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GB/T 39859-2021 PDF in English

GB/T 39859-2021 (GB/T39859-2021, GBT 39859-2021, GBT39859-2021)
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GB/T 39859-2021: PDF in English (GBT 39859-2021)

GB/T 39859-2021
ICS 77.150.99
CCS H 66
Gallium-based liquid metal
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
1 Scope ... 4 
2 Normative references ... 4 
3 Terms and definitions... 4 
4 Technical requirements ... 5 
5 Test methods ... 6 
6 Inspection rules ... 7 
7 Marking, packaging, transportation, storage and accompanying documents ... 8 
8 Order form content ... 10 
Appendix A (Normative) Determination of electrical conductivity ... 11 
Appendix B (Normative) Determination of density ... 14 
Gallium-based liquid metal
1 Scope
This document specifies the technical requirements, test methods, inspection rules,
marking, packaging, transportation, storage, as well as accompanying documents and
order forms for gallium-based liquid metals.
This document applies to gallium-based liquid metals used for cooling fluids,
conductive fluids, thermal interface materials, electronic pastes, and magnetic fluid
2 Normative references
The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this
document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the
version corresponding to that date is applicable to this document; for undated references,
the latest version (including all amendments) is applicable to this document.
GB/T 8170, Rules of rounding off for numerical values & expression and judgment
of limiting values
GB/T 1024, Methods of viscosity measurement
GB/T 22588, Determination of thermal diffusivity or thermal conductivity by the
flash method
SY/T 5370, Test method for surface tension and interfacial tendon
YS/T 1256, Nonferrous metal materials - Specific heat capacity testing - Differential
scanning calorimetry
YS/T 1257, Nonferrous metal materials - Enthalpies of fusion and crystallization
testing-Differential scanning calorimetry
YS/T 1258, Nonferrous metal materials - Melting and crystallization temperatures -
Thermal analysis
3 Terms and definitions
The following terms and definitions are applicable to this document.
melting temperature
5.2.7 The determination of specific heat capacity shall comply with the provisions of
YS/T 1256.
5.2.8 The determination of enthalpy of melting shall comply with the provisions of
YS/T 1257.
6 Inspection rules
6.1 Inspection and acceptance
6.1.1 The product shall be inspected by the quality inspection department of the supplier
to ensure that the product conforms to the provisions of this document (or order form),
and the accompanying documents shall be filled out.
6.1.2 The buyer can inspect the received products according to the provisions of this
document. Where the inspection results are inconsistent with the provisions of this
document, they shall be sealed separately, which, within 30 days from the date of receipt
of the product or within the time specified in the sales contract, shall be submitted to
the supplier in writing, and negotiated and solved by both the supplier and the buyer. If
arbitration is required, arbitration sampling shall be carried out jointly by both the
supplier and the buyer in the products received by the buyer.
6.2 Batching
Products shall be submitted for acceptance in batches. Each batch shall consist of
products of the same heat number and the same type. The total amount of each batch
shall not exceed 200 kg.
6.3 Sampling
Randomly take 5% of the number of bottles from each batch of products (not less than
5 bottles; where the batch is less than 5 bottles, take all); take 5 g ~ 25 g from each
bottle; mix them evenly.
6.4 Inspection items
Each batch of products shall be inspected for appearance quality and physical properties
according to the requirements of Chapter 4 and the test methods of Chapter 5.
6.5 Determination of test results
6.5.1 When the appearance quality inspection is unqualified, judge the batch of products
as unqualified.
6.5.2 If the melting temperature, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity fail
to pass the inspection, a double number of samples shall be taken from this batch of
e) outer box size;
f) production date;
g) markings such as anti-pressure and anti-dumping.
7.2 Packaging
7.2.1 Inner package
The product comes in a single package. After the products are melted, put them into
plastic bottles such as polypropylene; the net weight of each bottle shall be no more
than 1 kg, and it shall be filled with inert gas or vacuum sealed. If the buyer has special
requirements, it will be indicated in the order form after negotiation and confirmation
between the supplier and the buyer.
7.2.2 Outer package
The outer packaging of the product shall be firm and meet the requirements of anti-
pressure, shock-proof and moisture-proof.
7.3 Transportation
During transportation of the product, squeezing, inversion, sun exposure, rain and
bumping shall be avoided.
7.4 Storage
The product shall be stored in a well-ventilated, dry storage room where the ambient
temperature is 0 °C ~ 40 °C and the relative humidity is not more than 70%. There shall
be no corrosive gases such as acid and alkali in the room. The packing box shall be
elevated, at least 20 cm above the ground, and at least 50 cm away from walls, heating
equipment or air conditioning equipment.
7.5 Accompanying documents
Each batch of products shall be accompanied by accompanying documents, which shall
include supplier information, product information, reference to this document (GB/T
39859), date of manufacture or packaging date, and should also include:
a) Product quality guarantee:
● Main performance and technical parameters of the product;
● Product features (including the features of manufacturing process and raw
● Responsibility for product quality;
● Quality certification obtained by the product and various analysis and
inspection results checked and printed by the technical supervision department
of the supplier.
b) Product certification;
● Inspection items and their results or inspection conclusions;
● Batch or batch number;
● Inspection date;
● Inspector's signature or seal.
c) Inspection report during product quality control and inspection report of finished
d) Product instructions: correct handling, use, and storage methods;
e) Other.
8 Order form content
The order form for the products listed in this document shall contain the following:
a) product name;
b) product model;
c) quantity;
d) packaging method;
e) special requirements, specified in this document, which shall be negotiated by
both the supplier and the buyer;
f) reference to this document (GB/T 39859).
A.2.2 Digital voltmeter
It can measure the voltage of 0.01 mV ~ 100 mV; the measurement error is less than
±0.5%. The input impedance of the instrument shall be more than 3 orders of magnitude
greater than the resistance of the sample.
A.2.3 Probe
It does not dissolve or react in the sample. It can be made of graphite, tungsten,
molybdenum, etc.
A.2.4 Conductivity cell
In accordance with the structure in Figure A.1, the ratio of the cross-sectional area of
the quartz container between the voltage probes to the length of the sample is not greater
than 0.2 mm.
A.2.5 Constant temperature bath
Water bath or oil bath, where the temperature error at constant temperature should not
exceed ±0.5 °C.
A.2.6 Others
Fixtures and spreaders for conductivity cells, probes.
A.3 Test temperature
In the range of 25 °C ~ 30 °C, not lower than the melting temperature of the sample,
which shall be indicated in the test report.
A.4 Test steps
A.4.1 Set the temperature of the constant temperature bath to the test temperature; fix
the conductivity cell in the constant temperature bath.
A.4.2 Put the liquid metal sample into the conductivity cell; fix the four probes
connected to the constant current power supply and the digital voltmeter at the preset
positions according to Figure A.1. The height of the sample liquid level shall ensure
that the tip of the probe is not less than 0.5 cm immersed in the sample.
A.4.3 Start the constant current power supply to pass a constant direct current to the
sample; read after the indication of the voltmeter is stable; record the voltage between
the two voltage probes.
A.5 Test data processing
A.5.1 Calculation of resistivity
A.5.1.1 The resistivity of the sample is calculated according to Formula (A.1):
ρ – resistivity, in ohm-meters (Ω·m);
S – cross-sectional area of the sample between the voltage probes, in square meters (m2);
ΔU – voltage between the voltage probes, in volts (V);
L – length of the sample between the voltage probes, in meters (m);
I – constant current passing between the current probes, in amperes (A).
Reserve three significant figures for the calculation result; carry out rounding of the
numerical value according to the provisions of GB/T 8170.
A.5.1.2 The resistivity of the sample can also be calculated according to Formula (A.2):
C – conductivity cell constant calibrated with the standard sample, in meters (m).
Reserve three significant figures for the calculation result; carry out rounding of the
numerical value according to the provisions of GB/T 8170.
A.5.2 Calculation of conductivity
The conductivity of the sample is calculated according to Formula (A.3):
σ – conductivity of the sample, in Siemens per meter (S/m).
Reserve three significant figures for the calculation result; carry out rounding of the
numerical value according to the provisions of GB/T 8170.
B.5 Test steps
B.5.1 Let the sample, pure water and test equipment stand still at the test temperature
for not less than 1 h.
B.5.2 Weigh the mass (m) of the empty sample cup in air.
B.5.3 Put the empty sample cup on the water spreader and immerse it completely in
water; weigh the mass (m1).
B.5.4 After the sample cup is completely dried, put the liquid metal sample into the
sample cup; weigh the mass (M) in air.
B.5.5 Place the sample cup containing the liquid metal sample on the water spreader;
make the water completely immerse the liquid metal sample; weigh the mass (M1).
B.5.6 The water temperature can be the average value of the two measured temperatures
before and after weighing in water.
B.6 Test data processing
The density of the sample is calculated according to Formula (B.1):
ρ – density of the sample, in grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3);
M – mass of the sample and sample cup weighed in air, in grams (g);
m – mass of the sample cup weighed in air, in grams (g);
ρt – density of water at temperature t, in grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3), which can
be found in Table B.1;
M1 – mass of the sample and sample cup weighed on the water spreader, in grams (g);
m1 – mass of the sample cup weighed on the water spreader, in grams (g).
Reserve three significant figures for the calculation result; carry out rounding of the
numerical value according to the provisions of GB/T 8170.
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.