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NY/T 3092-2017 (NY/T3092-2017)

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NY/T 3092-2017: PDF in English (NYT 3092-2017)
NY/T 3092-2017
NY
AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRY STANDARD
OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 65.020
B 17
Chemical pesticide –
Guideline for honeybee semi-field test
ISSUED ON. JUNE 12, 2017
IMPLEMENTED ON. OCTOBER 01, 2017
Issued by. Ministry of Agriculture of the People’s Republic of China
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 4
2 Normative References ... 4
3 Terms and Definitions ... 4
4 Trial overview ... 5
5 Trial method ... 6
6 Quality control ... 14
7 Statistical analysis ... 14
8 Test report ... 14
Annex A (Informative) Diagram of dead-bee trap ... 16
Annex B (Normative) Diagrams of cages for the trial ... 17
Bibliography ... 18
Foreword
This Standard was drafted in accordance with the rules given in GB/T 1.1-2009.
The main technical content of this Standard equivalently adopts EPPO Standard
PP1/170(4), Efficacy evaluation of plant protection products – Side-effects on
honeybees (English version, 2010).
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may
be the subject of patent rights. The issuer of this document shall not be held
responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
This Standard was proposed by and shall be under the jurisdiction of the Department
of Plantation of the Ministry of Agriculture.
The drafting organizations of this Standard. Institute for the Control of Agrochemicals,
MOA and Hunan Province Institute of Plant Protection.
The main drafters of this Standard. Chen Ang, Yuan Shankui, Liu Yong, Jiang Hui, Li
Ruizhe, Qu Honghong, Yan Qingping.
Chemical pesticide –
Guideline for honeybee semi-field test
1 Scope
This Standard specifies the trial conditions, bee colony management, methods, quality
control, statistical analysis, test report and other basic requirements for honeybee
semi-field test for the effects of pesticides.
This Standard applies to the semi-field test of the effects of chemical pesticides on
honeybee; it can work as a reference for other pesticides.
This Standard does not apply to volatile and insoluble chemical pesticides.
2 Normative References
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this
document. For dated references, only the edition dated applies to this document. For
undated references, the latest edition of the referenced documents (including all
amendments) applies to this Standard.
GB/T 31270.10-2014, Test guidelines on environmental safety investigation for
chemical pesticides – Part 10. Honeybee acute toxicity test
3 Terms and Definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
semi-field test
A trial process in which the controllable field conditions, such as cages, tunnels and
tents, are used to observe the effects of pesticides on the population and development
of honeybees.
3.2
exposure
to which pesticides are applying or has been applied; the post-exposure stage is the
monitoring stage, including the several investigations of colony conditions, and
evaluations of honeybee mortality and activities, etc.
5 Trial method
5.1 Materials and conditions
5.1.1 Trial bees
The bee type for the trial is a representative local bee species which has a definite
strain. The bee colony for the trial shall come from the same breeding strain; the
original and quality shall be reliable. Bee colony having any visible biological pest or
disease, shall not be used for the trial. Bee colony shall not be treated with pesticides
within 4 weeks before it is used for the trial. Queen bees shall be hatched from the
sister queens of the same batch which do mating flight at the same time. Only the
healthy bee queens with strong fecundity, which are newly-bred before the trial, can
be used for the trial. Each colony shall contain 3000 ~ 5000 worker bees and 3 full
frames at least. But it can be adjusted in accordance with the objectives of the trial.
Each colony shall contain all brood stages and an appropriate amount of stores of
pollen/nectar for the development of brood. The colony for the trial shall be in the prime
breeding period or active foraging period.
5.1.2 Test crops
Select crops which are highly attractive to bees, such as rape, cotton and so on. When
the test product is a systemic seed treatment agent or granula, the realistic target crops
of nectar/pollen source recommended for it shall be used.
5.1.3 Test products
Formulated products of pesticides shall be used.
5.1.4 Major equipment and facilities
5.1.4.1 Beehives
Local commonly-used beehives need to be used; or they are customized as required
by the trial.
5.1.4.2 Dead-bee traps
In order to collect dead bees, dead-bee traps shall be installed at the front end of the
entrance of each beehive for the trial, at least 3 d before the investigation of honeybee
mortality. Dead-bee traps shall be made of nonirritant, odorless materials such as
distance between the boundary of the whole trial area and the surrounding field shall
be more than 3 m. There shall be not other agricultural activities than the trial, such as
fertilizer application and control of plant diseases and insect pests; it shall be ensured
that the fertilizer used, pesticide products, their operating process, etc. will not exert
any effect on the results of the trial.
5.2.1.2 Monitoring stage
A site with abundant nectar source (such as wild flowers) is selected as the feeding
and monitoring points of the bee colony at the pre-exposure stage and post-exposure
stage; the distance between the monitoring point and the test field shall be greater than
3 km to prevent honeybees from flying to the test field for the exposure stage before
and after the exposure stage. Around the monitoring point, there shall be no flowering
crops which attract honeybees to forage on to prevent honeybees foraging on
pollen/nectar containing other pesticides, which interfere the results of the trial. When
the external food is insufficient, artificial feeding can be done. The food consumption
of the colony shall be recorded.
5.2.2 Test duration
The test duration is decided in accordance with the development period of test crops,
the pesticide application period of control target and the objectives of the trial.
5.2.3 Management of test colony
In accordance with the investigation results of all brood state proportions of the colony
before exposure, coordinate and distribute the colony between all treatments. The time
of migration of the test colony can be the dusk or evening when the colony finishes the
flight activities of the day, or the morning before honeybees start flight activities. When
the colony is kept in the test cage, one water source free of contamination needs to be
provided for honeybees (it is preferably prepared independently outside the beehive
or added directly to the feed bunk inside the beehive if necessary). When the
nectar/pollen of the test crops is not abundant, the colony shall be fed with an
appropriate amount of sugar (honey) water and/or pollen, but in order to ensure the
activeness of the foraging activities of honeybees, they shall not be fed excessively.
When the colony is kept at the monitoring point, feeding management can be done by
following the experiences of the local bee keepers, but during the whole trial process,
the following operation shall not be done for the test colony.
a) using pesticides toxic to queen bees or worker bees to control plant diseases and
insect pests of honeybees;
b) switching frames between different colonies or other behaviors, which will affect
the structure and quantity of colonies.
monitoring point, at least continue to observe for 3 weeks, to ensure the evaluation
cycle after the end of exposure includes one development period of worker bee broods
at least.
5.2.5 Pesticide trial
5.2.5.1 Pesticide application method
The application shall be carried out using the application method recommended for the
test plans or test products, according to the local good agricultural practices (GAP). If
the test products need to be used after preparation, they shall be used immediately
after preparation.
5.2.5.2 Pesticide application appliances
Select frequently-used appliances in production; record all the information of the
appliances used, including type, description, model number and operating conditions
(working pressure and orifice diameter). Before each use, calibrate the pesticide
application appliances and calculate their application rate to decide a method for
uniform application for a plot. If the seeding equipment is used, the equipment shall be
calibrated to seed uniformly, quantitatively.
5.2.5.3 Time and frequency of pesticide application
The time and frequency of pesticide application shall be in accordance with the
recommended application method for the characteristics of the test pesticides.
5.2.5.3.1 Time of pesticide application
The pesticide application shall be carried out during the daytime when honeybees are
foraging most actively; or it is adjusted as appropriate in accordance with different
objectives of the trial. When the effects of long period residual effect pesticides on
honeybees are evaluated, the time of application shall be at a certain time interval
before the exposure of honeybees, to prevent the effects of pesticides caused by direct
exposure to honeybees. If the effects of risk mitigation measures are evaluated, they
shall be applied before the active flight activities of honeybees. In addition to this,
consideration shall be given to the local general agricultural practices. For the direct
atomization treatment method, try to avoid rainfall before the treatments become dry.
normally, there shall be no rainfall within 2 h after application; the air speed in cages
during the application shall be less than 2 m/s.
5.2.5.3.2 Frequency of pesticide application
Normally, apply once during the flowering period, but full consideration shall be given
to the maximum dose, residue, acute effects and different objectives of trial research
and the recommended pesticide application method, before the frequency of
investigation area shall be fully removed.
5.2.6.1.2 Investigation content
When worker bees are incapable of removing the dead bees inside the beehives
because of a massive mortality of honeybees, it also needs to investigate the dead
bees at the bottom of all test beehives. Under the dry field conditions, it also needs to
record the number of dead bees on the ground (by counting the dead bees on the
screen laid on the ground). In accordance with the differences in test objectives and
crops, part or whole of the ground area can be investigated.
5.2.6.2 Honeybee flight conditions
The flight condition investigation needs to be carried out when honeybees are moved
to cages until the end of the exposure. During the investigation, count the honeybee
number foraging on flowers and flying across the area, within a certain area (e.g. 1 m2)
within a certain time (at least 15 s) or on a certain number of flowers (e.g. 15 flowers).
Select at least 3 observation points randomly for each cage (avoiding the area before
the beehive entrance).
The flight investigation shall be carried out under normal conditions after the flowers of
the crops in cages bloom, at the time when honeybees fly the most actively; evaluation
shall be carried out once at the same time each day, but on key test points, e.g. the
first day of the exposure, the frequency of flight investigation shall be increased, e.g. 1
h, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h and other periods of time after the exposure.
5.2.6.3 Honeybee activities
At the exposure stage of the cage trial, investigate the activities of honeybees on the
crops and around the beehives in the process of assessing the honeybee mortality and
flight conditions. Compared with the blank controls, at least the following activities shall
be observed and recorded.
a) toxic symptoms, such as convulsion, tremble and unbalanced movement;
b) gathering at the entrance of the beehives;
c) aggressivity;
d) hanging bee beard;
e) inertia;
f) flying in high density without falling on the crops;
g) other abnormal behaviors.
6 Quality control
The criteria for quality control include.
a) the mortality of the reference product treatment group and the mortality of the
blank control group have significant differences in statistics. If the mortality of the
blank control group is excessively high or the mortality of the reference product
treatment group is excessively low, the trial shall be carried out once again;
b) the mortality of honeybees of the reference product treatment group shall be
increased significantly after the pesticide application.
7 Statistical analysis
The evaluation of test products shall be given by comparing the data of the test product
treatment group and of the blank control and the reference product treatment (the data
before and after the application). The data needing to be compared includes the
following parts.
a) mortality. the mortality of honeybees in the dead-bee traps and the mortality of
honeybees falling on the screen on the ground (in case of a dry field);
b) flight intensity. the number of honeybees foraging on a unit area of crops or a
unit quantity of flowers, within a unit time;
c) colony condition. the colony population, and the proportions of egg, larva, pupa
and food store accounted for the frame.
The original data shall meet the requirements for the trial and a proper method shall
be used to do statistical analysis. In theory, first ensure the end-point data is suitable
for the statistical analysis, e.g. in the analysis of mortality and flight intensity, the
difference significant level of all test data (including normal distribution test and
homogeneity test of variances) shall be 0.05. Normally, the two-tailed test shall be
carried out for the data before the pesticide application; the one-tailed upper limit test
shall be done when the mortality data is subjected to the statistical analysis after the
application. However, the flight intensity data shall be subjected to the single-tailed
lower limit test. Or, in accordance with the test objectives and the design requirements,
select an appropriate statistical method.
8 Test report
The test results shall be fully reflected in the report. The test report shall at least include
......
 
(Above excerpt was released on 2018-06-02, modified on 2021-06-07, translated/reviewed by: Wayne Zheng et al.)
Source: https://www.chinesestandard.net/PDF.aspx/NYT3092-2017