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GB/T 35977-2018 (GB/T35977-2018)

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GB/T 35977-2018: PDF in English (GBT 35977-2018)
GB/T 35977-2018
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 25.220.01
J 04
Remanufacturing - Technical specifications for
surface repair of mechanical products
ISSUED ON. FEBRUARY 06, 2018
IMPLEMENTED ON. SEPTEMBER 01, 2018
Issued by. General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and
Quarantine;
Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of
China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
1 Scope ... 4 
2 Normative references ... 4 
3 Terms and definitions ... 4 
4 Classification of surface repair technology ... 5 
5 Design and selection principles ... 5 
6 Requirements ... 6 
7 Common surface repair technology for remanufacturing ... 7 
8 Principle of blank surface repair technology for remanufacturing with different
failure modes ... 7 
Annex A (informative) Common surface repair technology for remanufacturing
... 8 
Annex B (informative) Principles of blank surface repair technology for
remanufacturing with different failure modes ... 11 
Foreword
This Standard was drafted in accordance with the rules given in GB/T 1.1-2009.
This Standard was proposed by and shall be under the jurisdiction of National
Technical Committee on Green Manufacturing Technology of Standardization
Administration of China (SAC/TC 337).
The drafting organizations of this Standard. Shandong Energy Heavy
Equipment Manufacturing Group Co., Ltd., National Defense Science and
Technology Key Laboratory of Equipment Remanufacturing Technology, Beijing
Ruiman Technology Co., Ltd., China National Heavy Duty Truck Group Jinan
Fuqiang Power Co., Ltd., China Machine Productivity Promotion Center, Heibei
Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Remanufacturing Industry Technology Research Co., Ltd.,
Hefei University of Technology, National Engineering Research Center for
Remanufacturing of Mechanical Products, Hebei Ruizhao Laser
Remanufacturing Technology Co., Ltd., Taier Heavy Industry Co., Ltd.,
Guangzhou Huadu Global Automatic Transmission Co., Ltd., The People's
Liberation Army 5719 Factory.
Main drafters of this Standard. Yang Qingdong, Zhang Wei, Yu Helong, Xu
Binshi, Shi Peijing, Zhou Xinyuan, Li Enzhong, Luo Jianming, Zheng Handong,
Wang Wenyu, Sang Fan, Sun Tingting, Liu Bohai, Chen Yongxiong, Han
Hongshne, Li Kai, Hu Zhenfeng, Cheng Bayi, Huang Dongbao, Huang Zhiyong,
Hou Tinghong, Zhao Yang.
Remanufacturing - Technical specifications for
surface repair of mechanical products
1 Scope
This Standard specifies classification, design and selection principles,
requirements for surface repair technology for remanufacturing of mechanical
product.
This Standard is applicable to design and selection of materials, techniques and
processes.
2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of
this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated
references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any
amendments) applies.
GB/T 28619, Remanufacturing - Terminology
GB/T 31208, The methods of quality evaluation for remanufacturing core
GB/T 32809, Remanufacturing - Technological specifications of cleaning for
mechanical products
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions defined in GB/T
28619 as well as the followings apply.
3.1 surface repair technology for remanufacturing of mechanical products
a series of surface engineering techniques (including additive manufacturing
techniques) involved in the surface repair of remanufactured blanks to restore
the remanufactured mechanical products to the geometrical parameters and
performance of the prototype new product
3.2 surface damage repair
repair of damage on the order of micrometers to millimeters
consumption and environmental pollution when selecting surface repair
techniques. In the process design and material selection, it is necessary to
create conditions for the remanufacturing, recycling or extending service life of
mechanical products.
6 Requirements
6.1 General requirements
6.1.1 Environmentally-friendly processes, equipment, materials and methods
shall be preferred for surface repair technology for remanufacturing of
mechanical products.
6.1.2 The remanufactured mechanical products after repair shall not be lower
than the dimensional accuracy, technical parameters, quality characteristics
and safety performance requirements of the prototype new products.
6.2 Requirements before repair
6.2.1 Remanufacturing surface repair design and demonstration shall be
carried out according to the service conditions, failure modes and functional
requirements of mechanical products. Make comprehensive consideration of
technical, environmental and economic feasibility. Determine repair solutions
and processes. And develop a guide on repair work. Determine the type,
composition, structure and related physical and chemical properties and
mechanical properties of the surface repair layer.
6.2.2 The remanufactured blanks shall be cleaned, tested and correspondingly
pretreated and surface protected according to the surface finish conditions of
the surface repair technology. Cleaning shall comply with the provisions of GB/T
32809, testing shall meet the requirements of GB/T 31208.
6.3 Repair process requirements
6.3.1 Prioritize automated surface engineering for remanufacturing surface
repair. And strictly in accordance with the process flow, the processing and
preparation of the remanufactured blank surface repair layer shall be performed.
6.3.2 According to the repair technical requirements, take necessary cooling,
gas protection and other protective measures to prevent oxidation, cracking and
shedding of the surface repair layer of the blank, and avoid deformation and
damage of the blank.
6.3.3 The surface repair site shall be equipped with necessary noise reduction,
dustproof, ventilation, anti-seepage and other facilities. The operator shall carry
out the necessary labor protection. All kinds of waste generated during the
Annex A
(informative)
Common surface repair technology for remanufacturing
Table A.1 gives common surface repair technology for remanufacturing.
Table A.1 -- Common surface repair technology for remanufacturing
No. Name Basic principle Technical features
Applicable
remanufactured
blank
Laser
cladding
technology
With a high-energy-density
laser beam as a heat
source, use a filler such as
synchronous powder
feeding or powdering to add
a cladding material to the
damaged portion of the
surface of the
remanufactured blank. After
laser irradiation, it is melted
simultaneously with a thin
layer on the surface of the
substrate, and rapidly
solidified to form a repair
layer.
The repair layer
and the
substrate are
metallurgically
bonded, the
surface
roughness is
large, the
dilution rate is
low, and the
heat impact on
the substrate is
small.
Suitable for
remanufacturing
of important parts
with complex
structural shapes
and high joint
strength
requirements. Can
be used for
surface damage
repair as well as
for volume
damage repair.
Plasma
cladding
technology
Using a plasma arc as a
heat source, a filler material
is added by means of
simultaneous powder
feeding or powdering to add
a cladding material to the
damaged portion of the
surface of the
remanufactured blank. It is
heated by plasma arc to
melt it simultaneously with
the thin layer on the surface
of the substrate.
And quickly form a repair
layer.
The repair layer
and the
substrate are
metallurgically
bonded, the
surface
roughness is
large, the
dilution rate is
low, the heat of
the substrate is
less affected,
and the
deposition
efficiency is
higher.
Suitable for
remanufacturing
of important parts
with complex
structural shapes
and high joint
strength
requirements. Can
be used for
surface damage
repair as well as
for volume
damage repair.
......
 
(Above excerpt was released on 2018-12-23, modified on 2021-06-07, translated/reviewed by: Wayne Zheng et al.)
Source: https://www.chinesestandard.net/PDF.aspx/GBT35977-2018