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GB/T 40559-2021 (GB/T40559-2021)

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GB/T 40559-2021: PDF in English (GBT 40559-2021)
GB/T 40559-2021
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 29.220.99
K 82
Lithium ion cells and batteries used in self-balancing
vehicle - Safety requirements
ISSUED ON: OCTOBER 11, 2021
IMPLEMENTED ON: MAY 01, 2022
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of
China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 4 
1 Scope ... 5 
2 Normative references ... 5 
3 Terms and definitions ... 6 
4 Test conditions ... 13 
4.1 Applicability of the test ... 13 
4.2 Environmental conditions for the test ... 14 
4.3 Parameter measurement tolerance ... 14 
4.4 Temperature measurement method ... 14 
4.5 Charging and discharging procedures for the test ... 14 
4.6 Type test ... 15 
5 General safety requirements ... 18 
5.1 General safety considerations ... 18 
5.2 Safe working parameters ... 18 
5.3 Identification and warning instructions ... 19 
6 Cell electrical safety test ... 20 
6.1 High temperature external short circuit ... 20 
6.2 Overcharge ... 20 
6.3 Forced discharge... 21 
7 Cell environmental safety test ... 22 
7.1 Low air pressure ... 22 
7.2 Temperature cycle ... 22 
7.3 Vibration ... 23 
7.4 Acceleration impact ... 23 
7.5 Drop ... 24 
7.6 Heavy impact/squeeze ... 24 
7.7 Hot abuse ... 25 
7.8 Combustion injection ... 25 
8 Battery system environmental safety test ... 26 
8.1 Low air pressure ... 26 
8.2 Temperature cycle ... 26 
8.3 Vibration ... 26 
8.4 Acceleration impact ... 27 
8.5 Drop ... 27 
8.6 Stress relief ... 28 
8.7 High temperature use ... 28 
8.8 Salt fog ... 29 
8.9 Immersion ... 29 
8.10 Flame retardant ... 29 
9 Functional electrical safety test of battery system ... 30 
9.1 Basic requirements for battery management system ... 30 
9.2 Overvoltage charging ... 30 
9.3 Single battery overvoltage control ... 31 
9.4 Undervoltage discharge ... 31 
9.5 Overcurrent charging... 32 
9.6 Overload ... 32 
9.7 External short circuit ... 32 
9.8 Reverse charging ... 32 
10 Safety-critical components ... 33 
10.1 Basic requirements... 33 
10.2 Evaluation and testing of components ... 33 
11 Safety requirements for high-voltage batteries ... 34 
Appendix A (Normative) Test sequence ... 35 
Appendix B (Normative) Test equipment and measuring instruments ... 36 
Appendix C (Normative) Wire flame resistance test method ... 38 
References ... 40 
Lithium ion cells and batteries used in self-balancing
vehicle - Safety requirements
1 Scope
This Standard specifies the safety requirements for lithium ion cells and
batteries used in self-balancing vehicle, and describes the corresponding test
methods.
This Standard applies to lithium ion cells and batteries used in self-balancing
vehicle, as well as lithium ion cells and batteries for similar products such as
electric scooters without self-balancing function.
2 Normative references
The following documents are indispensable for the application of this document.
For dated references, only the dated version applies to this document. For
undated references, the latest edition (including all amendments) applies to this
document.
GB/T 2423.5, Environmental testing - Part 2: Test methods - Test Ea and
guidance: Shock
GB/T 2423.10, Environmental testing - Part 2: Test methods - Test Fc:
Vibration (sinusoidal)
GB/T 2423.21, Environmental testing - Part 2: Test methods - Test M: Low
air pressure
GB/T 2423.22, Environmental testing - Part 2: Tests methods - Test N:
Change of temperature
GB 4943.1-2011, Information technology equipment -Safety - Part 1: General
requirements
GB/T 5169.5-2008, Fire hazard testing for electric and electronic products -
Part 5: Test flames - Needle test method - Apparatus confirmatory
arrangement and guidance
GB/T 5330-2003, Industrial woven metal wire cloth (square opening series)
GB/T 6005-2008, Test sieves - Metal wire cloth perforated metal plate and
electroformed sheet - Nominal sizes of openings
to constant voltage charging until the charging current is less than or equal
to 0.02It; then, stop charging. The longest charging time shall not exceed
8 hours.
b) Charge at 1It at an ambient temperature of 20 °C ± 5 °C. When the cell or
battery terminal voltage reaches the limited charging voltage, change to
constant voltage charging until the charging current is less than or equal
to 0.02It. The longest charging time shall not exceed 4 hours.
When there is disagreement with the capacity test result, the test can be re-
performed at the ambient temperature of 23 °C ± 2 °C, which is used as the
arbitration condition.
Note: It represents the reference test current; its value is the same as the rated
capacity (C), and the unit is ampere (A) or milliampere (mA).
4.5.2 Discharging procedure for the test
The cell or battery is discharged to the end of discharge voltage at a constant
current according to the current specified by the manufacturer.
4.6 Type test
4.6.1 Overview
Unless otherwise specified, the tests specified in this Standard are type tests.
Unless otherwise specified, the tests are only carried out on products which are
produced within one year.
4.6.2 Requirements for samples
Unless otherwise specified, the tested samples shall be representative samples
of the products which are going to be accepted by the customer, including a
small batch of trial production samples or products that are ready to delivered
to the customer.
If the test requires the introduction of wire load test or connection, unless
otherwise specified, the total resistance generated by the introduction of wire
test or connection shall be less than 20 mΩ.
4.6.3 Pretreatment of samples
The cell or battery is subjected to two charge-discharge cycles in accordance
with the charge-discharge procedures specified in 4.5; it is left for 5 minutes
between the charge-discharge cycles.
The identification and warning instructions on the battery body shall be clear
and legible.
Any identifications and warning instructions on the battery body, which are
required by this Standard, shall be durable and eye-catching. When considering
its durability, the effect of normal use shall be taken into consideration.
Check and wipe the identification and warning instruction, to verify whether it is
qualified. When wiping the identifications and warning instructions, use a cotton
cloth that is dipped in water to wipe it by hand for 15 seconds; then, use a cotton
cloth that is dipped in 75% medical alcohol to wipe it by hand for 15 seconds.
After the test, the identifications and warning instructions shall still be clear; the
nameplate shall not be easily removed, and there shall be no curling.
6 Cell electrical safety test
6.1 High temperature external short circuit
After fully charging the cell in accordance with the test method that is specified
in 4.5.1, place it in an environment of 57 °C ± 4 °C; after the cell temperature
reaches 57 °C ± 4 °C, place it for another 30 minutes. Then, use wires to
connect the positive and negative terminals of the cell; ensure that all external
resistances are not higher than 20 mΩ. During the test, monitor the cell
temperature change. In any of the following conditions, terminate the test:
a) The cell temperature drop reaches 20% of the peak temperature rise;
b) The short-circuit time reaches 24 hours.
The cell shall not have fire or explosion.
Note: The resistivity temperature coefficient of the wire is less than 5×10-3°C-1,
such as constantan wire.
6.2 Overcharge
After discharging the cell according to the test method that is specified in 4.5.2,
use the maximum continuous charging current, which is specified by the
manufacturer, to charge it to 4.8 V or a higher value specified by the
manufacturer at room temperature.
During the test, monitor the cell temperature change. In any of the following
conditions, terminate the test:
a) After reaching 4.8 V or the highest charging voltage, the cell's continuous
charging time reaches 1 hour;
Cylindrical cells are subjected to 12 impact tests, in total, in the positive and
negative directions of their axial and radial installation positions; square and
soft-package cells are subjected to 18 impact tests, in sequence, according to
three mutually perpendicular installation positions in the positive and negative
directions.
The specific test method can be in accordance with the relevant clauses in GB/T
2423.5.
The cell shall not have fire, explosion or leakage.
7.5 Drop
After fully charging the cell in accordance with the test method that is specified
in 4.5.1, drop it freely on the concrete slab at a drop height of 1 m ± 0.01 m.
Drop each of the two end faces of the cylindrical cell once, and the cylindrical
surface twice, counting up to a total of four drop tests; drop each face of the
square and soft-package cell once, counting up to a total of 6 drop tests.
The cell shall not have fire or explosion.
7.6 Heavy impact/squeeze
7.6.1 Heavy impact
This test applies to square and cylindrical cells whose diameter is greater than
or equal to 18.0 mm.
After fully charging the cell in accordance with the test method that is specified
in 4.5.1, place the cell on the surface of the platform; place a metal rod whose
diameter is 15.8 mm ± 0.1 mm on the upper surface of the geometric center of
the cell; use a heavy object whose mass is 9.1 kg ± 0.1 kg to hits the surface of
the cell in a free fall state from a height of 610 mm ± 25 mm; observes for 6
hours. See B.1 for test tool.
For the cylindrical cell, its longitudinal axis is required to be parallel to the
surface of the weight during the impact test, and the metal rod is required to be
perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the cell; for the square cell, only its wide
surface is required for the impact test. Only sample is subjected to one impact
test only.
The cell shall not have fire or explosion.
7.6.2 Squeeze
It applies to soft-package and cylindrical cells whose diameter is less than 18.0
mm.
After fully charging the cell in accordance with the test method that is specified
in 4.5.1, place the cell between two planes and slowly squeeze the cell
perpendicular to the direction of the plate. When squeezing the cylindrical cell,
make its longitudinal axis parallel to the two extruded surfaces. For the soft-
package cell, perform the squeeze test on the wide side of the cell only. The
extruded surface shall be larger than the largest surface of the cell. In any of
the following two conditions, terminate the test:
a) When the squeeze force between the two plates reaches 13 kN ± 0.78 kN;
b) When the cell voltage drops at least 100 mV.
The cell shall not have fire or explosion.
7.7 Hot abuse
After fully charging the cell in accordance with the test method that is specified
in 4.5.1, put the cell into the test box. Raise the temperature of the test box at
a temperature rise rate of 5 °C/min ± 2 °C/min. When the temperature in the
box reaches 130 °C ± 2 °C, keep the temperature constant for 30 minutes.
The cell shall not have fire or explosion.
7.8 Combustion injection
After fully charging the cell in accordance with the test method that is specified
in 4.5.1, place the cell on the steel wire mesh of the test tool. For the test tool,
see B.2. If the cell slips during the test, a single metal wire can be used to fix
the cell sample on the steel wire mesh; if no such situation occurs, the cell
cannot be bundled. Use a flame to heat the cell; stop heating in the following
three conditions:
a) The cell explodes;
b) The cell is completely burnt;
c) Heat continuously for 30 minutes, but the cell does not have fire or
explosion.
After the test, the parts that make up the cell (except for dusty products) or the
cell as a whole must not penetrate the aluminum mesh.
If the time for a discharge-charge cycle is longer than 7 hours, the high
temperature test time can be extended to the end of the charge-discharge cycle.
8.8 Salt fog
Use sodium chloride and distilled water or deionized water to prepare the salt
solution. Its concentration is 5% (a 5% by mass NaCl aqueous solution); the pH
value measured at 20 °C ± 2 °C is between 6.5 ~ 7.2.
Put the fully charged sample into the salt fog box; spray for 2 hours at 15 °C ~
35 °C. After spraying, transfer the sample to the humid and hot box to store for
20 h ~ 22 h, at a temperature of 40 °C ± 2 °C and a relative humidity of 93%
±3%; then, store for 3 days under the conditions that are specified in 4.2.
If the sample can continue to discharge, continue a discharge-charge cycle in
accordance with the charge-discharge method that is specified in 4.5 to end the
test; if the sample cannot continue to discharge, end the test.
The sample shall not have fire or explosion.
8.9 Immersion
After the sample is fully charged according to the test method that is specified
in 4.5.1.
The sample shall be immersed in salt water (NaCl aqueous solution whose
mass fraction is 3.5%) at room temperature for at least 30 minutes. The water
depth shall completely submerge the test sample and be 5 cm ~ 10 cm higher
than the test sample.
Set aside the sample for 24; if the sample can continue to discharge, perform a
discharge-charge cycle in accordance with the charge-discharge method that
is specified in 4.5 to end the test; if the sample cannot continue to discharge,
end the test.
The sample shall not have fire or explosion.
8.10 Flame retardant
8.10.1 General requirements
For the battery system, the materials used for its packaging shall be able to limit
the spread of flame; its flame retardant rating shall meet the corresponding
requirements of 8.10.2 ~ 8.10.5. For related test methods, refer to Appendix A
in GB 4943.1-2011.
In terms of flammability characteristics, it is considered that VTM-0, VTM-1 and
VTM-2 materials are equivalent to V-0, V-1 and V-2 materials, respectively; but
their electrical and mechanical characteristics are not necessarily equal.
For the definition of flammability of materials, refer to 1.2.12 in GB 4943.1-2011.
8.10.2 Enclosure
The enclosure of the battery system shall be a fire enclosure, which shall be
made of materials not lower than V-1.
8.10.3 PCB board
The printed board shall be a material not lower than V-1.
8.10.4 Wire
The wire shall be able to pass the test of Appendix C.
8.10.5 Insulation material
Insulation materials shall be materials not lower than grade V-1, among which
foam materials shall not be lower than grade HF-1.
9 Functional electrical safety test of battery system
9.1 Basic requirements for battery management system
The lithium ion battery system used in self-balancing vehicle shall be designed
with a battery management system, so as to ensure that the cell or battery
works within the specified working range. The battery management system
shall be able to monitor the abnormal state of voltage, current and temperature
of the cell and battery, and send signals to the self-balancing vehicle, so that
the self-balancing vehicle can take corresponding measures after receiving the
signal.
Verify through inspection and 9.2 ~ 9.8.
9.2 Overvoltage charging
Fully charge the sample according to the test method that is specified in 4.5.1;
then, use the maximum continuous charging current (Icm) that is specified by
the manufacturer to perform constant-current charging to 1.2 times the upper
limited charging voltage (Uup) or the highest bearable voltage value specified
by the manufacturer (whichever is the higher value).
Charge until the BMS terminates charging; this action shall occur when or
before the charging voltage reaches 1.2 times the upper limited charging
9.5 Overcurrent charging
Discharge the sample in accordance with the test method that is specified in
4.5.2; then, use 1.5 times the over current for charge protection (Icp) for
constant-current charging, to the upper limited charging voltage Uup. The BMS
shall detect overcurrent charging and take protective actions. Test the sample
3 times.
After the test is completed, perform a discharge-charge cycle in accordance
with the provisions of 4.5.
The sample shall not have fire, explosion or leakage.
9.6 Overload
Fully charge the sample in accordance with the test method that is specified in
4.5.1; then, use 1.5 times the over current for discharge protection (1.5Idp) for
constant current discharge.
The BMS shall detect over current discharge and take protective actions, or
send a signal to the vehicle; but it shall not cut off the output. Test the sample 3
times.
After the test is completed, perform a discharge-charge cycle in accordance
with the provisions of 4.5.
The sample shall not have fire, explosion or leakage.
9.7 External short circuit
After fully charging the sample in accordance with the test method that is
specified in 4.5.1, use a load to connect the positive and negative terminals of
the sample; ensure that all external resistances are not higher than 20 mΩ.
The BMS shall detect the short circuit and act to cut off the circuit. Test the
sample 3 times.
After the test is completed, perform a discharge-charge cycle in accordance
with the test method that is specified in 4.5.
The sample shall not have fire, explosion or leakage.
9.8 Reverse charging
After discharging the sample in accordance with the test method that is
specified in 4.5.2, use a current of 1It for reverse charging.
The BMS shall detect reverse charging and act to cut off the charging current.
Test the sample 3 times.
The sample shall not have fire, explosion or leakage.
Check the plug or connector design of the cell. The design shall be able to avoid
reversed polarity connection.
10 Safety-critical components
10.1 Basic requirements
In the case of safety, the components in the cell, battery and battery
management system, such as positive temperature coefficient thermistor (PTC),
thermal fuse, shall meet the requirements of this Standard, or meet the safety-
related requirements in the national standards, industry standards or other
specifications of relevant components.
Note: Only when a certain component obviously belongs to the national
standard, industry standard of a certain component or other scope of use,
can the standard be considered relevant.
10.2 Evaluation and testing of components
The evaluation and testing of components shall be carried out in accordance
with the following regulations:
a) When a component has been confirmed to comply with a certain standard
that is coordinated with the relevant national standard, industry standard
or other specifications of components, it shall be checked whether the
component is correctly applied and used according to its rated value. The
component shall also be used as a component of the cell, battery or
protection circuit to undergo the relevant tests specified in this Standard,
instead of the part of the test specified in the relevant national standards,
industry standards or other specifications of components.
b) When the component is not verified as above whether it meets the relevant
standards, it shall be checked whether the component is correctly applied
and used according to the specified rating. The component, as a part of
the cell, battery or protection circuit, shall also be subjected to the relevant
tests that are specified in this Standard, and shall also be subjected to the
relevant tests, which are specified by the component standards, according
to the actual conditions in the cell, battery or protection circuit.
Note: In order to check whether the components meet the standards of a certain
component, the components are usually tested separately.
c) If there is no corresponding national standard, industry standard or other
specifications for a certain component, or the component is not used in
......
 
(Above excerpt was released on 2022-01-06, modified on 2022-01-06, translated/reviewed by: Wayne Zheng et al.)
Source: https://www.chinesestandard.net/PDF.aspx/GBT40559-2021