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GBZ 117-2022 (GBZ117-2022) PDF English
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GBZ 117-2022: PDF in English

GBZ 117-2022
GBZ
NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH STANDARD
OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 13.100
CCS C 57
Replacing GBZ 117-2015, GBZ 132-2008, GBZ 175-2006
Standard for Radiological Protection in Industrial
Radiography
ISSUED ON: OCTOBER 13, 2022
IMPLEMENTED ON: MARCH 1, 2023
Issued by: National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 5
2 Normative References ... 5
3 Terms and Definitions ... 6
4 Radiological Protection Requirements for Operating Organization ... 7
5 Radiological Protection Requirements for Defect Detectors ... 7
6 Radiological Protection Requirements for Stationary Defect Detection ... 11
7 Radiological Protection Requirements for Mobile Defect Detection ... 14
8 Radiological Protection Detection ... 19
Appendix A (Informative) Estimation of Distance of -ray Mobile Defect Detection
Control Zone ... 24
Bibliography ... 28
Standard for Radiological Protection in Industrial
Radiography
1 Scope
This Standard specifies the radiological protection requirements for X-ray and -ray defect
detection.
This Standard is applicable to defect detection using X-ray radiography facilities and -ray
radiography facilities of 600 kV and below (including stationary defect detectors and mobile
defect detectors). Industrial CT defect detection and non-destructive testing within the same
radiation source range for non-defect detection purposes may take this as a reference.
This Standard is not applicable to industrial defect detection performed by accelerators and
neutron defect detectors.
2 Normative References
The contents of the following documents constitute indispensable clauses of this document
through the normative references in the text. In terms of references with a specified date, only
versions with a specified date are applicable to this document. In terms of references without a
specified date, the latest version (including all the modifications) is applicable to this document.
GB/T 9445 Non-destructive Testing - Qualification and Certification of NDT Personnel
GB 11806 Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material
GB/T 14058 Apparatus for Gamma Radiography
GB 18871 Basic Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of
Radiation Sources
GB/T 26837 Non-destructive Testing Instruments - Stationary Type and Movable Type
Industrial X-ray Radiographic Equipment
GBZ 98 Health Requirements and Surveillance Specifications for Radiation Worker
GBZ 128 Specifications for Individual Monitoring of Occupational External Exposure
GBZ/T 250 Radiation Shielding Specifications for Room of Industrial X-ray Radiography
GA 1002 Public Security Protection Requirements for Hypertoxic Chemicals and Radioactive
Sources Storage Site
usually two source holes: the old source is pushed into one source hole of the source changer,
and the new source is removed from the other source hole.
3.7 pipe crawler
A mobile pipe defect detection device installed in the pipeline. The frame of the defect detection
device is installed in the pipeline, and the source is driven by power to translate (forward or
backward) together with the frame in the pipeline to perform radiographic defect detection on
the pipeline welds. A control source is utilized to control the forward direction and position of
the defect detection equipment.
3.8 control source
A sealed radioactive source used for guidance and positioning control of the pipe crawler.
3.9 operating organization
An operating organization that utilizes industrial defect detection device to perform industrial
defect detection.
4 Radiological Protection Requirements for Operating
Organization
4.1 The operating organization that carries out industrial defect detection shall bear the main
responsibility for radiological protection safety.
4.2 A radiological protection management organization shall be established, radiological
protection management personnel and their responsibilities shall be clarified, and radiological
protection management systems and measures shall be established and implemented.
4.3 The personnel engaged in defect detection shall be subject to personal dose monitoring in
accordance with the requirements of GBZ 128 and occupational health monitoring in
accordance with the requirements of GBZ 98.
4.4 Before starting formal work, the defect detection personnel shall obtain non-destructive
testing personnel qualifications that comply with the requirements of GB/T 9445.
4.5 Radiation dose rate meters and personal dose alarms shall be equipped.
4.6 An emergency plan for radiation accidents shall be formulated.
5 Radiological Protection Requirements for Defect Detectors
5.1 X-ray Radiography Facilities
i) Check whether the warning labels and source signs are clear;
j) Measure whether the ambient dose equivalent rate at a certain distance from the
surface of the source container complies with the requirements of 5.2.1.1 and confirm
that the radioactive source is in a shielded state.
5.2.2 Maintenance of -ray radiography facilities
5.2.2.1 Components involving radiological protection in the -ray radiography facilities shall
be regularly inspected and maintained, and problems shall be repaired in a timely manner. When
repairing the -ray radiography facilities, the manufacturer’s professionals shall pour the
radioactive source into the source changer. The personnel of the operating organization shall
not independently repair the -ray radiography facilities.
5.2.2.2 The control components of the -ray radiography facilities, including the crank handle
and the source transfer conduit, shall be frequently lubricated and scrubbed. Gears shall be
frequently lubricated, and the joints of the source transfer conduit shall be scrubbed to keep
them away from dust and grit.
5.2.3 Storage and use of radioactive sources
5.2.3.1 The operating organization shall establish a special-purpose storage warehouse for the
radioactive sources (or defect detectors with sources).
5.2.3.2 The temporary storage of source-containing containers or radioactive sources, and
control sources intermittently during mobile defect detection shall be performed in special-
purpose storage facilities. On-site storage facilities include lockable rooms, special-purpose
storage boxes or storage pits, etc. The storage facilities shall have the same level of protection
as those used at the operating organization’s main base. After temporary storage is completed,
patrol inspections shall be performed to ensure storage safety.
5.2.3.3 Radioactive source storage facilities shall reach the following requirements:
a) Rigorously control the irradiation of surrounding people, prevent radioactive sources
from being stolen or damaged, and prevent unauthorized personnel from taking any
actions that may harm themselves or the public. Ionizing radiation warning signs shall
be set up at the entrance of the storage facilities;
b) They shall be able to be used under conventional environmental conditions, be
structurally fireproof, and be kept away from corrosive and explosive hazards;
c) At the point closest to the external surface that is accessible to the public, the shielding
shall be such that the ambient dose equivalent rate is less than 2.5 Sv/h or the control
level approved by the regulatory authority;
d) The doors of the storage facilities shall be kept locked, and double-locked
management shall be implemented;
e) Regularly check the item list to confirm the storage locations of defect detection
sources, source containers and control sources.
5.2.3.4 The storage of radioactive sources shall comply with the relevant requirements of GA
1002.
5.2.3.5 The operating organization shall formulate a system for the collection and return of
radioactive sources, establish a collection account, clarify the flow of radioactive sources, and
have a dedicated person in charge of this.
5.2.3.6 When collecting and returning a source container containing radioactive sources, the
ambient dose equivalent rate at a certain distance from the outer surface of the source container
shall be measured to confirm that the radioactive source is in the source container. Source
containers containing radioactive sources shall be stored in specified locations, and there shall
be detailed registration of the collection and return.
5.2.4 Transport and movement of radioactive sources
5.2.4.1 The freight transport requirements for radioactive sources shall comply with the
stipulations of GB 11806, and the requirements for Class-A and Class-B transport packages
shall be satisfied. During transportation, the source window shall be closed and equipped with
a special-purpose locking device.
5.2.4.2 Source-containing devices shall be transported in storage facilities and cannot be moved
until they are correctly locked and keyed in a suitable source container.
5.2.4.3 When moving within plant areas that do not involve public roads, small-scale vehicles
or trolleys shall be used, and the source-containing devices shall be kept under the surveillance.
5.2.5 Disposal of waste radioactive sources
The operating organization shall sign a waste radioactive source return agreement with the
production and sales organization. When the radioactive source needs to be scrapped, the waste
radioactive source shall be returned to the production organization or the original exporter in
accordance with the stipulations of the agreement. The purpose and disposal procedures of
radioactive sources shall comply with the specific regulations of the corresponding review and
management departments, and relevant documents and records shall be archived.
6 Radiological Protection Requirements for Stationary Defect
Detection
6.1 Radiological Protection Requirements for Defect Detection Room
6.1.1 The setting of the defect detection room shall pay full attention to the surrounding
radiation safety. The operation room shall be kept away from the direction of beam irradiation
shall be explained in a conspicuous location.
6.1.7 Monitoring devices shall be installed in the defect detection room and at the entrances and
exits of the defect detection room. There shall be a dedicated monitor on the control console of
the console cabinet, which can monitor the activities of personnel in the defect detection room
and the operation of the defect detection equipment.
6.1.8 The protective door of the defect detection room shall have ionizing radiation warning
signs and Chinese warning instructions that comply with the requirements of GB 18871.
6.1.9 Emergency stop button or pull rope shall be installed in the defect detection room to ensure
that irradiation can be immediately stopped in the event of an emergency. The button or pull
rope shall be installed so that personnel can use it without passing through the main beam at
any position in the defect detection room. The button or pull rope shall be labeled with
instructions for use.
6.1.10 The defect detection room shall be equipped with a mechanical ventilation device, and
the outer opening of the exhaust duct shall avoid facing areas with dense human activities. The
number of effective ventilation and air changes per hour shall be no less than 3 times.
6.1.11 The defect detection room shall be equipped with a stationary site radiation detection
alarm device.
6.2 Radiological Protection Requirements for Defect Detection in the Defect
Detection Room
6.2.1 For the defect detection room in normal use, protective safety measures, such as: the
protective door-machine interlocking device and irradiation signal indicator light of the defect
detection room shall be inspected.
6.2.2 When entering the defect detection room, in addition to wearing a conventional personal
dosimeter, the defect detection personnel shall also carry a personal dose alarm device and a
portable X- dose rate meter. When the dose rate reaches the set alarm threshold, the defect
detection personnel shall immediately exit the defect detection room, and meanwhile, prevent
other people from entering the defect detection room, and immediately report to the person in
charge of radiological protection.
6.2.3 The dose rate level in the area around the defect detection room shall be regularly
measured, including the operator’s working position and the surrounding adjacent areas where
people live. The measured value shall be compared to the reference control level. When the
measured value is higher than the reference control level, the defect detection shall be
terminated and reported to the person in charge of radiological protection.
6.2.4 Before using the portable X- dose rate meter during a shift change or a shift, check
whether it can normally operate. If it is found that the portable X- dose rate meter is not
normally operating, then, the defect detection shall not be started.
6.2.5 The defect detection personnel shall correctly use the radiological protection devices
provided, such as: collimators and additional shielding, to minimize potential radiation.
6.2.6 Before each irradiation, the operator shall confirm that no one is staying in the defect
detection room and close the protective door. Defect detection can only be started when the
protective door is closed, and all protective and safety device systems are activated and
operating normally.
6.2.7 When carrying out work that is not anticipated when designing the defect detection room,
for example, if due to special reasons like excessively large workpieces, the door must be
opened for defect detection, the requirements of 7.1 ~ 7.4 shall be followed.
6.3 Decommissioning of Defect Detection Facilities
When industrial defect detection facilities are no longer in use, decommissioning procedures
shall be implemented, which include the following content:
a)  radioactive sources with useful value can be transferred to another institution with
a license for use after obtaining approval from the regulatory institution, or be handled
in accordance with the waste radioactive source disposal requirements in 5.2.5 of this
Standard.
b) Shielding devices incorporating depleted uranium shall be treated the same as -ray
sources.
c) X-ray generators shall be disposed of beyond service or transferred to another licensed
institution after obtaining approval from the regulatory institution.
d) Pipe crawlers containing low-activity -ray sources shall be implemented in
accordance with the relevant requirements.
e) After all radiation sources are removed from the site, the operating organization shall
go through relevant procedures in accordance with the requirements of the regulatory
institution.
f) Remove all ionizing radiation warning signs and safety notices.
g) Conduct comprehensive radiation monitoring of decommissioning sites and related
items to confirm that no radioactive sources are left on the site and to confirm the
contamination conditions.
7 Radiological Protection Requirements for Mobile Defect
Detection
7.1 Pre-work Preparation
7.2.3 Ionizing radiation warning signs shall be set up at appropriate locations at the boundaries
of the control zone and a clearly visible “NO ENTRY INTO THE RADIATION WORKING
AREA” warning sign shall be hung. The defect detection personnel shall operate outside the
boundaries of the control zone, otherwise, specialized protective measures shall be taken.
7.2.4 Physical barriers shall be set up as much as possible at the boundaries of the control zone,
including utilizing existing structures (for example, walls), temporary barriers or temporarily
raised cordons (ropes), etc.
7.2.5 During the mobile defect detection operation, other operations shall not be simultaneously
carried out in the control zone. In order to minimize the range of the control zone, an appropriate
collimator shall be used, and conditions, such as: the distance between the defect detector and
the object being detected, irradiation direction, time and on-site shielding, shall be thoroughly
considered. Local shielding measures shall be adopted as appropriate.
7.2.6 Each defect detection team shall be equipped with at least one portable X- dose rate
meter and regularly perform verification / calibration on it. Personal dose alarms that can be
heard, seen or generate a vibrating signal under on-site environmental conditions shall be
equipped.
7.2.7 During the defect detection operation, the dose rate of representative points at the
boundaries of the control zone shall be detected. Especially when the defect detection position
changes in this direction or the direction of the ray beam changes, the boundaries of the control
zone shall be adjusted in a timely manner.
7.2.8 The area outside the boundaries of the control zone and where the ambient dose equivalent
rate is greater than 2.5 Sv/h during operation shall be classified as a supervision zone. In
addition, a clearly visible “AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY” warning sign shall be hung
at the boundaries, and when necessary, a dedicated guard shall be set up.
7.2.9 When mobile defect detection is carried out in a multi-floor factory or construction site,
personnel on the upper or lower floors of the mobile defect detection working area shall be
prevented from entering the control zone through stairs.
7.2.10 The console of the defect detector (X-ray generator control panel or -ray exit disk) shall
be set in an appropriate position or equipped with a delay startup device, so as to reduce the
operating personnel’s exposure dose as much as possible.
7.3 Safety Warnings
7.3.1 The entrusting organization (owner organization) shall cooperate with the radiological
protection of the defect detection, publish defect detection operation information in advance
through appropriate channels, and notify all relevant personnel to prevent accidental exposure.
7.3.2 There shall be indicator lights and sound prompts displaying the “ready” and “irradiation”
status. There shall be a clear distinction between the “ready” signal and the “irradiation” signal,
which shall also be clearly distinguished from other alarm signals used in the workplace. During
night operations, warning lights shall be installed at the boundaries of the control zone.
7.3.3 The warning signal indicating device for X-ray and -ray defect detection shall be
interlocked with the defect detector.
7.3.4 The “ready” and “radiation” signals shall be clearly audible or visible at all boundaries of
the control zone.
7.3.5 Prompt information, such as: ionizing radiation warning signs and warnings shall be
posted in conspicuous locations at the boundaries of the supervision zone and at the entrances
and exits of buildings.
7.4 Border Patrol and Detection
7.4.1 Before starting mobile defect detection, the defect detection personnel shall ensure that
there are no other people in the control zone and prevent anybody from entering the control
zone.
7.4.2 The range of the control zone shall be clearly visible, and there shall be good lighting
during operation, so as to ensure that no one enters the control zone. If the control zone is too
large or some areas cannot be seen, sufficient personnel shall be arranged to conduct patrol
inspections.
7.4.3 During a trial run (or first exposure), the dose rate at the boundaries of the control zone
shall be measured to verify that the boundaries are correctly set. If necessary, the range and
boundaries of the control zone shall be adjusted.
7.4.4 Before starting mobile defect detection, the portable X- dose rate meter shall be checked
to confirm that it can normally function. During the mobile defect detection, the portable X-
dose rate meter shall always be turned on to prevent abnormal radiation exposure or abnormal
termination.
7.4.5 During the mobile defect detection, in addition to regular personal monitoring, the
personnel shall also wear personal dose alarms. Personal dose alarms are not a substitute for
portable X- dose rate meters, and both shall be used.
7.5 Operational Requirements for Mobile Defect Detection
7.5.1 Mobile defect detection with X-ray
7.5.1.1 When a circumferential defect detector is used for mobile defect detection, the X-ray
tube head assembly shall be placed inside the object to be detected for transillumination
inspection. A collimator shall be used when performing directional irradiation (only the
directional irradiation port is opened).
7.5.1.2 Factors, such as: the distance among the controller, the X-ray tube, and the object to be
detected, the irradiation direction, time and shielding conditions, shall be considered to select
the optimum equipment layout, and appropriate protective measures shall be taken.
rate generated around accessible pipelines shall not exceed 100 Sv/h.
7.5.2.5 The special requirements for underwater -ray defect detection are as follows:
a) Divers shall receive appropriate professional trainings.
b) Before the defect detector enters water, it shall be ensured that the control mechanism,
guide tube and irradiation container are tightly connected; check the connection points
to confirm that the connection is firm, and the radioactive source assembly is in a safe
position.
c) Floats and emergency positioning devices (for example, flashlights) shall be installed
on the irradiation container.
d) All measuring instruments and personal dose alarms shall be designed for underwater
use.
8 Radiological Protection Detection
8.1 General Requirements for Detection
8.1.1 Detection plan
The operating organization shall develop a radiological protection detection plan. The detection
plan shall stipulate the location and frequency of detection, and the storage of detection results,
etc., and provide the reference control level for each measurement location and the actions and
measures that shall be taken when the reference control level is exceeded.
8.1.2 Detection instruments
Appropriate radiological protection detection instruments shall be selected, regular verification
/ calibration shall be carried out as required, and corresponding certificates shall be obtained.
Before use, the radiation detection instrument shall be inspected, including whether there is
physical damage, zero adjustment, battery and instrument response to radiation, etc.
8.2 Detection with Defect Defectors
8.2.1 Protection performance detection
8.2.1.1 Detection method
The detection method for the protection performance of X-ray radiography facilities shall
comply with the requirements of GB/T 26837; the detection method for the protection
performance of -ray radiography facilities shall comply with the requirements of GB/T 14058.
8.2.1.2 Detection cycle
The operating organization shall detect the protection performance of the radiography facilities
every year. After the radiography facilities are moved, the performance of the safety device
shall be detected.
8.2.1.3 Result evaluation
The result evaluation of the protection performance detection of X-ray radiography facilities
shall comply with the requirements of 5.1.1 in this Standard. The result evaluation of the
protection performance detection of -ray radiography facilities shall comply with the
requirements of 5.2.1.1 in this Standard.
8.2.2 Leakage inspection of sealed radioactive sources
8.2.2.1 Inspection method
Use filter paper or soft material dipped in 5% EDTA-Na2 solution or other detergents to wipe
the inner wall of the sealed guide tube and measure the radioactivity of the wipe. If there is a
significant increase (for example, 20 Bq), the radioactive source shall be sent back to the
manufacturer for further inspection.
8.2.2.2 Inspection cycle
The radioactive source transmission pipeline of the radiography facilities is inspected for
radioactive contamination every year, so as to check the sealing performance of the radioactive
sources.
8.3 Radiological Protection Detection of Defect Detection Room
8.3.1 Detection conditions
The detection conditions shall comply with the following requirements:
a) The X-ray radiography facilities shall be placed as close as possible to the test point
under the rated working conditions. If circumferential radiography facilities are used,
they shall be in a circumferential irradiation state; the detection of the main shield
shall be carried out when there are no defect detection workpieces, and the detection
of the auxiliary shield shall be carried out when there are defect detection workpieces.
b) The -ray defect detection acceptance inspection shall be carried out at the rated
source loading activity, when there are no defect detection workpieces, and the
radiography facilities are placed as close as possible to the test point; the routine
inspection shall be carried out in accordance with the actual working condition.
8.3.2 Patrol inspection of radiation level
During the radiological protection detection of the defect detection room, especially during the
acceptance inspection, the surrounding radiation level shall be subject to the patrol inspection
first, and a portable X- dose rate meter shall be used for the patrol inspection of the radiation
level 30 cm outside the wall of the defect defection room, so as to find possible high radiation
......
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.