with the relevant national
principles and policies, and guarantee, on the whole, safety and usability, advanced
technology as well as economy and rationality according to the characteristics of
buildings and fire hazards in them.
1.0.6 In addition to meeting the requirements of this code, the buildings with height
single-storey Category D factory-buildings with building area not greater than
1,000m2, the fire resistance class may adopt Class III.
3.2.4 As for the buildings using or storing particularly valuable equipment or
articles such as machinery, instruments and apparatuses, the fire resistance
class shall not be less than Class II.
3.2.5 The fire resistance class of boiler house shall not be less than Class II. In case
of coal-fired boiler house with total evaporation not larger than 4t/h, its fire resistance
class may adopt Class III.
3.2.6 The fire resistance class of oil immersed transformer room and high-voltage
distribution device room shall not be less than Class II, and other fire protection
design shall meet the requirements of current national standard "Code for Design of
Fire Protection for Fossil Fuel Power Plants and Substations" (GB 50229) and other
relevant standards.
3.2.7 The fire resistance class of high rack storages, high-rise storages,
Category A storages, multi-storey Category B storages and multi-storey
Category C storages storing combustible liquid shall not be less than Class II.
The fire resistance class of single-storey Category B storages, single-storey
Category C storages, multi-storey Category C storages storing combustible
solids and multi-storey Categories D and E storages shall not be less than
Class III.
3.2.8 The fire resistance class of grain silos shall not be less than Class II; the grain
silo with Class II fire resistance may adopt steel silo.
The fire resistance class of grain storehouses shall not be less than Class III; the bulk
grain storehouses with Class II fire resistance may be adopted with metal
load-bearing elements without fire protection.
3.2.9 The fire resistance rating of fire walls in Categories A and B
factory-buildings and Categories A, B and C storages shall not be less than
4.00h.
3.2.10 The fire resistance rating of columns in single-storey factory-buildings
(storages) with Class I or II fire resistance shall not be less than 2.50h and 2.00h
respectively.
3.2.11 As for the Class I fire resistance single-/multi-storey factory-buildings
(storages) with full protection of sprinkler system, the fire resistance rating of their roof
load-bearing elements shall not be less than 1.00h.
3.2.12 Except Categories A and B storages and high-rise storages, if the
non-load-bearing exterior walls of buildings with Class I or II fire resistance adopt
non-combustible wall body, their fire resistance rating shall not be less than 0.25h; if
they adopt difficult-combustible wall body, their fire resistance rating shall not be less
than 0.50h.
As for the 4-storey or less Categories D and E over-ground factory-buildings (storages)
with Class I or II fire resistance, if their non-load-bearing exterior walls adopt
non-combustible wall body, their fire resistance rating is not limited.
3.2.13 As for factory-buildings (storages) with Class II fire resistance, if the partition
wall between rooms in them adopt difficult-combustible wall body, the fire resistance
rating shall be increased by 0.25h.
3.2.14 As for the prestressed reinforced concrete floor slabs in multi-storey
factory-buildings with Class II fire resistance, the fire resistance rating shall not be
lower than 0.75h.
3.2.15 As for the accessible flat roof of factory-buildings (storages) with Class
I or II fire resistance, the fire resistance rating of the roof slab shall not be less
than 1.50h and 1.00h respectively.
3.2.16 The roof slab of factory-buildings (storages) with Class I or II fire resistance
shall be made of non-combustible materials.
The roof waterproof layer should adopt non-combustible or difficult-combustible
materials. If combustible waterproof materials are adopted and laid over combustible
or difficult-combustible thermal insulation materials, the waterproof materials or the
combustible/difficult-combustible thermal insulation materials shall be protected with
non-combustible materials.
3.2.17 If it is necessary to adopt metal sandwich panels as the non-load-bearing
exterior wall, partition walls between rooms and roof slab in buildings, the core
material shall be non-combustible and its fire resistance rating shall meet the relevant
requirements of this code.
3.2.18 Unless otherwise stated in this code, the fire resistance class of such
factory-buildings (storages) with load-bearing wooden columns and with walls made
of non-combustible materials may be determined as Class IV.
3.2.19 Proper fire protection measures shall be taken at the exposed joint positions
of precast reinforced concrete elements, and the fire resistance rating of joints shall
not be less than that of corresponding elements.
values stated in this table and it is indeed difficult to build fire wall, fire roller
shutter or water curtain for fire compartment may be adopted instead. If fire roller
shutter is adopted, it shall meet the requirements of 6.5.3 in this code; if water
curtain for fire compartment is adopted, it shall meet the requirements of the
current national standard "Code of Design for Sprinkler Systems" (GB 50084).
2 As for the multi-storey textile factory-buildings with Class I fire resistance and
single-/multi-storey textile factory-buildings with Class II fire resistance other
than the bast fiber factory-buildings, the maximum permissible building area of
each fire compartment may be increased by 0.5 times according to those
specified in this table. However, the raw cotton unpacking and blowing rooms
shall be separated from other parts in the factory-buildings with fire partition
walls with fire resistance rating not less than 2.50h; if it is required to set doors,
windows or openings, Class A fire doors and windows shall be installed.
3 As for the single-/multi-storey combined paper factory-buildings with Class I or II
fire resistance, the maximum permissible building area of each fire compartment
may be increased by 1.5 times according to those specified in this table. As for
the combined wet paper factory-buildings with Class I or II fire resistance, if
automatic fire extinguishing system is set in the dryer hood of paper machine
and effective fire extinguishing facilities are set at the finished section for the
purpose of fire protection, the maximum permissible building area of each fire
compartment may be determined according to the process requirements.
4 As for the operation tower of cereal silo with Class I or II fire resistance, if the
number of workers at each storey does not exceed 2, the number of storeys is
not limited.
5 The production rooms in combined cigarette factory-buildings with Class I or II
fire resistance, like rooms for raw material, stock, grouping formulation, silk
reeling, silk storing and rolling package, auxiliary material turnover, temporary
storage of finished products, and tobacco shred expansion by carbon dioxide,
shall be divided into independent fire separation units, and may be separated by
fire walls when the process conditions permit. Thereinto, the silk reeling, silk
storing and rolling package rooms may divided into one fire compartment and
the maximum permissible building area of each fire compartment may be
determined according to the process requirements, but the silk reeling, silk
storing and rolling package rooms shall be separated by fire partition walls and
floor slabs with fire resistance rating not less than 2.00h and 1.00h respectively.
In addition, proper measures shall be taken at the openings between horizontal
and vertical fire separations in the factory-buildings to prevent fire spreading.
6 As for the operation platform and repair platform in factory-buildings, if the
number of their users is less than 10, the platform area may not be counted into
the building area of local fire compartment.
7 "-" means “not allowed”.
3.3.3 Where automatic fire extinguishing system is arranged in the factory-buildings,
the maximum permissible building area of each fire compartment may be increased
by 1.0 time according to those specified in 3.3.1 of this code. Where automatic fire
extinguishing system is arranged in Categories D and E over-ground factory-buildings,
the maximum permissible building area of each fire compartment is not limited. Where
local automatic fire extinguishing systems are arranged in the factory-buildings, the
increased area of their fire compartment may be calculated as 1.0 times of this local
area.
Where automatic fire extinguishing system is arranged in the storages (except the fire
compartments in the refrigeration storage), the maximum permissible occupied area
of each storage and the maximum permissible building area of each fire compartment
may be increased by 1.0 time according to those specified in 3.3.2 of this code.
3.3.4 Categories A and B production occupancies (storages) shall not be
arranged underground or semi-underground.
3.3.5 Staff dormitory must not be arranged in the factory-buildings.
Offices and resting rooms shall not be arranged in Categories A and B
factory-buildings; if offices and resting rooms must be adjacent to the
factory-buildings, they shall reach Class II fire resistance at least and blast
walls with fire resistance rating not less than 3.00h shall be used to separate
them from the factory-buildings; in addition, independent safety-exits shall be
arranged.
Where offices and resting rooms are arranged in Category C factory-buildings,
fire partition walls with fire resistance rating not less than 2.50h and floor slab
with fire resistance rating not less than 1.00h shall be used to separate them
from other positions; in addition, at least 1 independent safety-exit shall be
arranged. Where it is needed to arrange interconnected doors on partition wall,
Class B fire doors shall be adopted.
3.3.6 Where intermediate storages are arranged in the factory-buildings, the
following requirements shall be met:
1 Categories A and B intermediate storages shall be arranged adjacent to
external wall, their storage capacity should not exceed the demand for one day
and night;
2 Categories A, B and C intermediate storages shall adopt fire walls and
non-combustible floor slabs with fire resistance rating not less than 1.50 h
to separate them from other positions;
3 Categories D and E intermediate storages shall adopt fire partition walls with
fire resistance rating not less than 2.00h and floor slab with fire resistance rating
not less than 1.00h to separate them from other positions;
4 The fire resistance class and occupied area of storages shall meet the
requirements of 3.3.2 and 3.3.3 in this code.
3.3.7 The intermediate tanks for Class C liquid in the factory-buildings shall be
arranged in separate rooms and their capacity shall not be greater than 5m3. As for
rooms arranged with intermediate tanks, fire partition walls with fire resistance rating
not less than 3.00h and floor slabs with fire resistance rating not less than 1.50h shall
be used to separate them from other positions; in addition, Class A fire doors shall be
adopted for those rooms.
3.3.8 The outdoor power transformation and distribution stations shall not be
arranged in or adjacent to Categories A and B factory-buildings, and shall not
be arranged in hazardous areas exposed to explosive gas or dust. As for 10kV
or below special outdoor power transformation and distribution stations for
Categories A and B factory-buildings, they may be adjacent to each other on
one side where fire wall without door, window or opening is adopted. Moreover,
they shall meet the requirements of the current national standard "Electrical
Installations Design Code for Explosive Atmospheres and Fire Hazard" (GB
50058), etc.
As for power distribution station for Category B factory-buildings, Class A fire
window shall be adopted where a window must be arranged on the fire wall.
3.3.9 The staff dormitory must not be arranged in the storages.
The offices and resting rooms must not be arranged in or adjacent to
Categories A and B storages.
Where offices and resting rooms are arranged in Categories C and D storages,
fire partition wall with fire resistance rating not less than 2.50h and floor slab
with fire resistance rating not less than 1.00h shall be used to separate them
from other positions; in addition, independent safety-exit shall be arranged.
Where it is needed to arrange interconnected doors on partition wall, Class B
fire doors shall be adopted.
3.3.10 The fire protection design of logistics buildings shall meet the following
requirements:
1 Where the main functions of the buildings are operations such as sorting and
processing, the fire protection design shall be determined according to the
relevant requirements of factory-buildings in this code, while the fire protection
design of storages shall be determined according to intermediate storages.
2 Where the main function of a building is storage or it is difficult to distinguish the
main function of a building, the fire protection design shall be determined
according to the relevant requirements of storages in this code, however, where
the operating areas such as sorting area adopt fire wall to completely separate
them from storage areas, the fire protection requirements of operating areas
and storage areas may be respectively determined according to the relevant
requirements of factory-buildings and storages in this code. Thereinto, where
the operating areas such as sorting area adopt fire wall to completely separate
them from storage areas, and when the following conditions are met, except
Category C high rack storages of automation control, the maximum permissible
building area of the fire compartments of storage area and the maximum
permissible occupied area of the buildings in storage area may be increased by
3.0 times according to the requirements of Table 3.3.2 (excluding the notes) in
this code;
1) Storing Category C articles except combustible liquid, cotton, linen, silk,
wool and other textiles, foam plastic and other articles, and the building
fire resistance class is not inferior to Class I;
2) Storing Categories D and E articles and the building fire resistance class
is not inferior to Class II;
3) Automatic water fire extinguishing systems and fire alarm systems are
arranged in the whole building.
3.3.11 Railway line shall not be arranged in Categories A and B
factory-buildings(storages).
As for the Categories C, D and E factory-buildings (storages) with access of steam
locomotive and diesel locomotive, non-combustibles shall be adopted for their roofs or
other fire control measures shall be taken.
3.4 Fire Separation Distance of Factory-buildings
3.4.1 Unless otherwise stated in this code, the fire separation distance
between factory-buildings and between factory-buildings and Categories B, C,
D and E storages shall not be less than those specified in Table 3.4.1, and the
fire separation distance with Category A storage shall meet those specified in
in the trench. In addition, fire-proof materials shall be used to seal the
connection between trench and adjacent factory-buildings.
3.6.7 As for Categories A and B production positions with explosive risk, they should
be arranged nearby pressure relief facilities close to the exterior wall of single-storey
factory-buildings or the exterior wall of the top floor of multi-storey factory-buildings.
The equipment with explosive risk should be arranged away from the main load
bearing members of factory-buildings, such as beam and column.
3.6.8 The master control room of Categories A and B factory-buildings with
explosive risk shall be arranged independently.
3.6.9 The branch control room of Categories A and B factory-buildings with
explosive risk should be arranged independently. If it is adjacent to the exterior wall,
fire partition wall with fire resistance rating not less than 3.00h shall be adopted to
separate it from other positions.
3.6.10 Protective measures, like foyer, shall be taken for staircase, external stairway
in area with explosive risk or connection part between area with explosive risk and its
adjacent area. The partition wall of foyer shall be fire partition wall with fire resistance
rating not less than 2.00h; Category A fire door shall be adopted and staggered with
the door of staircase.
3.6.11 As for factory-buildings for using and producing Class A, B and C
liquids, their pipe and trench shall not be connected with those of adjacent
factory-buildings. Oil-separating facilities shall be arranged for sewers.
3.6.12 The storages for Class A, B and C liquids shall be arranged with
facilities to prevent liquid from dispersion. As for storages for articles prone to
combustion and explosion in case of wet environment, measures shall be taken
to prevent them from water immersion.
3.6.13 As for silo with dust explosion hazards, its top cover plate shall be arranged
with necessary pressure relief facilities.
The pressure relief area of the operation tower and upper corridor of grain silo shall be
determined through calculation according to 3.6.4 of this code. Explosion prevention
measures shall be taken for other grain storage facilities with dust explosion hazards.
3.6.14 As for storages or any of their positions with explosive risk, explosion
prevention measures should be taken and pressure relief facilities shall be arranged
according to the requirements of this section.
......
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