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JJF 1107-2003 PDF in English

JJF 1107-2003 (JJF1107-2003) PDF English
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JJF 1107-2003: PDF in English

JJF 1107-2003
Calibration Specification of Infrared Thermometers for
Measurement of Human Temperature
ISSUED ON: JUNE 19, 2003
Issued by: General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and
Table of Contents
1 Scope ... 5 
2 Normative references ... 5 
3 Terms and units of measurement ... 5 
4 Overview ... 7 
5 Metering characteristics ... 7 
6 Calibration conditions ... 9 
7 Calibration items and calibration methods ... 11 
8 Expression of calibration results ... 14 
9 Recalibration interval ... 15 
Annex A Evaluation on calibration uncertainty of infrared thermometer ... 16 
Calibration Specification of Infrared Thermometers for
Measurement of Human Temperature
1 Scope
This Specification is applicable to calibration of infrared thermometers for
measurement of human temperature and infrared quick screening instruments
for measurement of human body surface temperature.
2 Normative references
JJF 1001-1998, General Terms in Metrology and Their Definitions
JJF 1007-1987, Temperature Metrological Terms and Their Definitions
JJF 1059-1999, Evaluation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement
GB/T 19146-2003, General requirements for infrared devices for instant
screening of human skin temperature
EN 12470-5:2003 (E) Clinical thermometers - Part 5: Performance of infrared
ear thermometers (with maximum device)
ASTM E 1965-98, Standard Specification for Infrared Thermometers for
Intermittent Determination of Patient Temperature
When using this regulations, the existing valid editions of above quoted
standards shall be used.
3 Terms and units of measurement
3.1 Terms
3.1.1 Calibration mode (direct measurement mode)
The display mode for infrared thermometer measurement or calibration. Display
the temperature without any correction, that is, the measurement result of the
blackbody temperature.
3.1.2 Estimation mode
The display mode for infrared thermometer measurement. Display the
The protection cover that isolates the probe from the measured object to meet
hygienic requirements when using an infrared thermometer.
3.1.10 Warning temperature value
The blackbody temperature value corresponding to the preset warning
temperature point of the infrared screening instrument.
3.1.11 Warning temperature measurement error
At the preset warning temperature point, the infrared screening instrument uses
the difference between the measured value of the correction value and the
blackbody temperature.
3.2 Unit of measurement
The unit of temperature is Celsius, the symbol is °C.
4 Overview
The infrared thermometer for measuring human body temperature is an
instrument for measuring human body temperature by radiation exchange
between the probe and the measured object. It includes infrared thermometer
designed to measure human body temperature and infrared screening
Infrared thermometer and infrared screening instrument are composed of
optical system, detector, electronic measuring part and mechanical device.
Infrared thermometer can be divided into: infrared ear thermometer and infrared
body surface thermometer. The estimation mode of infrared thermometer may
properly correct the directly-measured radiation temperature and convert to
body surface temperature or/and convert the temperature of measured part to
the estimated temperature of other body parts.
5 Metering characteristics
5.1 Display temperature range
In any display mode, the display temperature range of the infrared thermometer
shall cover the range specified in Table 1.
5.2 Maximum allowable error
Under the product's nominal use environmental conditions (see 5.3) and within
the specified display temperature range, the laboratory error of the infrared
If the manufacturer requires to use a protection cover to sanitarily isolate the
measured object and the probe, the use of probe protection cover shall not
make the laboratory error defined in 5.2 exceed the specified range.
5.6 Thermometer mark and user manual
5.6.1 The thermometer shall clearly indicate its temperature unit.
5.6.2 The infrared thermometer shell or/and outer packaging shall clearly mark
the brand name or instrument type, model, manufacturer or distributor name,
batch number or production serial number.
5.6.3 The infrared thermometer shall indicate the body part corresponding to
the measured value. For a single non-clinical infrared thermometer without
estimation mode, this mark is optional.
NOTE: All marks shall not be damaged during long-term use and cleaning.
5.6.4 Infrared thermometer user manual shall include but not limited to the
Display temperature range, maximum allowable error, body part corresponding
to display temperature, temperature range, humidity range of use and storage,
type approval number or manufacturing instrument license number.
Infrared thermometer with estimation mode shall specify the body part (such as
mouth, rectum) corresponding to the estimated temperature indication, and list
the calculation method or comparison table from the calibration mode indication
to each estimation mode indication.
Thermometer with both calibration mode and estimation mode shall explain the
method to switch to calibration mode.
6 Calibration conditions
6.1 Environmental conditions
The temperature and humidity of the calibration laboratory environment shall
meet the requirements of 18°C~28°C, (30~70)% RH and the operating
environment conditions of the calibration equipment.
NOTE: On-site calibration shall indicate the environmental conditions. Calibration
environment shall be free of strong ambient radiation and strong air convection.
6.2 Standard and other equipment
6.2.1 Blackbody radiation source Repeat the measurement of the blackbody temperature at the set
blackbody temperature specified in Table 3. It can only select part of the
blackbody set temperature in Table 3 or select the blackbody set temperature
according to user requirements. Before testing, the infrared thermometer shall be stable for at least 30
minutes or longer under test temperature and humidity conditions (if specified
by the manufacturer). Take at least 4 measurement readings of the blackbody at each black
body set temperature. It shall be equipped with infrared thermometer with probe
protection cover. It shall be used in accordance with the requirements of the
user manual and keep it clean and complete. Determine the method and rate
of temperature measurement data acquisition according to the method
recommended in the user manual. The temperature reading in the estimation mode (if any) shall be
converted to the temperature reading in the calibration mode ti, j according to
the method recommended by the manufacturer. The manufacturer shall provide
the conversion method and give it in the use and maintenance manual. To calibrate the indicated value, measure and record the indicated value
ti, j and blackbody temperature tBBi of the calibrated infrared thermometer at the
nominal set temperature tsi. Calculate the corrected value Δti of the displayed
infrared thermometer corresponding to the ith blackbody nominal set
temperature tsi and the repeatability of multiple measurements Ri.
Where, ti, j is the jth temperature reading when the calibrated thermometer
measures the blackbody temperature tBBi in the calibration mode; j indicates the
order of readings. Repeatability of multiple measurements is expressed by
extreme deviation Ri:
Where, Max (ti, j), Min (ti, j) are the maximum and minimum values of ti, j when j
= 1,2,3,4 respectively. For laboratory error determination, measure and record the corrected
infrared thermometers ti, j and blackbody temperature tBBi (if blackbody is
traceable to the radiation temperature, it shall be converted to the radiation
temperature) at the nominal set temperature tsi of each black body. Determine
laboratory error for each measurement. The laboratory error ei, j is defined as:
shall indicate the warning temperature correction value used by the infrared
screening instrument and the correction setting value of the infrared screening
instrument emissivity.
8 Expression of calibration results
Calibration results shall be reflected on the calibration certificate or calibration
report. The calibration result of the infrared thermometer includes the blackbody
temperature, the corresponding correction value of the indicated thermometer
and the repeatability of the indicated value or the blackbody temperature and
the maximum laboratory error of the corresponding corrected thermometer. The
calibration result of the infrared screening instrument includes the warning
temperature set point and the warning temperature measurement error.
Calibration results shall include calibration uncertainty. On-site calibration shall
indicate "on-site calibration" and environmental conditions.
The calibration certificate or report shall include at least the following
a) Title, such as "Calibration Certificate" or "Calibration Report";
b) Laboratory name and address;
c) Location where the calibration is performed (if not performed in the
d) Unique identification of the certificate or report (such as the number), the
identification of each page and the total number of pages;
e) Name (and address) of organization submitted for calibration;
f) Name, model, product number and manufacturer of the thermometer to be
g) Date of calibration;
h) If related to the validity and application of the calibration results, the
sampling procedures shall be explained;
i) Identification of the technical specifications on which the calibration is
based, including the name and code;
j) Description of traceability and validity of measurement standards used in
this calibration;
k) Description of calibration environment;
Annex A
Evaluation on calibration uncertainty of infrared thermometer
The infrared thermometer for measuring the temperature of the human body is
calibrated by the standard instrument--the black body radiation source in its
calibration mode.
A.1 Black body radiation source
The blackbody radiation source used to calibrate the infrared thermometer is
composed of an isothermal cavity with a certain opening, a known wall
temperature, and a high emissivity of the inner surface layer. The radiation
characteristics of the blackbody cavity depend on the sealing of the cavity, the
uniformity of the cavity wall temperature and the radiation characteristics of the
inner surface material.
Due to the large field of view of some infrared thermometer probes (for example,
the field of view of some infrared ear thermometer probes is close to the
hemisphere), the blackbody cavity shall ensure that the temperature
unevenness and effective emissivity characteristics of the infrared thermometer
meet the calibration requirements in the field of view of the infrared thermometer.
Common blackbody cavities with uniform temperature are:
(1) Thin-walled cavity that is placed in a constant-temperature water bath
with uniform temperature;
(2) Heat pipe cavity;
(3) Other cavities with good heat design.
Because of the good spatial uniformity of the temperature of the water tank and
convenient measurement, the water tank scheme is often used in the blackbody
radiation source at normal temperature. When the effective emissivity of the
blackbody cavity is close to 1, the blackbody radiation temperature can use a
platinum resistance thermometer or a mercury thermometer to measure the
temperature of the cavity wall or the temperature of the area close to the cavity
wall temperature.
Platinum resistance can use standard platinum resistance thermometer or other
precision platinum resistance with measurement uncertainty to meet
measurement needs.
The radiation temperature of the blackbody radiation source shall be traced to
the ITS-1990 temperature reference.
○2 Resolution.
For the specific uncertainty assessment steps, refer to national metrology
technical specification JJF 1059-1999 “Evaluation and Expression of
Uncertainty in Measurement”.
A.3 Examples of evaluation on uncertainty of infrared ear thermometer
According to this Specification, use blackbody radiation source of which the
effective emissivity is greater than 0.999 to calibrate the infrared ear
thermometer of which the display resolution is 0.1°C at 37°C. The ambient
temperature is 22°C. The temperature-controlled temperature measurement
value of the blackbody radiation source is directly read from the temperature
A.3.1 Evaluation on standard uncertainty
a) Calibration uncertainty of black body radiation source, u1
Taken from the blackbody radiation source calibration certificate. The
expanded uncertainty U = 0.04°C, k = 2. u1 = 0.02°C.
b) Uncertainty introduced by long-term instability of radiant temperature
during calibration period, u2
The absolute difference in radiation temperature in the last two calibration
certificates of the blackbody radiation source is 0.02°C. Evaluate
according to uniform distribution, .
c) Influence of environmental temperature difference on the recurring
temperature control temperature, u3
The ambient temperature for blackbody radiation source calibration is
20°C. The ambient temperature for infrared thermometer calibration is
22°C. Both the infrared thermometer calibration and the blackbody
radiation source calibration experiment use the temperature
measurement value of the blackbody radiation source temperature
controller to determine the wall temperature of the recurring cavity. The
temperature measurement indication value of the temperature controller
is not affected by the change of the ambient temperature not exceeding
0.03°C/10°C. Therefore, when the ambient temperature difference is 2°C,
the temperature measurement value of the thermostat shall not change
more than 0.006°C. Evaluate according to uniform distribution,
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.