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GB/T 41134.1-2021 (GB/T41134.1-2021)

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GB/T 41134.1-2021English610 Add to Cart 0--3 minutes. Auto-delivery. Fuel cell power systems for industrial electric trucks -- Part 1: Safety Valid


GB/T 41134.1-2021: PDF in English (GBT 41134.1-2021)
GB/T 41134.1-2021
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 27.070
CCS K 82
Fuel Cell Power Systems for Industrial Electric Trucks -
Part 1: Safety
(IEC 62282-4-101:2014, Fuel Cell Technologies - Part 4-101: Fuel Cell Power
Systems for Propulsion other than Road Vehicles and Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) -
Safety of Electrically Powered Industrial Trucks, MOD)
ISSUED ON: DECEMBER 31, 2021
IMPLEMENTED ON: JULY 1, 2022
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 4 
Introduction ... 7 
1 Scope ... 8 
2 Normative References ... 9 
3 Terms and Definitions ... 13 
4 Structural Safety Requirements... 17 
4.1 General Rules ... 17 
4.2 Components Bearing Hydrogen and Other Fluids ... 18 
4.3 Overpressure and Thermal Protection ... 21 
4.4 Regulating Valve ... 21 
4.5 Shut-off Valves and Operating Procedures ... 21 
4.6 Filters ... 22 
4.7 Pumps and Compressors ... 22 
4.8 Electrically Controlled Pressure Sensors and Control Equipment ... 22 
4.9 Ventilation Measures ... 22 
4.10 Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) ... 23 
4.11 Discharge of Methanol and Wastes ... 23 
4.12 System Enclosure (self-contained system) ... 23 
4.13 Electrical Components of Fuel Cell Power System ... 24 
4.14 Control Circuits ... 30 
4.15 Safety / Hazard Analysis ... 31 
4.16 Insulation Resistance ... 31 
4.17 Requirements for Vibration Resistance ... 31 
5 Safety Performance Requirements and Type Test ... 31 
5.1 General Rules ... 31 
5.2 Vibration Test ... 32 
5.3 Fuel Container Stability Test ... 32 
5.4 Fatigue Test ... 33 
5.5 External Leakage Test ... 33 
5.6 Ultimate Strength Test ... 34 
5.7 Potential Failure Mode Test ... 35 
5.8 Temperature Test ... 36 
5.9 Connection Test ... 38 
5.10 Touch Current Test ... 38 
5.11 Insulation and Voltage Resistance Test ... 40 
5.12 Electrostatic Accumulation Test of Non-metallic Pipeline ... 40 
5.13 Power Limiting Circuit Test ... 41 
5.14 Maximum Power Test ... 42 
5.15 Abnormal Operation Test (failure of electrical equipment) ... 43 
5.16 Wastewater Discharge Test (for methanol fuel cells only) ... 44 
5.17 Rain Drop Test ... 44 
5.18 System Enclosure Test (self-contained system) ... 44 
5.19 Needle Flame Test for Thermoplastic Materials ... 45 
5.20 Tests of Elastomeric Seals, Gaskets and Piping ... 45 
5.21 Permeation Test of Non-metallic Pipes and Piping ... 46 
5.22 Electrical Output Lead Test ... 46 
6 Routine Tests ... 47 
6.1 Insulation and Voltage Resistance Test ... 47 
6.2 External Leakage Test ... 47 
7 Marking ... 47 
7.1 General Rules ... 47 
7.2 Marking of Power Generation System ... 47 
7.3 Marking of Components ... 48 
8 Instructions for Use ... 48 
8.1 Overview ... 48 
8.2 Maintenance Manual ... 49 
8.3 Operating Procedures ... 49 
8.4 Installation Instructions ... 50 
Appendix A (informative) Differences in Normative References between this
Document and IEC 62282-4-101:2014 ... 51 
Appendix B (informative) Comparison of Pressure Clauses ... 56 
Bibliography ... 57 
Fuel Cell Power Systems for Industrial Electric Trucks -
Part 1: Safety
1 Scope
This document specifies the safety requirements for the fuel cell power systems for industrial
electric trucks.
This document applies to industrial electric trucks using gaseous hydrogen fuel cell power
systems and direct methanol fuel cell power systems.
This document applies to fuel cell-driven industrial trucks used for handling, ejecting, pulling,
lifting, stacking or piling up various goods, such as: forklifts and single-bucket loaders, etc.
This document applies to the fuel cell power systems defined in 3.8 and Figure 1.
This document applies to DC fuel cell power systems with a rated output voltage not exceeding
150 V for indoor and outdoor use.
For the fuel cell power systems involved in this document, the fuel source container is
permanently attached to the industrial trucks or the fuel cell power systems.
Within the scope of this document, the following fuels are considered:
---gaseous hydrogen;
---methanol.
Within the scope of this document, the following contents are not included:
---removable fuel source containers;
---hybrid industrial trucks containing internal combustion engines;
---fuel cell power systems with reformers;
---fuel cell power systems for operation in potentially explosive atmospheres;
---fuel storage systems using liquid hydrogen.
GB/T 35544-2017 Fully-wrapped Carbon Fiber Reinforced Cylinders with an Aluminum Liner
for Theon-board Storage of Compressed Hydrogen as a Fuel for Land Vehicles
GB/T 37499-2019 Safety and Control Devices for Gas Burners and Gas-burning Appliances -
Particular Requirements - Automatic and Semi-automatic Valves (ISO 23551-1:2012, MOD)
ISO 1421 Rubber-or Plastics-coated Fabrics - Determination of Tensile Strength and Elongation
at Break
ISO 4038 Road Vehicles - Hydraulic Braking Systems - Simple Flare Pipes, Tapped Holes,
Male Fittings and Hose End Fittings
ISO 10380 Pipework - Corrugated Metal Hoses and Hose Assemblies
ISO 10442 Petroleum, Chemical and Gas Service Industries - Packaged, Integrally Geared
Centrifugal Air Compressors
ISO 10806 Pipework - Fittings for Corrugated Metal Hoses
ISO 11114-4 Transportable Gas Cylinders - Compatibility of Cylinder and Valve Materials with
Gas Contents - Part 4: Test Methods for Selecting Metallic Materials Resistant to Hydrogen
Embrittlement
ISO 13226 Rubber - Standard Reference Elastomers (SREs) for Characterizing the Effect of
Liquids on Vulcanized Rubbers
ISO 14113 Gas Welding Equipment - Rubber and Plastics Hose and Hose Assemblies for Use
with Industrial Gases up to 450 Bar (45 MPa)
ISO 15500-12 Road Vehicles - Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Fuel System Components -
Part 12: Pressure Relief Valve (PRV)
ISO/TR 15916 Basic Considerations for the Safety of Hydrogen Systems
ISO 15649 Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries - Piping
IEC 60695 (all parts) Fire Hazard Testing
IEC 60730-1:2013 Automatic Electrical Controls - Part 1: General Requirements
IEC 61204-7 Low-voltage Switch Mode Power Supplies - Part 7: Safety Requirements
IEC/TS 61430 Secondary Cells and Batteries - Test Methods for Checking the Performance of
Devices Designed for Reducing Explosion Hazards - Lead-acid Starter Batteries
IEC 62103 Electronic Equipment for Use in Power Installations
3 Terms and Definitions
The following terms and definitions are applicable to this document.
3.1 Abnormal Operation
Abnormal operation means the fuel cell power system operates in the event of failure of any
electrical or control component, or in any of the failure modes identified by the failure mode
and effect analysis (FMEA) procedure, excluding accidental rupture or damage to flammable
liquids, vapor and / or gas containers.
3.2 Bonding
Bonding refers to a permanent connection to metal parts to form a positively conductive path
that provides electrical connection between non-current-carrying metal parts and is capable of
conducting any fault currents that may occur.
NOTE: it is applicable to the connection inside the fuel cell power system, and between the fuel
cell power system and the vehicle, and does not involve measures like grounding the
vehicle itself through the grounding terminal or tires. Any active modes, such as: clips,
rivets, bolts, screws, welded or brazed joints, or closed loop connectors secured with
screws are acceptable.
3.3 Check-valve
Check-valve refers to a valve, with the opening and closing parts (valve clack) automatically
prevent the reverse flow of the medium by means of the force of the medium.
[source: GB/T 21465-2008, 2.2.1.8]
3.4 Circuit, Limited Power
Circuit, limited power refers to a circuit with a peak voltage greater than AC 42.4 V (30 V
r.m.s.) or a DC voltage greater than 60 V, and the power after running for 60 s complies with
the values in Table 2B and Table 2C in GB 4943.1-2011.
NOTE: in accordance with GB 4943.1-2011, low-voltage circuit under normal and single-fault
conditions is known as safety extra-low voltage circuit (SELV).
3.5 Low-voltage Circuit
Low-voltage circuit refers to a circuit composed of batteries, fuel cells and transformers, or a
system composed of transformers and fixed impedances, whose peak open-circuit voltage is
less than AC 42.4 V (30 V r.m.s.) or DC voltage is less than 60 V, the maximum volt-ampere is
less than 100 VA, and the maximum secondary output is AC 30 V, which complies with the
requirements of GB/T 19212.1-2016.
3836.14-2014.
3.12 Integral
Integral refers to part of a fuel cell power system that may be located inside or outside the
system.
3.13 Lower Flammability Limit; LFL
Lower flammability limit refers to the lowest concentration of fuel in a fuel-air mixture that can
be ignited.
NOTE: if the ignition source can cause combustion, then, the fuel-air mixture is flammable. It is
primarily the fuel-air mixture ratio or composition. Mixture concentrations below the
lower flammability limit (LFL) or above the upper flammability limit (UFL) in critical
proportions will not cause combustion.
3.14 Maximum Allowable Working Pressure; MAWP
Maximum allowable working pressure refers to the maximum pressure, at which, the fuel cell
or fuel cell power system can operate.
NOTE 1: see the comparison table of pressure clauses in Appendix B.
NOTE 2: the maximum allowable working pressure is expressed in (Pa).
NOTE 3: the maximum allowable working pressure is used to determine the pressure setting of the
pressure limiting / relief device; the pressure relief device is installed to protect the
components or the system in the event of accidental excessive overpressure.
[source: GB/T 28816-2020, 3.86.3, modified]
3.15 Maximum Continuous Load Rating
Maximum continuous load rating refers to the maximum continuous power that the fuel cell
power system can maintain at 25 C and an ambient pressure of 0.1 MPa without relying on
any electric energy storage device or storage component.
3.16 Maximum Operating Pressure; MOP
Maximum operating pressure refers to the maximum pressure specified by the component or
system manufacturer, at which, the system or component is designed to continuously operate.
NOTE 1: the maximum operating pressure is expressed in (Pa).
NOTE 2: see the comparison table of pressure clauses in Appendix B.
[source: GB/T 28816-2020, Definition 3.86.4, modified]
3.17 Normal Release
Normal release refers to the release of a limited local concentration of flammable vapors in the
system during normal operation, which may include intermittent exhaust from fuel cells.
3.18 Normal Operation
Normal operation refers to all operational and non-operation modes encountered during product
use that do not result in failure.
3.19 Pressure Relief Device; PRD
Pressure relief device refers to a pressure and / or temperature-activated pressure relief device,
which is used to prevent pressure from exceeding a pre-determined maximum value, and
thereby, preventing the failure of pressure components or the system.
3.20 Thermally Activated Pressure Relief Device; TPRD
Thermally activated pressure relief device refers to a device whose pressure release is caused
by temperature.
3.21 Safety Control
Safety control refers to automatic control and interlocking, including a safety control system
composed of relays, switches, sensors and other auxiliary equipment, with the purpose of
preventing unsafe operation of the controlled equipment.
3.22 Safety Critical Component
Safety critical component refers to components, equipment, circuits, software or similar
components, the failure of which will affect the safety of the fuel cell power system, as defined
in 4.15.
3.23 Service Pressure
Nominal Working Pressure
Service pressure / nominal working pressure is the pressure specified by the manufacturer at
full gas and at a temperature of 15 C.
NOTE 1: this term is only relevant to hydrogen pressure containers.
NOTE 2: see the comparison table of pressure clauses in Appendix B.
3.24 Gas Purge
Gas purge refers to a protective operation of removing gases and / or liquids, for example, fuel,
hydrogen, air or water from the fuel cell power system.
e.g., the temperature shall not exceed the specified limits, and the component shall be used
under the relevant specific conditions.
4.2 Components Bearing Hydrogen and Other Fluids
4.2.1 General rules
4.2.1.1 The pressure-bearing or fluid-bearing components shall be resistant to the fluid.
4.2.1.2 The hydrogen system filling interface shall comply with the requirements of GB/T
30718-2014.
4.2.1.3 The metal parts exposed to hydrogen shall be resistant to hydrogen embrittlement
described in ISO/TR 15916. If materials other than those described in ISO/TR 15916 are used,
the susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement can be evaluated in accordance with ISO 11114-4
or GB/T 23606-2009.
4.2.1.4 The fluid-bearing components shall be made of corrosion-resistant materials, or coated
with corrosion-resistant protective coatings, considering the risk of possible atmospheric
corrosion or the possibility of fluid leakage leading to hazardous conditions.
4.2.1.5 Any elastomeric components that involve the seal safety of fluids other than hydrogen
will cause hazards if a leakage (for example, gaskets between electrical components and parts
that come into contact with the liquid) occurs. If applicable, the components shall satisfy the
application conditions specified in GB/T 24135-2009, ISO 1421, ISO 13226, GB/T 23658-2009
and GB/T 18426-2001.
4.2.1.6 The elastomeric components used for hydrogen sealing shall satisfy the requirements
for use in hydrogen environment. The elastic materials outlined in ISO/TR 15916 shall be
considered for reference and guidance. The tensile strength and elongation of the material
initially and after thermal treatment (in accordance with the service temperature) shall be
evaluated in accordance with the method of 5.20.
4.2.2 Piping, hoses and fittings
4.2.2.1 When the pressure of the conveyed gas or vapor exceeds 103.4 kPa (gauge pressure), or
when the liquid pressure exceeds 1,103 kPa, or when the temperature exceeds 120 C, the
design, manufacture and testing of piping and related components shall comply with the
stipulations of ISO 15649.
4.2.2.2 Piping and non-metallic piping used at pressure and / or temperature levels below those
specified in 4.2.2.1 shall be evaluated in accordance with the requirements of this document.
Meanwhile, the used materials, fluids, and the service conditions of pressure and temperature
shall be taken into consideration. The design, manufacture and testing of non-metallic piping
used for hydrogen or methanol fuel shall comply with the additional requirements of 4.2.2.6.
4.2.2.3 The non-metallic hoses of hydrogen or methanol fuel used outside the fuel cell power
system, due to the effect of physical stress, shall comply with the hydrostatic pressure test,
adhesion (rubber), elasticity, low-temperature elasticity, ozone resistance (hoses of outer rubber
protective layer), UV resistance (plastic covered hoses), gas permeability, electrical
conductivity and end fitting testing specified in ISO 14113. The material shall satisfy the
requirements for use of hydrogen fuel, or the liquid (for example, methanol) shall comply with
the requirements of 4.2.1. When the length of the hoses is greater than 1.5 m, stainless steel
braiding shall be used for reinforcement.
4.2.2.4 When flexible metal connectors and related fittings are used to convey hydrogen, they
shall comply with the requirements of ISO 10806 and ISO 10380.
4.2.2.5 Hydrogen fuel lines shall minimize friction and maintain at least 51 mm of clearance
between exhaust system components and electrical system components.
4.2.2.6 Non-metallic pipelines used for hydrogen and methanol fuels shall:
---Adopt ventilated enclosure for protection to minimize mechanical or physical stress;
---Avoid electrostatic discharge. In accordance with 5.9 b) on metals and 5.9 c) on non-
metals, carry out connection test to determine its compliance;
---In accordance with the temperature during use, use materials that have been evaluated
and confirmed to be suitable for the fluid they bear. If applicable, in accordance with
5.20 and 5.21, the compliance shall be determined; and
---The connection between the fuel system and the battery stack shall comply with the
requirements for electrostatic discharge in GB/T 7127.1-2000 or ISO 4038.
4.2.2.7 Piping, fittings and other piping components shall be able to withstand a minimum
hydrostatic test at 1.5 times the rated working pressure without manifesting any structural
damage.
Exception: the safety factor of high-pressure piping, fittings and other piping components shall
be equal to the safety factor of the gas storage cylinder being used, see 4.2.3.
4.2.3 Hydrogen pressure container
4.2.3.1 Pressure container shall be specially designed in accordance with the service conditions
of the application of industrial electric trucks, including the expected maximum number of
filling cycles, the expected pressure and temperature ranges during operation and filling, the
effect of hydrogen on container’s fatigue life and the frequency of inspections.
4.2.3.2 The material of the hydrogen pressure container shall comply with the requirements of
5.1 in GB/T 5099.1-2017 or the requirements of 5.2 in GB/T 35544-2017.
4.2.3.3 The pressure container and filling device shall be placed within the flat profile of the
industrial electric trucks, or in an enclosure defined in 4.12, so as to minimize the possibility of
damage to the container or hydrogen-related fittings.
4.3 Overpressure and Thermal Protection
4.3.1 The hydrogen pressure container shall be designed with a non-reclosing thermally
activated pressure relief device (TPRD) to avoid fires. The design, manufacture and testing
shall be performed in accordance with the stipulations of ISO 15500-12.
4.3.2 Overpressure protection
The fuel storage system shall be installed with an overpressure protection device and satisfy the
following requirements:
---The power generation system is in a running state: when the pressure exceeds the normal
working pressure of the hydrogen storage container, it shall be able to inform the
operator through the mode of display screen, sound or light, or prompt emergency
shutdown; when the pressure reaches the maximum working pressure of the hydrogen
storage container, it shall be automatically shut down and cut off the hydrogen supply;
---The power generation system is in a static state: when the pressure reaches the maximum
pressure that the hydrogen storage container can withstand, it shall be automatically
vented to the outside through a pressure relief valve or a device with similar functions,
so as to prevent danger caused by excessive pressure;
---When the pressure is lower than the required pressure, it shall be able to inform the
operator through the mode of display screen, sound or light; in accordance with the
degree of danger, it shall be able to be automatically shut down, or prompt emergency
shutdown, or be automatically shut down and cut off the hydrogen supply.
4.4 Regulating Valve
The gas pressure regulating valve shall be equipped with an exhaust restrictor or exhaust piping.
4.5 Shut-off Valves and Operating Procedures
4.5.1 The parameters of the valves shall comply with the requirements of application, including
pressure, temperature, contact fluid and electrical rating (if applicable), etc. The valves for
flammable liquids shall comply with the requirements of GB/T 37499-2019. Electric valves
shall comply with the requirements of GB/T 14536.19-2017.
4.5.2 The fuel storage system shall have two modes (manual and automatic) to cut off the fuel
supply. When hydrogen leakage or overpressure (high / low) occurs, it shall be able to be timely
shut down to cut off the fuel supply, and comply with the relevant regulations on safety control
and protection.
4.5.3 If it is determined in accordance with 4.15 that an emergency manual shut-off valve is
required, then, it shall be installed in an easy-to-operate position. The valve shall not be rotated
by more than 90 from the open to the closed position. The manual shut-off valve shall not use
any keys or tools. The emergency manual shut-off valve shall be installed in a protected location,
so as to reduce the damage caused by vibration or collision.
4.5.4 In the case of using manual valves, the valves shall be marked as indicated in 7.3.
4.5.5 Electric and other automatically controlled safety shut-off valves shall be in the safety
control position under the failure mode.
4.5.6 The electrical valves in the classification area shall comply with the requirements of the
classification scope.
4.6 Filters
Air and fluid filters shall be suitable for application in the environment. If they need to be
inspected, cleaned or replaced, then, the filters shall be installed in an easy-to-operate position.
4.7 Pumps and Compressors
4.7.1 The air compressors and air vacuum pumps used in the system shall comply with the
stipulations of ISO 10442.
4.7.2 The water pumps shall comply with the stipulations of GB 4706.66-2008.
4.7.3 Chemical pumps, hydrogen pumps and compressors shall be evaluated in accordance with
the applicable material compatibility requirements, mechanical and electrical requirements of
this document.
4.7.4 Compression pumps or rotor pumps for flammable fluids, or other types of dynamically
sealed pumps shall provide sufficient ventilation, so that the concentration of a small amount
of hydrogen or other flammable gases normally released under normal operating conditions
does not exceed 25% of the lower flammability limit in the non-hazardous area of the fuel cell
power system.
4.8 Electrically Controlled Pressure Sensors and Control Equipment
4.8.1 Pressure activated switches and transmitters shall be evaluated for their purposes. The
pressure regulating control of combustible or flammable fluids shall be applicable to their
ratings and the fluids they bear.
4.8.2 The maximum working pressure of pressure limiting or regulating control shall not exceed
90% of the working pressure of the pressure relief valve. Under system pressure limits,
accessible and adjustable pressure regulating control devices shall be reliably sealed at the
maximum operating pressure, at which, they are expected to operate.
4.9 Ventilation Measures
The ventilation measures of the fuel cell power system shall satisfy the following requirements:
---The manufacturer shall explicitly indicate in the instruction manual the ventilation
......
 
(Above excerpt was released on 2022-04-20, modified on 2022-04-20, translated/reviewed by: Wayne Zheng et al.)
Source: https://www.chinesestandard.net/PDF.aspx/GBT41134.1-2021