GB/T 406152021 PDF in English
GB/T 406152021 (GB/T406152021, GBT 406152021, GBT406152021)
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Guides of power system voltage stability evaluation
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Standards related to (historical): GB/T 406152021
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GB/T 406152021: PDF in English (GBT 406152021) GB/T 406152021
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 29.020
CCS F 21
Guides of power system voltage stability evaluation
ISSUED ON. OCTOBER 11, 2021
IMPLEMENTED ON. MAY 01, 2022
Issued by. State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword... 3
1 Scope... 4
2 Normative references... 4
3 Terms and definitions... 4
4 General principles... 5
5 Criteria for voltage stability evaluation... 6
6 Evaluation method for steadystate voltage stability... 7
7 Evaluation method for transient voltage stability... 11
8 Evaluation method for longterm voltage stability... 12
Guides of power system voltage stability evaluation
1 Scope
This document establishes the principles for evaluating the voltage stability of power
systems. It specifies the evaluation contents and methods for steadystate voltage
stability, transient voltage stability and longterm voltage stability.
This document is applicable to the calculation and analysis of voltage stability of power
systems of 110kV and above. For other voltage levels, it can refer to this document for
implementation.
2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this
document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references,
the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
GB 387552019, Code on security and stability for power system
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions defined in GB 387552019
as well as the followings apply.
3.1 voltage stability
The ability that after the power system is subjected to small or large disturbances, the
system voltage can be maintained or recovered to the allowable range without voltage
collapse.
[Source. GB 387552019, 2.2.2]
3.2 voltage collapse
The process that when the system is in a state of voltage instability, the load continues
to try to obtain more power (active or reactive) by increasing the current, resulting in a
largescale voltage drop in the system.
3.3 steadystate voltage stability
The ability that after the power system is subjected to a small disturbance, all the
busbars of the system maintain a stable voltage.
[Source. GB 387552019, 2.2.2.1]
3.4 transient voltage stability
The ability that after the power system is subjected to a large disturbance, all the busbars
of the system maintain a stable voltage.
[Source. GB 387552019, 2.2.2.2]
3.5 longterm voltage stability
The ability that after the power system is greatly disturbed, all the busbars of the system
maintain a stable voltage in the longterm process.
3.6 renewable energy station
All equipment below the grid connection point of the wind farm or photovoltaic power
station centrally connected to the power system.
NOTE. It includes transformers, busbars, lines, converters, energy storage, wind turbines,
photovoltaic power generation systems, reactive power adjustment equipment and auxiliary
equipment.
[Source. GB 387552019, 2.11]
3.7 multiinfeed DC shortcircuit ratio; MSCR
The ratio of the shortcircuit capacity of the DCfed converter bus to the equivalent DC
power after considering the influence of other DC circuits.
[Source. GB 387552019, 2.6]
4 General principles
4.1 Voltage stability evaluation is an important part of power system safety and stability
evaluation. The safety and stability evaluation of the power system shall include the
voltage stability evaluation.
4.2 The voltage stability evaluation of power system generally includes steadystate
voltage stability evaluation and transient voltage stability evaluation. In the postfault
operation mode, the longterm voltage stability evaluation shall be used when the
steadystate voltage stability margin is low or the longterm component dynamic
characteristics such as overexcitation of the unit need to be considered.
5.2 Criteria for transient voltage stability evaluation
In the transient process after the power system is subjected to large disturbances, the
load bus voltage shall recover to above 0.80p.u. within 10s (this document selects the
average rated voltage as the voltage reference value). In new energyintensive areas, it
shall be ensured that new energy stations are not disconnected from the grid and do not
repeatedly enter low voltage ride through. Care shall be taken to distinguish the voltage
drop near the oscillation center due to generator power angle oscillation and the voltage
drop due to transient voltage instability.
5.3 Criteria for longterm voltage stability evaluation
In the longterm process after the power system is subjected to large disturbances, the
load bus voltage shall be maintained or restored to above 0.90p.u. When judging by
simulation calculation, the response of longterm dynamic components and links shall
be included to reach a new balance point.
5.4 Selection of monitoring bus
In practical application of criteria for transient and longterm voltage stability
evaluation, the voltage monitoring point shall be selected at the load bus.
6 Evaluation method for steadystate voltage stability
6.1 Basic requirements
6.1.1 Before calculating and evaluating steadystate voltage stability, the simulation
model and calculation conditions shall be clarified, including partition division,
generator and new energy model, maximum reactive power that generator can generate,
generator output distribution method, terminal voltage, bus voltage, DC model, DC
power adjustment method, reactive power compensation model, transformer model,
load model, load growth method.
6.1.2 Simulation calculation shall use steadystate model. Among them, the generator
generally adopts the PV node model with upper and lower limit of reactive power. The
load shall use a constant power model. Based on the actual situation, the ZIP model can
also be used. The scale configuration can be carried out. Z, I, and P represent constant
impedance, constant current, and constant power, respectively.
6.1.3 The load growth mode has a great influence on the steadystate voltage stability.
It shall be determined according to the actual situation, or a typical growth method shall
be adopted. If the PU curve is calculated, the load growth mode is constant power
factor growth. Calculate the UQ curve. The load growth mode is the same as the active
power and the reactive power growth. The power output shall be determined according
to the load growth and the actual output distribution of the power grid.
Figure 2  Normalized UQ curves for constant source, reactance, and active
power
6.2.2 PU curve
6.2.2.1 The load growth method is to increase the load of the area or bus through a
certain load growth method to obtain the PU curve. This method is suitable for
evaluating the voltage stability of the load area.
6.2.2.2 Section flow growth method. The sending end adopts to increase the output of
the unit. The receiving end generally adopts the increased load. It is also possible to
reduce the output of the receiving end unit to increase the power flow of the sending
and receiving end sections to obtain the PU curve. This method is suitable for
evaluating the maximum power transmission and reception capacity in the region.
6.2.2.3 The "inflection point" of the PU curve is the voltage collapse point. The steady
state voltage stability of the system is evaluated by calculating the regional active power
margin Kvp.
6.2.3 UQ curve
6.2.3.1 The "Imaginary synchronous camera method" is to imaginatively place a
synchronous camera at the monitoring bus that is not limited by reactive power output.
The UQ curve is obtained by changing the voltage of the bus.
6.2.3.2 The load growth method and the section load flow growth method can also be
used to obtain the UQ curve.
6.2.3.3 The lowest point of the UQ curve is the voltage collapse point. The static
voltage stability of the system is evaluated by calculating the reactive power margin
Kvq.
6.2.4 Multiinfeed DC shortcircuit ratio
By defining the multiinfeed influence factor (MIIF), it is used to describe the strength
of the interaction between the DC subsystems of the multiinfeed ACDC system.
Accordingly, the calculation method of the multiinfeed DC shortcircuit ratio MISCRi
is obtained as formula (3).
Where,
i  The DC link number;
Saci  The shortcircuit capacity of the DC infeed commutation bus i, in megavolt
7.1.6 The renewable energy station shall adopt an electromechanical or electromagnetic
transient equivalent model that considers the topology, reactive power compensation
and stationlevel control in the station.
7.1.7 Flexible AC and DC transmission equipment such as flexible DC transmission
system, static var generator (SVG), controllable series compensation device (TCSC),
unified power flow controller (UPFC) shall adopt electromechanical transient model or
more detailed electromagnetic transient model.
7.1.8 A simulation calculation program that can simulate the transient process of the
power system in detail shall be used. The program shall carry out simulation analysis
for different faults and give the transient process of the power system after the fault.
For largecapacity DC droppoint power grids, when the DC response characteristics
have a great influence on the system voltage stability, the electromechanical
electromagnetic transient hybrid simulation or full electromagnetic transient simulation
can be used for verification.
7.2 Calculation method and process
7.2.1 Determine the operation mode that needs studying. Calculate to obtain the steady
state operation.
7.2.2 Determine the dynamic element model parameters corresponding to the operation
mode.
7.2.3 The fault set to be studied shall be selected according to GB 387552019.Select
the electrical quantity to be monitored.
7.2.4 Conduct timedomain simulation calculations for selected faults. Based on the
criteria for transient voltage stability evaluation, perform transient voltage stability
judgment. Determine critical fault sets and grid weaknesses.
7.2.5 Determine the transmission capacity subject to transient voltage stability through
operation mode adjustment. Propose the safety and stability control strategy and grid
optimization scheme.
8 Evaluation method for longterm voltage stability
8.1 Basic requirements
8.1.1 It is mainly used to analyze voltage stability under the action of slowresponse
dynamic components and control devices, including boilerturbine slow speed control,
generator (including controller) overcurrent and overexcitation limit, constant
temperature load, secondary control of voltage and frequency (such as onload voltage
regulating transformer, parallel controllable capacitor).
...... Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF  translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.
