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GB/T 28816-2020 PDF in English

GB/T 28816-2020 (GB/T28816-2020, GBT 28816-2020, GBT28816-2020)
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GB/T 28816-2020: PDF in English (GBT 28816-2020)

GB/T 28816-2020
Fuel cell--Terminology
ICS 27.070
National Standards of People's Republic of China
Replace GB/T 28816-2012
Fuel cell terminology
(IEC /T S62282-1.2013, Fuelceltechnologies-Part 1.Terminology, IDT)
2020-06-02 released
2020-12-01 implementation
State Administration for Market Regulation
Issued by the National Standardization Management Committee
Table of contents
Foreword Ⅰ
1 Scope 1
2 Block diagram of fuel cell power generation system 1
3 Terms and definitions 4
Index 24
This standard was drafted in accordance with the rules given in GB/T 1.1-2009.
This standard replaces GB/T 28816-2012 "Fuel Cell Terminology". Compared with GB/T 28816-2012, the main technology
The changes are as follows.
---Modified some terms and definitions (see 3.1, 3.24, 3.33.1, 3.69.2, 3.85.1, 3.90, 3.104, 3.108.1, 3.108.4,
3.112.4, 3.115.5);
---Added some terms and definitions (see 3.20, 3.43.1, 3.58, 3.86.2, 3.110.4);
--- Deleted the terms and definitions of "heat production rate" and "standby state" (see 3.6.1 and 3.110.4 in the.2012 edition).
The translation method used in this standard is equivalent to IEC /T S62282-1.2013 "Fuel Cell Technology Part 1.Terminology".
This standard has made the following editorial changes.
--- Modify the standard name to "fuel cell terminology";
---Move the acronyms to the English equivalent of the corresponding term;
---Modified the names of some terms (see 3.85, 3.106).
This standard was proposed by China Electrical Equipment Industry Association.
This standard is under the jurisdiction of the National Fuel Cell and Flow Battery Standardization Technical Committee (SAC/TC342).
Drafting organizations of this standard. Beijing Institute of Electrical Technology and Economics of Machinery Industry, Xinyan Hydrogen Energy Technology Co., Ltd., Shenzhen Standard Technology
Research Institute, Beijing Power Technology Co., Ltd., Shanghai Shenli Technology Co., Ltd., Tsinghua University, Wuhan University of Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Xinyuan Power Co., Ltd., Shanghai Panye Hydrogen Energy Technology Co., Ltd., Aerospace New Long March Electric Vehicle Technology
Technology Co., Ltd., Guangdong Hezhide Energy Technology Co., Ltd., Shanghai Jie Hydrogen Technology Co., Ltd., Wuxi Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Institute, Shanghai
Municipal Institute of Quality Supervision and Inspection Technology, Beijing Yihuatong Technology Co., Ltd., Shanghai Hengjin Power Technology Co., Ltd., Shanghai Bo Xuanneng
Source Technology Co., Ltd., Zhejiang Gaocheng Green Energy Technology Co., Ltd.
The main drafters of this standard. Qi Zhigang, Zhang Liang, Wang Yiqun, Lu Chenyu, Diao Lipeng, Zhou Bin, Pei Pucheng, Pan Mu, Yu Hongmei, Hou Ming, Xing Danmin,
Dong Hui, Jin Yinshi, Huang Ping, Chen Pei, Chen Yao, Li Songli, Liu Ran, Hu Lei, Tian Binglun, Hou Xiangli.
The previous versions of the standard replaced by this standard are as follows.
---GB/T 28816-2012.
Fuel cell terminology
1 Scope
This standard defines unified fuel cell terminology in the form of diagrams, definitions and equations.
This standard applies to all fuel cell technology-related applications such as stationary, transportation, portable and micro power generation.
Words or phrases not listed in this standard can be found in standard dictionaries, engineering reference materials or IEC 60050 series standards.
Note. The first edition of IEC 62282 is intended to provide a resource for working groups and users who use the IEC 62282 fuel cell standard. This is the third edition, already
Same as the second edition, extended to the source of general fuel cell terms.
2 Block diagram of fuel cell power generation system
2.1 Block diagram
Figure 1 Stationary fuel cell power generation system (3.49.3)
Figure 2 Portable fuel cell power generation system (3.49.2)
Figure 3 Micro fuel cell power generation system (3.49.1)
Figure 4 Fuel cell vehicle (3.51)
2.2 Definition of block diagram function
The overall design of the power generation system that can be expected in this standard is composed of the necessary combination of the following systems that can achieve the specified functions.
---Automatic control system. a system composed of sensors, brakes, valves, switches and logic elements to make the fuel cell power generation system
When the system (3.49) does not require manual intervention, the parameters can be kept within the limits set by the manufacturer.
---Fuel cell module. a device that is integrated in a vehicle or power generation system and is composed of one or more fuel cell stacks (3.50).
Through electrochemical reaction, chemical energy is converted into electrical energy and heat energy.
---Fuel cell stack. a device composed of single cells, isolation plates, cooling plates, manifolds (3.70) and supporting structures, through electrochemical reactions
Convert (usually) hydrogen-rich gas and air reactants into direct current, heat, and other reaction products.
---Fuel processing system. required by the fuel cell power generation system (3.49), prepared fuel and pressurized if necessary, by chemical and/
Or a system composed of physical processing equipment and related heat exchangers and controllers.
---Built-in energy storage device. a system composed of electrical energy storage devices placed inside the system to help or supplement fuel electricity
The pool module (3.48) supplies power to internal or external loads.
---Oxidant treatment system. used to measure, regulate, process and possibly pressurize the input oxidant for fuel cell power generation
The system used by the system (3.49).
---Power regulation system. used to regulate the power output of the fuel cell stack (3.50) to meet the application requirements specified by the manufacturer
---Thermal management system. a system used for heating or cooling/discharging heat to keep the fuel cell power generation system (3.49) at its operating temperature
Within the scope, it may also provide the reuse of excess heat and help heat the energy chain during the start-up phase.
---Ventilation system. A system that provides air to the fuel cell power generation system (3.49) casing through mechanical or natural means.
---Water treatment system. A system for necessary treatment of recycled water or supplemental water used in the fuel cell power generation system (3.49).
For micro fuel cell power generation system.
---Fuel container. a removable storage fuel that cannot be refilled by the user and sent to the micro fuel cell power generation device (3.74) or
The internal storage provides fuel. Possible types include.
● Attached type. It has a casing and is connected to the equipment powered by the micro fuel cell power generation system (3.49.1).
● External type. It has a shell, and the shell constitutes the exterior of the equipment powered by the micro fuel cell power generation system (3.49.1)
Part of the shell.
● Plug-in type. It has its own shell and is installed in the shell of the equipment powered by the micro fuel cell power generation system (3.49.1).
● Satellite type. connect to the micro fuel cell power generation device (3.74) and send it to the internal memory of the micro fuel cell power unit
The fuel is then removed.
---Micro fuel cell power unit. the micro fuel cell power generation system (3.49.1) after removing the fuel container.
Other terms used in the figure include.
--- Discharged water. water discharged from the fuel cell power generation system (3.49), including waste water and condensate.
---Electromagnetic disturbance. any electromagnetic phenomenon that may reduce the performance of the device, equipment or system, or have an adverse effect on living or inert substances
Elephant. [IEC 60050-161.1990,161-01-05]
---Electromagnetic interference. The performance degradation of equipment, transmission channels or systems caused by electromagnetic disturbance. [IEC 60050-161.1990,
---Recovered heat. heat energy recovered and reused.
---Waste heat. heat energy that is emitted and not recovered.
3 Terms and definitions
Anode oxygen injection airbleed
A small amount of air (approximately 5%) is introduced into the fuel cell upstream of the fuel inlet of the fuel cell (3.43), or in the chamber of the anode (3.2)
Note. The purpose of anode oxygen injection is to reduce the poisoning of substances like carbon monoxide by catalytic oxidation of poisons in the anode (3.2) chamber of the fuel cell
The fuel oxidation reaction occurs at the electrode (3.33).
[IEC 60050-482.2004, 482-02-27, modified]
See catalytic layer (3.14).
Cell area celarea
The geometric area of the bipolar plate (3.9) perpendicular to the direction of current flow.
Note. The unit of battery area is square meter (m2).
Active area activearea
The geometric area of the electrode (3.33) perpendicular to the direction of current flow.
Note 1.The unit of active area is square meter (m2).
Note 2.The active area is also called the effective area, used to calculate the current density of the battery (3.27).
See active area (
Electrochemical surface area
The surface area of the electrocatalyst (3.31) that can participate in the electrochemical reaction.
Note 1.The electrochemical surface area is expressed as the product of the specific surface area per unit volume (m2/m3) and the electrode volume.
Note 2.The unit of electrochemical surface area is square meter (m2).
Membrane electrode assembly (MEA) area
The geometric area of the entire membrane electrode assembly (3.73) perpendicular to the direction of net current flow, including the active area of the membrane ( and uncoated catalyst
The area of the chemical part.
Note. The area of membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is in square meters (m2).
Specific surface area
The electrochemical surface area ( per unit mass (or volume) of the catalyst (3.11).
Note 1.The specific surface area should be the unit mass (or volume) of the catalyst (3.11), because of its porous structure and the area of the electrocatalyst (3.31) in direct contact with the reactants.
Note 2.The unit of specific surface area is square meter per gram (m2/g) or square meter per cubic meter (m2/m3).
Operating time as a percentage of total investigation time.
[IEC 60050-603.1986,603-05-09]
Axial load
The compressive load imposed on the end plate (3.40) of the fuel cell stack (3.50) to ensure contact and/or air tightness.
Note. The unit of axial load is Pa (Pa).
Auxiliary system balanceofplant; BOP
Based on the specific requirements of the power source or site, support/auxiliary components for a complete power generation system are incorporated.
Note. Generally speaking, all components except the fuel cell stack (3.50) or fuel cell module (3.48) and fuel processing system are called auxiliary systems
See full load operation (3.77.4).
The conductive plates that isolate the single cells in the battery stack serve as current collectors (3.26) and provide electrodes (3.33) or membrane electrode assemblies (3.73)
Mechanical support.
Note. The bipolar plate usually has a flow field for the distribution of reactants (fuel and oxidant) and products excluded on both sides, and may also include heat transfer channels. Bipolar plate lift
A physical barrier is provided to avoid mixing of oxidant, fuel and coolant. Bipolar plates are also called bipolar isolation plates.
See the battery stack terminal (3.105).
A substance that accelerates (increases the rate) reaction and is not consumed by itself.
See also electrocatalyst (3.31).
Note. The catalyst reduces the activation energy of the reaction, thereby increasing the reaction rate.
Catalyst coated membrane catalystcoated membrane; CCM
[In a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (3.43.7)] The surface is coated with a catalytic layer (3.14) to form a membrane in the reaction zone of the electrode (3.33).
See also Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) (3.73).
Catalyst coated substrate; CCS
A substrate coated with a catalytic layer (3.14) on the surface.
Catalytic layer
A thin layer containing an electrocatalyst (3.31) adjacent to any side of the membrane, usually having ion and electronic conductivity.
Note. The catalytic layer includes the space area where electrochemical reactions occur.
Catalyst loading
The amount of catalyst (3.11) per unit active area ( in the fuel cell (3.43) must be clearly defined as a single anode (3.2) or a single cathode.
Pole (3.18) loading, or the sum of anode and cathode loading.
Note. The unit of catalyst loading is grams per square meter (g/m2).
The performance of the catalyst (3.11) is inhibited by the substance (poison).
Note. Poisoning of the electrocatalyst (3.31) will cause the performance of the fuel cell (3.43) to decrease.
The catalyst (3.11) particles are held together due to chemical and/or physical processes.
The electrode (3.33) where the reduction reaction of the oxidant occurs.
[IEC 60050-482.2004, 482-02-28, modified]
Battery cel(s)
Flat battery planarcel
Plane structure fuel cell (3.43).
Single cell singlecel
The basic unit of a fuel cell (3.43) is composed of a set of anode (3.2) and cathode (3.18) and the electrolyte (3.34) that separates them.
A fuel cell with a cylindrical structure allows fuel and oxidant to flow in the tube or on the outer surface of the tube.
Note. Different cross-section types (such as round, oval) can be used.
See end plate (3.40).
See end plate (3.40).
Activation conditioning
The preparatory steps (related to the battery/cell stack) that can ensure the normal operation of the fuel cell (3.43) are carried out in accordance with the procedures specified by the manufacturer
Note. Activation may include reversible and/or irreversible processes, depending on battery technology.
See cross leakage (3.24).
The leakage in either direction between the fuel end and the oxidizer end of the fuel cell (3.43) generally passes through the electrolyte (3.34).
Note. Cross leakage is also called cross leakage.
Leakage current
Except for short circuits, currents that appear on paths that do not need to be conductive.
Note. The leakage current unit is ampere (A).
[IEC 60050-151.2001,151-15-49]
Rated current
The maximum continuous current specified by the manufacturer, the fuel cell power generation system (3.49) is designed to operate at this current.
Note. The unit of rated current is ampere (A).
Current collector currentcolector
The fuel cell (3.43) is a conductive material that collects electrons from the anode (3.2) end or transfers electrons to the cathode (3.18) end.
Current density currentdensity
The current passing per unit active area (
Note. The current density unit is ampere per square meter (A/m2) or ampere per square centimeter (A/cm2).
Degradation rate
The ratio of battery performance degradation in a certain period of time.
Note 1.The decay rate can be used to measure the recoverability and permanent loss of battery performance.
Note 2.The commonly used unit of measurement is the percentage of volts per unit time (DC) or the initial value (voltage DC) per fixed time under the rated current.
Reactor to remove sulfide in raw fuel (3.89).
Note. Adsorbent type desulfurizer, catalytic hydrodesulfurizer, etc.
The ratio of the useful energy flow output by the equipment to the input energy flow.
Note. The energy flow can be determined by measuring the corresponding inflow and output values within a specified time interval, so it can be understood as the average value of each flow.
Electrical efficiency
The ratio of the net electric power (3.85.3) produced by the fuel cell power generation system to the total enthalpy flow provided to the fuel cell power generation system.
Note. Unless otherwise stated, low heating value (LHV) is assumed.
Effective energy(efficiency)exergeticefficiency
The ratio of the net electric power (3.85.3) produced by the fuel cell power generation system (3.49) to the total flow supplied to the fuel cell system, assuming the reaction product
It is gaseous.
Heat recovery efficiency heatrecoveryefficiency
The ratio of the heat energy recovered by the fuel cell power generation system (3.49) to the enthalpy flow supplied to the fuel cell power generation system.
Note. The total enthalpy flow (including the reaction enthalpy) supplied by the raw fuel (3.89) should be of low heating value in order to better compare with other types of energy conversion systems.
Total energy efficiency (total thermal efficiency) overalenergy(totalthermalefficiency)
The ratio of the total available energy flow [net electric power (3.85.3) and recovered heat flow] to the total enthalpy flow supplied to the fuel cell power generation system (3.49).
Note. The total enthalpy flow (including the reaction enthalpy) supplied by the raw fuel (3.89) should be of low heating value in order to better compare with other types of energy conversion systems.
Total effective energy (total efficiency) overalexergyefficiency
The sum of all useful currents in the net electric power (3.85.3) and recovered heat and the total flow supplied to the fuel cell power generation system (3.49)
Note. The total flow (including reaction) of the input raw fuel (3.89) should correspond to the gaseous product in order to better compare with other types of energy conversion systems.
A substance that accelerates (increases the rate) of an electrochemical reaction.
See also Catalyst (3.11).
Note. In the fuel cell (3.43), the electrocatalyst is usually placed in the active layer (3.3) or catalytic layer (3.14).
The component of the electrode (3.33), used to support the electrocatalyst (3.31), and as a conductive medium.
It is used to lead the current generated by the electrochemical reaction into or out of the electronic conductor (or semiconductor) of the electrochemical cell.
Note. The electrode may be the anode (3.2) or cathode (3.18).
Gas diffusion electrode gasdiffusionelectrode
A specially designed electrode (3.33) for gaseous reactants and/or products.
Note. The gas diffusion electrode usually includes one or more porous layers, such as a gas diffusion layer (3.57) and a catalyst layer (3.14).
On the base of the electrode, there is an electrode (3.33) with a groove for gas to pass through.
Liquid or solid substances that contain mobile ions and thus have ion conductivity.
Note. Electrolyte is the main distinguishing feature of different fuel cell (3.43) technologies (such as liquid, polymer, molten salt, solid oxide), which determines effective operation
temperature range.
[IEC 60050-111.1996,111-15-02]
Electrolyte leakage electrolyteteleakage
Liquid electrolyte (3.34) leaks from the fuel cell stack (3.50).
Electrolyte loss
Any reduction in the initial electrolyte (3.34) reserves relative to the fuel cell (3.43).
Note. The reduction of electrolyte (3.43) may be produced by different processes, such as consumption caused by evaporation, leakage, migration and corrosion of metal parts.
Electrolyte matrix electrolytetematrix
An insulated and airtight battery component with a specific and suitable pore structure that preserves the liquid electrolyte (3.34).
Note. The hole structure must be adjusted according to its adjacent electrode (3.33) to ensure complete filling (3.41).
Electrolyte migration
Electrolyte in a molten carbonate fuel cell (3.43.5) stack using an external manifold is driven by electric potential.
Note. The electrolyte (3.34) tends to migrate from the positive electrode to the negative electrode of the battery stack, and the migration occurs through a gasket placed between the outer manifold (3.70) and the edge of the battery stack.
Electrolyte storage electrolytereservoir
Component of liquid electrolyte fuel cell (3.43) [such as molten carbonate fuel cell (3.43.5) and phosphoric acid fuel cell (3.43.6)]
It is used to store liquid electrolyte (3.34) to replenish electrolyte loss (3.36) during the life of the battery.
Located at the two ends of the current flow direction of the fuel cell stack, it is used to transmit the required compression force to the stacked cells.
Note. The end plate may include interfaces, pipes, manifolds (3.70) or clamping plates to provide fluid (reactants, coolant) to the fuel cell stack (3.50). Can also be called electricity
Pool end plate or compression end plate.
Fill (degree) filing (level)
The volume of all open pores in the porous part of the fuel cell (3.43) [such as the electrode (3.33) or the electrolyte matrix (3.37)] is covered by the liquid electrolyte
(3.34) The proportion occupied.
Flow field layout in battery stack or module flowconfigurationofstackormodule
For example, in heat exchangers or fuel cells (3.43), fluid flows through adjacent parts of a device in parallel in the same direction.
As in heat exchangers or fuel cells (3.43), fluid flows through adjacent parts of a device in anti-parallel.
For example, in a heat exchanger or fuel cell (3.43), fluids cross each other and flow through a device at a substantially perpendicular angle.
Adjacent part.
A structure of a single cell or cell stack, which is characterized by a closed fuel and/or oxidant outlet.
Note. In a closed-end flow operation, almost 100% of the reactants delivered to the battery or battery stack are consumed. Due to the need to periodically purge the electrode (3.33) cavity
Chamber, a small amount of reactants will be discharged from the fuel cell power generation system (3.49).
Fuel cell fuelcel
An electrochemical device that directly converts the chemical energy of a fuel and an oxidant into electrical energy (direct current), heat, and reaction products.
Note. Fuel and oxidizer are usually stored outside the fuel cell, and when they are consumed, they are input into the fuel cell.
[IEC 60050-482.2004, 482-01-05, modified]
Self-breathing fuel cell airbreathingfuelcel
A fuel cell (3.43) that uses natural ventilation (3.116.2) air as the oxidant.
Alkaline fuel cell alkalinefuelcel
Fuel cell (3.43) using alkaline electrolyte (3.34).
A fuel cell in which the raw fuel (3.89) supplied to the fuel cell power generation system (3.49) and the fuel supplied to the anode (3.2) are the same
Direct methanol fuel cell directmethanolfuelcel; DMFC
Direct fuel cell (3.43.3) where the fuel is methanol (CH3OH) in gaseous or liquid form.
Note. Methanol is directly oxidized at the anode (3.2) without being reformed into hydrogen. The electrolyte (3.34) is usually a proton exchange membrane.
Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell moltencarbonatefuelcel
A fuel cell (3.43) using molten carbonate as the electrolyte (3.34).
Note. Usually molten lithium/potassium or lithium/sodium carbonate is used as an electrolyte (3.34).
Phosphoric acid fuel cell phosphoricacidfuelcel;PAFC
A fuel cell (3.43) using phosphoric acid (H3PO4) aqueous solution as the electrolyte (3.34).
Polymer electrolyte fuel cell polymerelectrolytefuelcel; PEFC
A fuel cell (3.43) that uses a polymer with ion exchange capability as an electrolyte (3.34).
Note. Polymer electrolyte fuel cells are also known as proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) (3.43.8) and solid polymer fuel cells (SPFC).
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell proton exchange membrane fuel cell; PEMFC
See polymer electrolyte fuel cell (3.43.7).
Electric energy can be generated from a fuel and an oxidizer, and the fuel and oxidation can be generated through an electrolysis process using electric energy
Agent of electrochemical battery.
Solid oxide fuel cell solidoxidefuelcel; SOFC
A fuel cell (3.43) that uses an ion-conducting oxide as the electrolyte (3.34).
Solid polymer fuel cell solidpolymerfuelcel; SPFC
See polymer electrolyte fuel cell (3.43.7).
Fuel cell/battery hybrid system fuelcel/batteryhybridsystem
The fuel cell power generation system (3.49) is combined with the battery to provide useful electrical energy.
Note. The fuel cell power generation system (3.49) can provide electricity, charge the battery, or both. The system can provide and receive electrical energy.
Fuel cell/gas turbine system fuelcel/gasturbinesystem
The power system is based on a high-temperature fuel cell (3.43), usually a molten carbonate fuel cell (3.43.5) or solid oxide fuel cell
Integration of pool (3.43.10) and gas turbine.
Note. The system uses the heat energy of the fuel cell and the remaining fuel to drive the gas turbine. Also known as a fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid system.
Fuel cell gas turbine hybrid system fuelcelgasturbinehybridsystem
See fuel cell/gas turbine system (3.45).
Fuel cell combined heat and power system fuelcelcogenerationsystem
A fuel cell power generation system (3.49) designed to provide electricity and heat to external users.
Fuel cell module fuelcelmodule
An integrated body of one or more fuel cell stacks (3.50) and other main and appropriate additional components for assembly into a power generation device
Or in a vehicle.
Note. A fuel cell module is composed of the following main parts. one or more fuel cell stacks (3.50), pipeline systems for conveying fuel, oxidizer and exhaust gas
The circuit connection, monitoring and/or control means of the power transmission system and the battery stack. In addition, the fuel cell module can also include. conveying additional fluids (such as cooling media,
Inert gas) devices, devices that detect normal or abnormal operating conditions, enclosures or pressure vessels and module ventilation systems, as well as module operation and power
Adjust the required electronic components.
Fuel cell power system fuelcelpowersystem
A power generation system that uses one or more fuel cell modules (3.48) to generate electricity and heat.
Note. The fuel cell power generation system is composed of all or part of the system in Chapter 2.
Micro fuel cell power generation system microfuelcelpowersystem
Wearable or easy-to-carry micro fuel cell power generation device (3.74) and related fuel containers, see Figure 3.
Portable fuel cell power system portablefuelcelpowersystem
A fuel cell power generation system (3.49) that is not permanently fastened or fixed in a specific position in another form, see Figure 2.
Stationary fuel cell power generation system stationaryfuelcelpowersystem
The fuel cell power generation system (3.49) connected and fixed in place is shown in Figure 1.
Fuel cell stack fuelcelstack
A device composed of a single cell, a separator plate, a cooling plate, a manifold (3.70), and a supporting structure, which converts (usually) hydrogen-rich gas through electrochemical reaction
The reactant with air is converted into direct current, heat and other reaction products.
Fuel cell vehicle fuelcelvehicle
An electric vehicle that uses a fuel cell power generation system (3.49) to provide driving power to the motor is shown in Figure 4.
The ratio of the amount of fuel used for the electrochemical reaction of the fuel cell to the total amount of fuel entering the fuel cell.
Fueling coupler fueling coupler
The connection interface between the fuel cell vehicle (3.51) and the fuel supply station.
Note. The fueling coupler can also provide cooling water and communication information related to fuel supply. The fuel filling coupler includes a filling port and a filling gun.
Gas clean-up
The contaminants in the gaseous material fluid are removed b......
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.