JGJ 72010 PDF in English
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Technical specification for space frame structures
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JGJ 72010: PDF in English JGJ 72010
UDC JGJ
INDUSTRY STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
P JGJ 72010
Filing Number. J 10722010
Technical Specification for Space Frame Structures
Issued on July 20, 2010 Implemented on March 1, 2011
Issued by. Ministry of Housing and UrbanRural Construction of the People’s
Republic of China
Table of Contents
1 General Provisions ... 8
2 Terms and Symbols ... 9
2.1 Terms ... 9
2.2 Symbols ... 10
3 Basic Requirements ... 15
3.1 Structure Types ... 15
3.2 General Design Requirements for Space Trusses ... 15
3.3 General Design Requirements for Latticed Shells ... 17
3.4 General Design Requirements for Spatial Trusses, Arches and Beam String
Structures ... 18
3.5 Allowable Deflection ... 19
4 Structural Analysis ... 20
4.1 General Principles of Analysis ... 20
4.2 Static Analysis ... 21
4.3 Stability Analysis of Latticed Shells ... 23
4.4 Calculation due to Earthquake ... 24
5 Design and Details of Members and Joints ... 28
5.1 Members ... 28
5.2 Welded Hollow Spherical Joints ... 29
5.3 Bolted Spherical Joints ... 33
5.4 Embedded Hub Joints ... 37
5.5 Cast Steel Joints ... 39
5.6 Pin Joints ... 39
5.7 Joints of Composite Structures ... 40
5.8 Joints of Prestressed Cable ... 41
5.9 Supporting Joints ... 43
6 Fabrication, Erection and Acceptance ... 49
6.1 General Requirements ... 49
6.2 Requirements for Fabrication and Assembly ... 50
6.3 Assembly Elements in the Air ... 53
6.4 Erection by Strips or Blocks ... 54
6.5 Assembly by Sliding ... 55
6.6 Integral Hoisting by Derrick Masts or Cranes ... 56
6.7 Integral Liftingup ... 58
6.8 Integral Jackingup ... 58
6.9 Fold and Unfold Methods ... 59
6.10 Construction of Composite Space Trusses ... 60
6.11 Checking and Acceptance ... 60
Appendix A Types of Space Truss Commonly Used ... 62
Appendix B Types of Latticed Shell Commonly Used ... 65
Appendix C Equivalent Stiffness of Latticed Shells ... 67
Appendix D Simplified Method of Analysis for Composite Space Trusses ... 69
Appendix E Formula of Stability Capacity for Latticed Shells ... 71
Appendix F Formula of Multidimensional Response Spectrum ... 73
Appendix G Simplified Calculation of the Effect due to Vertical Earthquake for Roof
Trusses ... 75
Appendix H Coefficient of Forces of Latticed Shells under Horizontal Earthquake ... 77
Appendix J Formula of Primary Dimensions of Embedded Hub Joints ... 80
Appendix K Material Behavior and Details Requirements of Elastomeric Bearing Pad ... 83
Explanation of Wording in This Specification ... 87
List of Quoted Standards ... 88
1 General Provisions
1.0.1 This standard is formulated with a view to implementing the national technical and
economic policies in the design and construction of space frame structure and making the
design to be of advanced technology, safety and usability, economy and rationality and high
quality.
1.0.2 This standard is applicable to the design and construction of space frame structure
composed of steel members, including space truss, single layer or doublelayer latticed shell
and spatial truss.
1.0.3 In the design of space frame structure, the reasonable structure scheme, frame/grid
layout and structure measures shall be selected according to the actual situation and the
comprehensive consideration shall be taken for material supply, processing fabrication and
onsite construction, to ensure better technical and economic effects.
1.0.4 Suspended crane shall not be arranged for singlelayer latticed shell structure. Space
truss and doublelayer latticed shell structures may directly withstand the suspended crane
load at Level A3 or higher level. In case the cycle times of the stress variation is larger than or
equal to 5×104, the fatigue analysis shall be conducted, and the allowable stress amplitude and
the structure shall be determined by special test.
1.0.5 The design and construction of space frame structure shall comply with the
requirements in the current relevant national standards besides this standard.
2 Terms and Symbols
2.1 Terms
2.1.1 Space grid structure, space frame, space latticed structure
Spatial structure formed of member and member bar arranged in a certain rule by joint
connection, including space truss, curved latticed shell and spatial truss
2.1.2 Space truss, space grid
Flat plate type or slight curved spatial trussing structure formed of member bars arranged
in a certain rule by joint connection, mainly bearing the integral bending internal force
2.1.3 Intersecting lattice truss system
System formed of twoway or threeway intersecting lattice trusses
2.1.4 Square pyramid system
System formed of square pyramids as basic unit
2.1.5 Triangular pyramid system
System formed of triangular pyramids as basic unit
2.1.6 Composite space truss
Flat lattice truss structure formed by reinforced concrete slab as upper chord member and
steel web member and bottom chord bar
2.1.7 Latticed shell, reticulated shell
Curved spatial trussing structure or beam structure formed of member bars arranged in a
certain rule by joint connection, mainly bearing the integral thin film internal force
2.1.8 Spherical latticed shell, braced dome
Singlelayer or doublelayer latticed shell structure with spherical appearance
2.1.9 Cylindrical latticed shell, braced vault
Singlelayer or doublelayer latticed shell structure with cylindric surface appearance
2.1.10 Hyperbolic paraboloid latticed shell
Singlelayer or doublelayer latticed shell structure with the appearance of hyperbolic
paraboloid
2.1.11 Elliptic paraboloid latticed shell
Singlelayer or doublelayer latticed shell structure with the appearance of elliptic
paraboloid
2.1.12 Lamella grid
Rhombic grid cell formed of twoway heterotopic member bars
2.1.13 Ribbed type
Trapezia grid cell formed of radial and circumferential member bar on spherical face
2.1.14 Ribbed type with diagonal bars (Schwedler dome)
Triangular grid cell formed of radial, circumferential and diagonal member on spherical
face
2.1.15 Threeway grid
Equilateral triangle grid cell formed of threeway member bars
2.1.16 Fan shape threeway grid (Kiewitt dome)
Triangular grid cell formed of circumferential member bar jointly with the lamella grid
formed of parallel rods in n (n=6, 8) sector curved surfaces divided radially on a spherical
face
sEk——Effect of the earthquake action standard value of member bars for a space frame
structure;
sj, sk——Effect of standard value for the earthquake action of the jth vibration mode and
vibration mode k;
Δt——Temperature difference;
u——Allowable horizontal displacement of bottom supporting structure and support of a
grid structure without regard to temperature action effect;
——Joint displacement vector, velocity vector, or acceleration vector;
——Acceleration vector of ground movement;
Uix, Uiy, Uiz——Response values of the maximum displacement of joint i at direction x, y
and z;
ΔU(i)——Iterative increment of current displacement in the overall process stability
analysis of a latticed shell;
Xji, Yji, Zji——Relative displacement of the jth vibration mode and joint i at direction x, y
and z.
2.2.2 Material property
E——Elastic modulus of material;
f——Design value for tensile strength of steels ;
btf ——Design value of the tensile strength of high strength bolt after heat treatment;
ν——Poisson's ratio of a material;
α——Linear expansion coefficient of a material.
2.2.3 Geometric parameter and sectional characteristic
Aeff——Effective crosssection area of high and medium strength bolt for bolted
spherical joint;
Ai——Sectional area of the equivalent trussing for composite space truss ribbed plate at
direction i (i=1, 2, 3, 4);
B——Width or span of cylindrical latticed shell;
Be——Stiffness of equivalent thin film for a latticed shell;
Be11, Be22——Stiffness of equivalent thin film for a latticed shell along direction 1 and 2;
bhp——Neck width of the loose tongue for an embedded hub joint;
C——Structural damping matrix;
D——External diameter of a hollow sphere or steel ball diameter on hollow spherical
joint;
De11, De22——Equivalent bending stiffness of a latticed shell along direction 1 and 2;
De——Equivalent bending stiffness of a latticed shell;
d——External diameter of main steel pipe pile member connected with a hollow sphere;
d1, d2——External diameter of two steel pipes intersected on a hollow spherical joint;
b1d , bsd ——Larger and smaller diameter of two adjacent bolts for a bolted spherical
joint;
dh——Diameter of hub body (embedded hub joint);
dht——Diameter of the loose tongue (embedded hub joint);
f——Vector height of a cylindrical latticed shell;
f1——Basic frequency of grid structure;
hhp——Height of the loose tongue for an embedded hub joint;
K——Total elastic stiffness column matrix of a space frame structure;
Kt——Tangent stiffness matrix at moment t in the overall process stability analysis of a
latticed shell;
L——Length or span of cylindrical shell;
L2——Transverse span of a space truss;
ls——Length of sleeve for bolted spherical joint;
l——Center length between member bar joints; length of high strength bolt for bolted
spherical joint;
l0——Calculation length of member bar;
r——Curvature radius of spherical or cylindrical latticed shell; radius of roll axis in
sliding;
M——Mass matrix of a space frame structure;
r1, r2——Principal curvature radius of an elliptic paraboloid latticed shell at two
directions;
r1——Radius of a roller wheel excircle in sliding;
s——Spacing of ribs for composite space truss at direction 1 and 2;
t——Wall thickness of a hollow sphere, or thickness of flat plate for composite space
truss;
α——Noncoplanar torsion angle of loose tongue at both ends of member bars for
embedded hub joint;
θ——Included angle formed by two adjacent member bars intersected on a hollow
spherical joint; minimum included angle formed by two adjacent bolts intersected on a bolted
spherical joint;
φ——Included angle formed by the center line of hub loose tongue for an embedded hub
joint and the perpendicular line of the axial line of the member bar connected with the loose
tongue.
2.2.4 Calculation coefficients
c——Ground correction coefficient; coefficient of eccentricity of steel pipe in the
compressionbending or tensionbending analysis of a hollow spherical joint ;
g——Gravity acceleration;
k——Coefficient of rolling friction between steel wheel and steel in rolling and sliding;
m——Vibration mode number considered in the analysis with modedecomposition
response spectrum method;
αj, αvj——Horizontal and vertical seismic influence coefficient corresponding to the
natural vibration period of the jth vibration mode;
γj——Participation coefficient of the jth vibration mode;
ζ——Resistance coefficient in sliding;
ζj, ζk——Damping ratio of vibration mode j and k;
ηd——Improvement coefficient of the bearing capacity hollow spherical joint ribbing;
η0——Adjustment coefficient of the bearing capacity of major diameter hollow spherical
joint;
3 Basic Requirements
3.1 Structure Types
3.1.1 The grid (frame) structure may adopt doublelayer or multilayer type; the latticed
shell structure may adopt single layer, doublelayer type, or partial doublelayer type.
3.1.2 The grid structure may adopt the following truss lattice (grid) type.
1 Twoway orthogonal spatial space truss, twoway orthogonal diagonal space truss,
twoway heterotopic diagonal space truss, threeway space truss, oneway mansard space
truss formed of intersecting lattice truss system (Figure A.0.1);
2 Normally placed square pyramid space truss, normally placed square pyramid space
truss with openings, checkerboardtype square pyramid space, diagonal square pyramid space
truss, starlike square pyramid space truss formed of square pyramid system (Figure A.0.2);
3 Triangular pyramid space truss, triangular pyramid space truss with openings and
honeycombed triangular pyramid space truss formed of triangular pyramid system (Figure
A.0.3).
3.1.3 The latticed shell structure may adopt curved surfaces like spherical surface, cylindric
surface, hyperbolic paraboloid and elliptic paraboloid as well as various composite curved
surfaces.
3.1.4 The singlelayer latticed shell may adopt the following truss lattice types.
1 The single layer cylindrical latticed shell may adopt oneway diagonalrod
orthogonal spatial grid, intersecting diagonalrod orthogonal spatial grid, lamella grid and
threeway grid, etc. (Figure B .0.1).
2 The single layer spherical latticed shell may adopt ribbed type grid, ribbed type with
diagonal bars, threeway grid, fan shape threeway grid, sunflower shape threeway grid ,
geodesic type grid, etc. (Figure B.0.2).
3 The single layer hyperbolic paraboloid latticed shell should adopt threeway grid (the
member bars at two directions are arranged along the straight stripe), or twoway orthogonal
grid (the member bars are arranged along the principal direction of curvature); diagonal
members may be arranged additionally on partial zones (Figure B.0.3).
4 The single layer elliptic paraboloid latticed shell may adopt threeway grid, oneway
diagonalrod orthogonal normallyplaced grid, elliptical bottom grid, etc. (Figure B.0.4).
3.1.5 The doublelayer latticed shell may adopt twoway or threeway intersected lattice
truss system, square pyramid system or triangular pyramid system, and the upper and lower
chord lattices may be arranged by the mode specified in Article 3.1.4 in this standard.
3.1.6 The spatial truss may adopt straight line or curved type.
3.1.7 The type of space frame structure shall be determined by comprehensive analysis in
combination of project plan form, span size, support condition, loading condition, roof
construction and building design. The arrangement of member bars and supports shall
guarantee the constant geometrical condition of the structural system.
3.1.8 The singlelayer latticed shell shall adopt rigid connection joints.
3.2 General Design Requirements for Space Trusses
3.2.1 As for periphery support space truss with rectangular plan form, where the side ratio
hereof (the ratio of the longer side and the shorter side) is less than or equal to 1.5, normally
L hereof should not be greater than 35m; the span (width B) of the single layer cylindrical
latticed shell supported along two longitudinal sides should not be greater than 30 m.
3.3.3 The design of the hyperbolic paraboloid latticed shell structure should meet the
following requirements.
1 The length ratio of two diagonal lines on the bottom surface of the hyperbolic
paraboloid latticed shell should not be greater than 2;
2 The vector height of the unit hyperbolic paraboloid shell may be 1/2 ~1/4 of the span
(the span is the distance of two diagonals), and the vector height at all directions of the
fourunit hyperbolic paraboloid shell may be 1/4~ 1.8 the corresponding span;
3 The thickness of the doublelayer hyperbolic paraboloid latticed shell may be
1/20~1/50 the transverse span;
4 The span of the single layer hyperbolic paraboloid latticed shell should not be greater
than 60m.
3.3.4 The design of the elliptic paraboloid latticed shell structure should meet the following
requirements.
1 The ratio of two span of the bottom sides of the elliptic paraboloid latticed shell
should not be greater than 1.5;
2 The vector height at all directions of the shell may be 1/6 ~ 1/9 the transverse span;
3 The thickness of the doublelayer elliptic paraboloid latticed shell may be 1/20~1/50
the transverse span;
4 The span of the single layer elliptic paraboloid latticed shell should not be greater
than 50m.
3.3.5 The support structure for a latticed shell shall transmit vertical counter stress reliably.
Simultaneously, it shall satisfy the requirements in the edge constraint required by different
latticed shell structure forms; edge constraint member shall satisfy the stiffness requirements,
with which, the integral analysis is conducted for the latticed shell structure. The constraint
conditions of the corresponding supports for latticed shells shall meet the following
requirements.
1 The supporting point for the spherical latticed shell shall guarantee the constraint
condition to resist the horizontal displacement;
2 When the cylindrical latticed shell is supported along two longitudinal sides, the
supporting points shall guarantee the constraint condition to resist the lateral horizontal
displacement.
3 The hyperbolic paraboloid latticed shell shall transmit the load to the substructure
through the boundary members;
4 The elliptic paraboloid latticed shell and the fourunit hyperbolic paraboloid latticed
shell shall be supported along the periphery through the boundary members.
3.4 General Design Requirements for Spatial Trusses, Arches and Beam String
Structures
3.4.1 The height of the spatial truss may be 1/12 ~ 1/16 of the span.
3.4.2 The thickness of the spatial arch frame may be 1/20~1/30 the span, and the vector
height hereof may be 1/3~1/6 the span. Analyzed as spatial arch frame, the substructure at
both ends shall reliably transmit the vertical counter stress besides guaranteeing the constraint
4 Structural Analysis
4.1 General Principles of Analysis
4.1.1 For space frame structure, the analysis on displacement and internal force un gravity
load and wind load shall be conducted; according to specific conditions, the analysis on
displacement and internal force under seismic load, temperature variation, support depression
and construction & installation load shall be also taken out. The analysis may be done
according to the theory of elasticity; in the integral stability analysis for latticed shell structure,
the nonlinear impact hereof shall be considered.
4.1.2 As for nonseismic design, the effects of action and action combination shall be
analyzed according to the requirements of the current national standard "Load Code for the
Design of Building Structures" GB 50009 and the internal force design value shall be
determined according to the effect of the action fundamental combination; as for seismic
design, the effect of the seismic action combination shall be analyzed according to the
requirements of the current national standard "Code for Seismic Design of Buildings" GB
50011. In the displacement analysis, the deflection shall be determined according to the effect
of the action standard combination.
4.1.3 The wind load shape factor of single spherical latticed shell and cylindrical latticed
shell may be determined according to the requirements of the current national standard "Load
Code for the Design of Building Structures" GB 50009; as for multiple spherical latticed
shells and cylindrical latticed shells connected, and space frame structure with complex form,
the wind load shape factor hereof shall be determined by wind tunnel test or special study if
the span hereof is larger. The wind vibration analysis should be conducted for the space frame
structure whose basic natural vibration period is larger than 0.25s.
4.1.4 In the analysis of grid structure and doublelayer latticed shell structure, it is
assumable that the joint is hinge one and the member bar only bears the axial force; when
the ratio of the member bar interjoint length and the section height (or diameter) is not less
than 12 (main pipe) and 24 (branch pipe), it may also assumable in the analysis of spatial
bracing frame pipe that the joint is hinge one; in the analysis of singlelayer latticed shell, it
shall be assumable that the joint is rigid one, and the member bar bears the axial force as well
as bending moment, torsion moment and shear force.
4.1.5 As for the external load of the space frame structure, the loads within the joint
controlled zone may be focused on this joint in the principle "static force equivalent". When
partial load is acted in the member bar, the impact of local bending internal force shall be
considered respectively.
4.1.6 In the analyses of the space frame structure, the mutual influence of the upper space
frame structure and the lower supporting structure shall be considered. the converted
equivalent stiffness and the equivalent mass of the lower supporting structure may be used as
the conditions for analyzing the upper space frame structure in the cooperative analysis of the
space frame structure; or the converted equivalent stiffness and the equivalent mass of the
upper space frame structure may also be used as the conditions for analyzing the lower
supporting structure; or the integral analyzing for the upper and lower structures may be
conducted.
4.1.7 In the analyses of the space frame structure, the reasonable edge restraint conditions
6 Fabrication, Erection and Acceptance
6.1 General Requirements
6.1.1 The type, specification and property of steels shall meet the national current product
standard and the design requirement, as well as be possessed of quality certificates. Sampling
and reinspection of steels shall meet the requirements of the current national standard "Code
for Acceptance of Construction Quality of Steel Structures" GB 50205.
6.1.2 Construction organization design shall be compiled by the construction organization
before the construction of space frame, and it shall be enforced strictly during the process of
construction.
6.1.3 Steel ruler, theodolite and electronic total station should be adopted for the fabrication,
erection, acceptance, and setting out of space frame; tension of steel ruler shall be consistent
when used. Measuring instruments must be calibrated by the metrology inspection
department.
6.1.4 Welding work should be carried out in the fabrication factory or on the ground of
construction site to reduce work in the air. Welders shall pass the examination and obtain
certificate. They may start to work after pass the welding process examination of
corresponding projects.
6.1.5 Before installation of space frame, planimetric position and elevation of support
embedded parts and embedded anchor bolts shall be rechecked and accepted according to the
positioning axis and elevation reference point. Construction deviation of embedded parts and
embedded anchor bolts shall meet the requirements of the current national standard "Code for
Acceptance of Construction Quality of Steel Structures" GB 50205.
6.1.6 Erection methods of space frame shall be determined comprehensively according to
the structural types, load carrying and construction features, with progress, economic and
technical conditions at the construction site, under the premise of guaranteeing quality and
safety. Space frame may be erected according to the following methods.
1 Assembly elements in the air. is applicable to various space frame assembled of
brackets, especially the nonwelded connection structures such as bolted connection and pin
axis connection. Overhang assembly construction method with less supports may be selected
according to the structural features. internal extension method (overhang assembly from side
support to the center) and external extension method (overhang assembly from the center to
side support).
2 Erection by strips or blocks. is applicable to the space frame with less structural
rigidity and force condition changes after segmentation. Size of strips or blocks shall be
determined according to the lifting capacity of hoisting equipment.
3 Assembly by sliding. is applicable to various space frames that can be equipped with
parallel sliding tracks, especially the conditions that construction (brackets or travelling crane
shall not be installed under the tobeinstalled roof structures) must be crossed, site is narrow,
or lifting transportation is inconvenient. When space frame is with large column grid or long
& narrow plane, sliding framework may be adopted.
4 Integral hoisting by derrick masts or cranes. is applicable to the small and medium
size space frame, space frame may move or rotate in the air during hoisting.
5 Integral liftingup. is applicable to various space frames. The structure shall be lifted
to the design elevation in place after integrally assembled on the ground.
6 Integral jackingup. is applicable to various space frames with less supporting points.
The structure shall be lifted to the design elevation in place after integrally assembled on the
ground.
7 Fold and unfold methods. is applicable to the cylindrical latticed shell structures.
Folding assembly shall be carried out on the ground or the working platform close to the
ground, the folded mechanism shall be lifted to the design elevation by hoisting equipment,
and then the unassembled members shall be supplemented in the air to turn mechanism into
structure.
6.1.7 After installation methods are determined, reaction of each hoisting point, vertical
displacement, internal force of members, stability of support column during liftingup or
jackingup, as well as horizontal thrust of space frame under wind load shall be checked and
calculated respectively for space frame, if necessary, temporary strengthening measures shall
be adopted. When space frame is erected by strips, blocks or overhang method, each
corresponding construction conditions shall be traced, checked and calculated, as well as
influential members and joints shall be adjusted. Before brackets or hoisting equipment for
installation are disassembled, structural checking calculation shall be carried out for the
corresponding operating conditions at each stage to select reasonable disassembly sequence.
6.1.8 Dynamic coefficient of structures should be selected according to the following values
during the process of erection. liftingup or jackingup of hydraulic jack, 1.1; lifting of
crosscore hydraulic jack steel strand, 1.2; hoisting of tower crane and pulling pole, 1.3;
hoisting of crawling crane and autocrane, 1.4.
6.1.9 Before formal erection of space frame, partial or integral trial assembly should be
carried out, which may be omitted when the structure is simple or the erection is sure.
6.1.10 Space frame shall not be erected under Grade 6 and above wind power.
6.1.11 Before space frame is painted, surfaces of members must be treated (burr, welding
slag, rust and dirt must be removed).Treated surfaces shall meet the design requirements and
the requirements of the relevant national current standards.
6.1.12 Roof boards and hanging members should be installed after space frame is installed
and forms an entirety.
6.2 Requirements for Fabrication and Assembly
6.2.1 Members and joints of space frame shall be fabricated and assembled on special
equipment or models to ensure precision and interchangeability of assembly unit.
6.2.2 All welded joints shall meet the design requirements during the fabrication and
erec......
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