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HJ 471-2020

Chinese Standard: 'HJ 471-2020'
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BASIC DATA
Standard ID HJ 471-2020 (HJ471-2020)
Description (Translated English) (Technical Specifications for Wastewater Treatment Engineering in Textile Dyeing and Finishing Industry)
Sector / Industry Environmental Protection Industry Standard
Date of Issue 2020-01-14
Date of Implementation 2020-01-14
Older Standard (superseded by this standard) HJ 471-2009
Regulation (derived from) Ministry of Ecology and Environment Announcement No. 6 of 2020
Issuing agency(ies) Ministry of Ecology and Environment

HJ 471-2020
Technical specification for dyeing and finishing wastewater treatment of textile industry
National Environmental Protection Standards of the People's Republic of China
Technical specifications for textile dyeing and finishing industry wastewater treatment engineering
2020-01-14 release
2020-01-14 Implementation
Issued by the Ministry of Ecology and Environment
Table of contents
Foreword...II
1 Scope of application...1
2 Normative references...1
3 Terms and definitions...2
4 Pollutants and pollution load...3
5 General requirements...4
6 Process design...5
7 Main process equipment and materials...12
8 Inspection and process control...12
9 Main auxiliary projects...13
10 Work Safety and Occupational Health...14
11 Construction and acceptance...15
12 Operation and maintenance...16
Appendix A (Informative Appendix) Water Quality Reference Table for Various Textile Dyeing and Finishing Wastewater...18
Appendix B (informative appendix) Pollutant removal efficiency reference table for each main process unit...20
Appendix C (informative appendix) Reclaimed water quality recommendations...21
Preface
In order to implement the Environmental Protection Law of the People’s Republic of China, the Water Pollution Prevention Law of the People’s Republic of China and other laws and regulations,
Environmental pollution, improve the quality of the ecological environment, standardize the construction and operation management of textile dyeing and finishing industrial wastewater treatment facilities, and formulate this standard.
This standard specifies the technical requirements for the design, construction, acceptance, operation and maintenance of textile dyeing and finishing industrial wastewater treatment projects.
This standard is a guiding standard.
This standard was first published in.2009, and this is the first revision.
The main content of this revision.
--According to the requirements of "Technical Guidelines for the Development of Technical Specifications for Environmental Engineering" (HJ 526-2010), the elements and
Content layout
--Updated the content of "4 Pollutants and Pollution Load";
--Clarified the design principles of “classified collection, classified treatment, and classified reuse”, and improved wastewater treatment technology and various
Process unit design parameters;
--Complement and improve the advanced processing and recycling processing technology;
-Added new technical requirements for "6.7 Sludge Treatment" and "6.8 Secondary Pollution Prevention and Control";
- Supplement and perfect the technical requirements of "7 Main Process Equipment and Materials";
--The technical requirements of "8 Inspection and Process Control" have been supplemented and improved.
This standard is revised by the Department of Science, Technology and Finance and the Department of Regulations and Standards of the Ministry of Ecology and Environment.
The main drafting organizations of this standard. China Environmental Protection Industry Association, Donghua University, China Printing and Dyeing Industry Association, Tsinghua University,
China Shipbuilding Ninth Design and Research Institute Engineering Co., Ltd., Hubei Junji Water Treatment Co., Ltd., China Holding (Beijing) Water Operation Co., Ltd.,
Weishibang (Xiamen) Environmental Technology Co., Ltd. and Ziguang Environmental Protection Co., Ltd.
This standard was approved by the Ministry of Ecology and Environment on January 13, 2020.
This standard will be implemented on January 14, 2020.
This standard is interpreted by the Ministry of Ecology and Environment.
Technical specifications for textile dyeing and finishing industry wastewater treatment engineering
1 Scope of application
This standard specifies the technical requirements for the design, construction, acceptance, operation and maintenance of textile dyeing and finishing industrial wastewater treatment projects.
This standard is applicable to the construction and operation management of textile dyeing and finishing industry wastewater treatment projects, and can be used as the environment for textile dyeing and finishing industry construction projects.
Environmental impact assessment, feasibility study and technical basis for the design, construction, acceptance and operation management of wastewater treatment projects.
2 Normative references
The content of this standard refers to the terms in the following documents. For undated reference documents, the effective version (including amendments) is suitable
Used in this standard.
GB 4287 Water Pollutant Discharge Standard for Textile Dyeing and Finishing Industry
GB 14048 Low-voltage switchgear and control equipment
GB 14554 Emission Standard of Odor Pollutants
GB 15603 General rules for storage of commonly used hazardous chemicals
GB 18597 Pollution Control Standard for Hazardous Waste Storage
GB/T 18920 Urban Wastewater Recycling and Urban Miscellaneous Water Quality
GB/T 22580 Technical requirements for plateau electrical equipment under special environmental conditions Low-voltage switchgear and control equipment
GB/T 25499 Urban Sewage Recycling Greenland Irrigation Water Quality
GB 50013 Outdoor Water Supply Design Code
GB 50014 Outdoor Drainage Design Code
GB 50015 Code for Design of Building Water Supply and Drainage
GB 50016 Code for fire protection of building design
GB 50019 Design Code for Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning of Industrial Buildings
GB 50033 Building Lighting Design Standard
GB 50037 Building Ground Design Code
GB/T 50046 Design standard for corrosion protection of industrial buildings
GB 50052 Code for Design of Power Supply and Distribution System
GB 50053 20kV and below substation design code
GB 50054 Low Voltage Power Distribution Design Code
GB 50055 General Electric Equipment Power Distribution Design Code
GB 50057 Code for lightning protection design of buildings
GB 50059 35kV~110kV Substation Design Code
GB 50187 Graphic Design Specification for Industrial Enterprises
GB 50194 Safety Code for Power Supply and Use at Construction Site
GB 50204 Code for Acceptance of Construction Quality of Concrete Structure Engineering
GB 50231 General specification for construction and acceptance of mechanical equipment installation engineering
GB 50243 Code for acceptance of construction quality of ventilation and air conditioning engineering
GB 50335 Design Code for Urban Wastewater Reclamation and Utilization Project
GB J 22 Factory and Mine Road Design Code
GBZ 1 Hygienic Standard for Design of Industrial Enterprises
GBZ 2.1 Occupational exposure limit for hazardous factors in the workplace Chemical hazardous factors
GBZ 2.2 Occupational Exposure Limits for Hazardous Factors in the Workplace Physical Factors
HJ/T 242 Technical requirements for environmental protection products, belt press filter for sludge dewatering
HJ/T 245 Technical Requirements for Environmental Protection Products Hanging Packing
HJ/T 246 Technical Requirements for Environmental Protection Products Suspended Packing
HJ/T 252 Technical requirements for environmental protection products, medium and microporous aerators
HJ/T 283 Technical Requirements for Environmental Protection Products, Chamber Filter Press and Plate and Frame Filter Press
HJ/T 336 Technical Requirements for Environmental Protection Products Submersible Sewage Pump
HJ/T 354 Technical Specification for Acceptance of Online Water Pollution Source Monitoring System (Trial)
HJ 709 Technical specification for environmental protection acceptance of construction project completion textile dyeing and finishing
HJ 861 Technical Specification for Application and Issuance of Pollution Permits for Textile Printing and Dyeing
HJ 879 Technical Guidelines for Self-monitoring of Pollutant Discharge Units Textile Printing and Dyeing Industry
HJ 990 Technical Guidelines for Pollution Source Intensity Accounting Textile Printing and Dyeing Industry
HJ.2007 Technical Specification for Wastewater Air Flotation Treatment Engineering
HJ.2016 Environmental Engineering Terminology
HJ 2025 Technical specification for hazardous waste collection, storage and transportation
HJ 2047 Hydrolysis acidification reactor sewage treatment engineering technical specification
"National Directory of Hazardous Wastes" (Order No. 39 of the Ministry of Environmental Protection)
"Regulations for the Printing and Dyeing Industry" (Announcement No. 37,.2017 of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology)
"Technical Requirements for Standardized Remediation of Sewage Outlets" (Trial) (Environmental Supervision [1996] No. 470)
"Interim Measures for Environmental Protection Acceptance of Construction Projects Completed" (Guo Environmental Guidance and Environmental Assessment [2017] No. 4)
"Regulations on the Environmental Protection Management of Construction Projects" (revised on July 16,.2017)
3 Terms and definitions
The relevant terms and definitions in HJ.2016 and the following terms and definitions apply to this standard.
3.1 dyeing and finishing of textile
Refers to the process of chemical treatment of textile materials (fiber, yarn, thread and fabric), including pre-treatment, dyeing,
Printing, finishing (including general finishing and functional finishing) and other processes.
3.2 dyeing and finishing industry wastewater
Refers to the waste water discharged by textile dyeing and finishing facilities or enterprises outside the legal boundaries of the enterprise, including direct or indirect discharge from production and life
Relationship of various effluents.
3.3 Comprehensive wastewater comprehensive wastewater
Refers to the textile dyeing and finishing enterprises that are discharged into the sewage treatment plant (station) after classified collection and pretreatment, or discharged into the sewage treatment after mixed collection
The general term for wastewater from treatment plants (stations).
3.4 pretreatment
Refers to the waste water discharged from textile dyeing and finishing before entering the reuse water or comprehensive waste water treatment, using physical, chemical and biological
The main treatment method, the concentration of pollutants in various types of wastewater after pretreatment should meet the design requirements for water reuse or integrated wastewater treatment.
3.5 Reclamation of dyeing and finishing wastewater
Refers to the process of collecting, treating, and reusing wastewater discharged from textile dyeing and finishing.
4 Pollutants and pollution load
4.1 Wastewater source and classification
4.1.1 The textile dyeing and finishing industry wastewater mainly includes pre-treatment wastewater, dyeing/printing wastewater, finishing wastewater and other wastewater. Its production link
As shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1 Schematic diagram of typical production processes and wastewater generation links in the textile dyeing and finishing industry
4.1.2 The pre-treatment wastewater is mainly divided into.
a) Pre-treatment wastewater, mainly from cotton printing and dyeing, mainly comes from desizing, scouring, bleaching and mercerizing;
b) Pre-treatment wastewater, which is mainly chemical fiber printing and dyeing, mainly comes from degreasing, scouring, and alkali reduction;
c) Pre-treatment wastewater, mainly silk printing and dyeing, mainly comes from cocoon cooking, silk reeling and scouring;
d) Pre-treatment wastewater, mainly from hemp printing and dyeing, mainly comes from degumming;
e) Pre-treatment wastewater, mainly from wool spinning and dyeing, mainly comes from wool scouring and carbonization.
4.1.3 Dyeing/printing wastewater is mainly dyeing wastewater or printing wastewater.
4.1.4 Finishing wastewater is mainly washing wastewater generated from finishing treatment.
4.1.5 Other wastewater is mainly domestic sewage, part of the discharged circulating condensate water and ground washing water.
4.2 Waste water volume
4.2.1 The wastewater discharge volume of existing enterprises can be determined through actual measurement. Comparable raw materials, production processes, production facilities, and management levels for new enterprises
And other similar companies, or determine the amount of wastewater produced based on the material balance and water balance. Newly-built enterprises can also calculate water volume according to HJ 990.
4.2.2 The initial rainwater collection volume of existing enterprises should be determined based on actual monitoring conditions. The initial rainwater collection volume of new (renovated or expanded) enterprises should be
According to the relevant requirements of the environmental impact assessment approval document or not less than 15 mm precipitation in the area of the contaminated area.
4.3 Wastewater quality
Textile material
4.3.1 Existing enterprise wastewater and initial rainwater pollutant composition and concentration should be subject to the test data. When sampling and testing, each production
The waste water discharged from the process shall be sampled one by one, and it is advisable to test one by one, or mix and prepare samples according to the proportion of water volume.
4.3.2 New (reconstruction, expansion) wastewater treatment projects for enterprises can be compared to existing pollution data of the same production scale and the same production process.
Determine the wastewater quality, or calculate the water quality according to HJ 990.
4.3.3 When there is no measured data and reference materials for similar enterprises, the comprehensive wastewater quality of textile dyeing and finishing enterprises can refer to Appendix A.
5 General requirements
5.1 General provisions
5.1.1 Textile dyeing and finishing enterprises should implement the whole-process control concept, give priority to the use of cleaner production technology, improve resource and energy utilization, and reduce
Reduce the production and discharge of pollutants.
5.1.2 The technical plan of textile dyeing and finishing wastewater treatment engineering should be based on the production situation and development plan of the enterprise, and implement the national industrial policy.
Combining the climate and other environmental factors in different regions, coordinate the relationship between concentration and decentralization, existing and new (expansion, reconstruction), and technical and economic demonstration
After confirming.
5.1.3 The construction of textile dyeing and finishing wastewater treatment projects shall follow the "Regulations on the Environmental Protection Management of Construction Projects" and the environmental impact assessment system.
In addition to complying with the provisions of this standard, it should also comply with the national infrastructure construction procedures and the relevant mandatory standards of the country and the textile industry.
5.1.4 Textile dyeing and finishing enterprises should treat and reuse wastewater in accordance with the principle of "classified collection, classified treatment, and classified reuse".
5.1.5 The textile dyeing and finishing wastewater treatment project shall discharge pollutants in accordance with the pollution discharge permit held, and the discharged water quality and volume shall comply with GB
4287 and local pollutant discharge standards and requirements of environmental impact assessment approval documents.
5.1.6 Textile dyeing and finishing enterprises should follow the "Technical Requirements for Standardized Remediation of Sewage Outlets" (for trial implementation), GB 4287 and the relevant standardization of sewage outfalls.
Waste water discharge outlets shall be set up according to relevant regulations of the house, and online monitoring facilities shall be installed as required.
5.2 Source control
5.2.1 Textile dyeing and finishing enterprises should select advanced technology and equipment in accordance with the requirements of "Standard Conditions for Printing and Dyeing Industry", and prefer to adopt cleaner production
Technology, improve the enterprise management system, meet the required energy consumption and fresh water consumption requirements, and reduce the generation and discharge of pollutants.
5.2.2 Textile dyeing and finishing enterprises should improve cooling water and condensate water recovery devices, equip mercerizing processes with light alkali recovery devices, and encourage the use of reverse
Flow rinsing process, the water reuse rate reaches more than 40%
5.2.3 Textile dyeing and finishing enterprises should choose grey fabrics with biodegradable (or easily recyclable) sizing agents, eco-friendly and high dye uptake
Dyes and high-performance additives.
5.3 Construction scale
5.3.1 The construction scale of the textile dyeing and finishing wastewater treatment project should be based on the amount of wastewater, and the increase in the amount of wastewater caused by production fluctuations should be considered. One
Generally, 1.2 to 1.3 times of the wastewater volume can be used as the maximum water volume for design and construction.
5.3.2 The construction scale of each treatment system of the textile dyeing and finishing wastewater treatment project shall not only meet the relevant design requirements, but also the following requirements.
a) The wastewater treatment structure in front of the adjustment tank is calculated according to the maximum daily maximum hourly flow;
b) The adjustment tank and its subsequent wastewater treatment structures are calculated according to the maximum daily average flow;
c) The sludge treatment and disposal system is calculated according to the average daily flow;
d) The reused water treatment system is determined according to the amount of reused water, and the scale of reused water treatment should be 1.1 times to 1.5 times the amount of reused water.
Times design and construction.
5.4 Project site selection and overall layout
5.4.1 The site selection and overall layout of the textile dyeing and finishing wastewater treatment project shall comply with the relevant regulations of GB 50014 and GB 50187.
5.4.2 The overall layout of the textile dyeing and finishing wastewater treatment project should be based on the function of the treatment unit and the requirements of the treatment process, combined with topography and geological conditions.
Factors such as parts and components shall be determined by technical and economic analysis, and shall be convenient for construction, maintenance and management.
5.4.3 The general layout should be reasonably partitioned according to process flow and processing functions, and can be divided into pretreatment area, comprehensive treatment area, and reuse treatment.
Area, sludge treatment area, chemical storage area and office area.
5.4.4 The layout of the processing unit should be compact and reasonable to meet the requirements of simple construction, equipment installation, various pipeline connections, and maintenance management
Convenient request.
5.4.5 The vertical design of the processing unit should make full use of the original terrain and height difference, achieve earthwork balance as much as possible, and adopt gravity flow to reduce energy consumption.
5.5 Project composition
5.5.1 The project of the textile dyeing and finishing wastewater treatment project consists of the main project, auxiliary projects and supporting facilities.
5.5.2 The main project includes. wastewater collection and adjustment, pretreatment, physical and chemical treatment, biochemical treatment, advanced treatment, reuse water treatment, sewage treatment
Facilities and buildings (structures) for mud treatment and secondary pollution control.
5.5.3 Auxiliary projects include. electrical automation, online water quality monitoring, water supply and drainage, fire fighting, heating, ventilation and air conditioning facilities.
5.5.4 Supporting facilities include. control room, duty room and laboratory, etc.
6 Process design
6.1 General provisions
6.1.1 Before the process design, a comprehensive investigation should be conducted on the water quality, water volume and change laws of wastewater, and necessary process tests should be carried out.
6.1.2 Actively adopt advanced and applicable new technologies and new technologies based on factors such as wastewater quality characteristics, discharge standards, and reuse requirements.
Technology, new materials, new equipment, and after a technical and economic comparison, determine the appropriate process route.
6.1.3 Part of the high-concentration organic wastewater or wastewater containing special pollutants generated during the textile dyeing and finishing process should be collected separately and processed.
Perform pretreatment to ensure that the water quality after pretreatment does not affect the normal operation of the integrated wastewater treatment system.
6.1.4 The comprehensive wastewater treatment of textile dyeing and finishing should adopt a combined treatment process that combines biochemical treatment and physical and chemical treatment, which requires high discharge requirements.
Or where there is a requirement for reuse, further advanced treatment or reuse treatment should meet the corresponding effluent quality requirements.
6.1.5 Textile dyeing and finishing wastewater containing hexavalent chromium should be collected and treated at the discharge outlet of the production workshop or production facility. The hexavalent chromium in the wastewater should reach GB
After the discharge limit of 4287, it will be discharged into the integrated wastewater collection pipe network.
6.1.6 In the process of wastewater treatment, chemicals with low secondary pollution should be selected as much as possible, and the utilization rate should be increased to reduce the dosage of chemicals.
6.1.7 The wastewater treatment project should be equipped with an emergency accident pool. The volume of the emergency accident pool should comprehensively consider the maximum drainage and
Fire water volume and rainfall that may enter the emergency accident pool. The accident water should be tested and classified and then enter the corresponding treatment facility.
6.2 Process selection
6.2.1 The wastewater treatment target shall be determined according to the source and nature of pollutants, current national and local relevant discharge standards, and reuse requirements.
Select the corresponding treatment process, the general process flow diagram is shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2 Schematic diagram of textile dyeing and finishing industrial wastewater treatment process
6.2.2 Comprehensive wastewater meets indirect discharge requirements after conventional treatment, and direct discharge requirements after conventional and advanced treatment.
6.2.3 According to the requirements of water quality and quantity of reused water, the low-concentration organic wastewater after cleaned and separated streams can be directly reused after treatment, or integrated
The wastewater is reused after conventional treatment and combined with reuse treatment.
6.3 Pretreatment process
6.3.1 The high-concentration organic wastewater produced in textile dyeing and finishing production should adopt the following pretreatment process.
a) Wool scouring wastewater. centrifuged to recover lanolin;
b) Hemp degumming wastewater. anaerobic treatment and other processes;
c) Polyester alkali reduction wastewater. alkali recovery and acid precipitation recovery of terephthalic acid;
d) Desizing and scouring wastewater. anaerobic, chemical oxidation, iron-carbon micro-electrolysis;
e) Batik wax washing wastewater. acid precipitation, air floatation and recovery of rosin;
f) PVA desizing wastewater. thermal ultrafiltration concentration or salting-out gel method to recover PVA.
6.3.2 The wastewater containing special pollutants produced in textile dyeing and finishing production should adopt the following pretreatment process.
a) High ammonia nitrogen printing wastewater. steam stripping, blowing off, etc.;
b) Carbonization acid wastewater. acid-base neutralization;
c) Mercerizing wastewater. if the lye concentration is higher than 40 g/L, an alkali recovery device should be installed; if the lye concentration is lower than 40 g/L, it should be used
Application or comprehensive utilization measures;
d) Chromium-containing dyeing and finishing wastewater. chemical reduction, chemical precipitation;
e) Antimony-containing dyeing and finishing wastewater. coagulation with polymeric ferric sulfate coagulant.
6.4 Conventional treatment process for comprehensive wastewater
6.4.1 The conventional treatment process of various dyeing and finishing wastewater should adopt the process technology with biological treatment as the main and physical and chemical treatment as the supplement.
a) The conventional treatment of woven cotton and cotton blended dyeing and finishing wastewater should adopt a combination of pre-physical, biochemical and post-physical and chemical processes, as shown in Figure 3;
b) The comprehensive wastewater quality of knitted cotton and cotton blended dyeing and finishing, linen dyeing and finishing and chemical fiber dyeing and finishing is similar, and its conventional treatment should be adopted
Biochemical combined process, the process flow is shown in Figure 4;
c) The conventional treatment of comprehensive wastewater from wool dyeing and finishing should adopt a combination of physical, chemical, and biochemical processes, as shown in Figure 5;
d) The conventional treatment of silk dyeing and finishing wastewater should adopt biological treatment process, and the process flow is shown in Figure 6;
e) The conventional treatment of printing or batik comprehensive wastewater should adopt a combined process of physicochemical and biological denitrification. The process flow is shown in Figure 7;
6.4.2 Process requirements and technical parameters for conventional comprehensive wastewater treatment
6.4.2.1 Grilles and screens
6.4.2.1.1 The grid spacing should be at least one 3 mm~10 mm grid, and the front grid of the pump should be determined according to the requirements of the pump.
6.4.2.1.2 When there are many short linters and short fibers, filter equipment with cleaning function should be used at the inlet of the adjustment tank, and the screen gap should be 10 mesh to 20 mesh.
6.4.2.2 Adjustment
6.4.2.2.1 The regulating pool should be designed as a closed type, and ventilation and exhaust facilities should be provided.
6.4.2.2.2 The effective volume of the regulating tank shall take into account factors such as the law of waste water discharge, changes in water quality and quantity, production shifts, etc., based on changes in water volume
The cumulative curve is determined by graphical method. When there is no exact data, it should be designed according to the hydraulic retention time of 8 h to 16 h.
6.4.2.2.3 When air agitation is used in the conditioning tank, the air volume per 100 m3 of effective tank volume should be designed as 1.0 m3/min~1.5 m3/min;
When using jet mixing, the power should not be less than 10 W/m3; when using a submerged (submersible) agitator, the design flow rate should be 0.15
m/s~0.35 m/s.
6.4.2.2.4 The adjustment tank is equipped with automatic opening and closing of the liquid level of the lifting pump and a liquid level alarm device.
6.4.2.2.5 If there is a water collection well in front of the regulating tank, the effective volume of the water collection well should be 10 min~30 min of the largest water collection well lifting pump.
Water output design.
6.4.2.2.6 When the pH value of wastewater is less than 6 or greater than 9, a pH value adjustment tank should be set.
6.4.2.2.7 The pH value adjustment tank should be divided into two parts. coarse adjustment and fine adjustment. The residence time of each part should be designed according to 20 min~30 min. Water can be used.
Vigorous stirring, mechanical stirring or air stirring.
6.4.2.2.8 The integrated wastewater treatment system adopts biochemical treatment. When the temperature of the aerobic biological treatment system is greater than 35 ℃, the regulating tank will increase
A cooling device should be installed after the pump.
6.4.2.3 Coagulation
6.4.2.3.1 The selection and dosage of coagulants and coagulants should be determined according to the coagulation test or with reference to the operation of similar built projects.
6.4.2.3.2 When using the coagulation sedimentation process, the speed gradient G of the mixing section is 300 s-1~500 s-1, and the mixing time is 30 s~120 s;
The segment velocity gradient G value is 30 s-1~60 s-1, the G value and the reaction flow rate should gradually increase to small, and the flocculation time is 20 min~30 min.
6.4.2.4 Sedimentation/air flotation
6.4.2.4.1 The hydraulic load on the surface of the sedimentation tank should be 0.8 m3/(m2·h)~1.0 m3/(m2·h), and the separation time should be 1.5 h~3.0 h.
6.4.2.4.2 The design of the air flotation system should refer to the relevant regulations of HJ.2007.
6.4.2.5 Hydrolysis acidification
6.4.2.5.1 The effective volume load of hydrolysis acidification should be designed according to 0.7 kgCOD/(m3·d)~1.5 kgCOD/(m3·d), and the design of the reactor can be referred to
HJ 2047 related regulations.
6.4.2.5.2 When determining the hydrolytic acidification volume load based on the concentration and composition of the main pollutants, the residence time should be based on the nature of the refractory pollutants
And the concentration is determined. For denim washing wastewater, the residence time is not less than 12 h; for silk, wool, and knitted dyeing and finishing wastewater, the residence time
Not less than 16 h; for high-concentration cotton and polyester dyeing and finishing wastewater, the residence time is not less than 24 h.
6.4.2.6 Aerobic treatment
6.4.2.6.1 Aerobic treatment includes activated sludge method and biofilm method.
6.4.2.6.2 The biofilm treatment process should adopt the biological contact oxidation method. When nitrogen removal is needed, pre-denitrification (A/O) biological removal
Nitrogen treatment process, sequential batch activated sludge process (SBR) and its improvement process or oxidation ditch technology.
6.4.2.6.4 The oxygen demand should be calculated based on the five-day biochemical oxygen demand of the effluent from hydrolysis and acidification, and should be checked according to the gas-water ratio of 15.1 to 30.1.
6.4.2.6.5 The sludge return ratio of the activated sludge method is generally 60% to 100%, and the sludge concentration in the biochemical tank is guaranteed to be 3 g/L to 5 g/L. use
In the pre-denitrification process, the internal circulation reflux ratio should be determined according to the denitrification efficiency, and should be.200% to 400%. When using multi-stage A/O denitrification
During the process, the number of stages and the proportion of water inflow at all levels should be determined according to the requirements of denitrification.
6.4.2.7 Oxidation decolorization
6.4.2.7.1 Comprehensive wastewater treatment should be equipped with decolorization facilities, usually oxidative decolorization, preferably chlorine dioxide or ozone decolorization, should be cautious
Use chlorine and sodium hypochlorite that may cause secondary pollution as oxidative decolorizing agents.
6.4.2.7.2 The design parameters of the decolorization process and related structures should be determined through experiments or refer to the research results of similar enterprises.
6.4.2.8 The wastewater treatment efficiency of the main treatment unit shall be determined through experiments or analogy data of similar enterprises. When there is no data, each treatment system
Refer to Appendix B for pollutant removal rate.
6.5 Advanced treatment and reuse treatment process
6.5.1 The advanced treatment or reuse treatment process and technical parameters should pass the process test according to the incoming water quality, discharge standards or reuse requirements,
Determined after technical and economic comparison. The selection of advanced treatment or reuse treatment process should be considered in conjunction with conventional treatment units.
6.5.2 The advanced treatment or reuse treatment process after conventional treatment generally can adopt coagulation precipitation (or air flotation) method, chemical oxidation method, membrane
Separation method, membrane bioreactor (MBR), aerated biological filter method, biological activated carbon method, filtration method, adsorption method and other processes
Kind or combination of several processes. The specific process includes.
a) For chemical oxidation process, ozone, ozone/ultraviolet, hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen peroxide/ultraviolet, Fenton or Fenton-like oxidation process can be selected
Art, oxidation reaction time is 2 h~4 h;
b) For the adsorption process, granular activated carbon or powder activated carbon can be selected;
c) For the filtration process, a filter tank or a mechanical fiber turntable filter can be used.
6.5.3 The high-salt tail water produced by membrane separation can be properly treated by methods such as concentration and evaporation.
6.6 Water reuse system
6.6.1 General provisions
6.6.1.1 When designing the reuse water system, it is advisable to follow the principle of “classified collection, treatment by quality, and reuse by class” to remove low-concentration organic wastewater or
The effluent after comprehensive wastewater treatment is used as raw water for reuse.
6.6.1.2 The reuse method of reused water shall be mainly production water, supplemented by non-production water.
6.6.1.3 When reused water is used for production water, it can be used directly or mixed with a certain proportion of fresh water. If the textile dyeing and finishing enterprise has its own
Prepare industrial water treatment facilities, and reuse water can also be used as source water for industrial water treatment facilities. Production test should be carried out before reuse water
To ensure that the corresponding product quality indicators meet the requirements.
6.6.2 Water quality requirements
6.6.2.1 When reused water is directly used as rinsing production water, its water quality shall meet the water quality requirements for rinsing production water. Textile dyeing and finishing enterprises have no special
For special requirements, you can refer to Table C.1 in Appendix C to determine the water quality.
6.6.2.2 When the reused water is directly used as water for dyeing/printing production, its water quality shall meet the water quality requirements for dyeing and finishing water. Textile Dyeing and Finishing Enterprise
When the industry has no special requirements, the water quality can be determined by referring to Table C.2 in Appendix C.
6.6.2.3 When the reused water is used for ground washing, toilet flushing, vehicle washing, greening, building construction, etc., the water quality shall comply with GB/T
18920, GB/T 25499 regulations.
6.6.2.4 When reused water is used for multiple purposes at the same time, its water quality should be determined according to the highest water quality standard.
6.6.3 Water reuse system
6.6.3.1 The reused water system includes the raw water system, the reused water treatment system and the reused water circulating water supply system.
6.6.3.2 The original pool should be set in the reuse water system. When the reuse system is running continuously, the adjusted volume of the original pool should be based on the daily treated water volume.
20%~30% calculation; when the reuse water system is operating intermittently, the adjusted volume of the original pool should be calculated according to the process operation cycle.
6.6.3.3 According to the raw water quality and reused water requirements, the reused water treatment process can choose the process in 6.5 and its combination.
6.6.3.4 The process design of the water reuse system can be implemented with reference to GB 50335.
6.6.3.5 The water reuse system should be equipped with a clean water storage tank. The adjusted volume of the clean water storage tank should be based on
Change the design over time.
6.7 Sludge
6.7.1 The sludge with different attributes shall be collected, stored and treated separately.
6.7.2 The amount of sludge produced can be calculated according to the process conditions, or can be determined with reference to similar enterprises.
6.7.3 The amount of biochemical sludge produced should be calculated based on the amount of wastewater, organic matter concentration, and sludge yield coefficient.
Calculation of wastewater volume, suspended solids concentration, drug dosage, and pollutant removal rate, etc. Refer to GB 50013 and
GB 50014 is implemented.
6.7.4 The concentration of sludge can adopt gravity concentration, mechanical concentration or air flotation concentration process. When gravity concentration is used, the solid load of sludge should be
Using 20 kg/(m2·d)~40 kg/(m2·d), the thickening time should be designed according to 16 h~24 h, and the moisture content of the sludge after thickening should not be greater than 98%.
When using mechanical enrichment, it should be determined after testing and technical and economic analysis based on the information provided by the equipment supplier and the operating data of similar enterprises.
6.7.5 Before the sludge is dewatered, it is advisable to add chemicals and adjust it according to the characteristics of the sludge and the condition of the dewatering machinery. The type of agent should be based on the nature of the sludge and the dry sludge
The treatment method is selected, and the dosage should be determined by testing or referring to the data of the same type of sludge dewatering project.
6.7.6 The type of sludge dehydrator should be determined after technical and economic comparisons based on the nature of sludge, sludge output, and dehydration requirements. Dewatering
The mud moisture content should meet the disposal requirements.
6.7.7 According to the different attributes of the sludge, the dewatered sludge storage yard shall be established in districts to determine the different anti-seepage and surrounding areas of the dewatered sludge storage yard.
Leakproof and rainproof grade.
6.7.8 The dehydrated sludge drying equipment should be selected according to the needs, the heat source should be steam, and the moisture content of the sludge should be reduced to 30%-40% after drying.
The sludge drying equipment should be airtight and insulated, and have a waste gas collection and treatment system. The sludge drying condensate should be discharged into the integrated wastewater conditioning tank or collection well.
6.7.9 The clear liquid produced in the sludge thickening process, the filtrate produced in the dehydration process and the exudate produced in the stacking shall be set to collect
Pipeline, return to the integrated wastewater adjustment tank or collection well.
6.7.10 The final disposal methods of sludge mainly include comprehensive utilization, incineration and landfill. Textile dyeing and finishing enterprises should give priority to comprehensive utilization.
Source reduction. The sludge disposal shall comply with relevant national laws, regulations and standards.
Related standard: HJ 519-2020    HJ 945.3-2020