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GB/T 36299-2018 (GB/T36299-2018, GBT 36299-2018, GBT36299-2018)
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GB/T 36299-2018: PDF in English (GBT 36299-2018)

GB/T 36299-2018
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 33.200
A 77
Basic terminology of radiative transfer in optical
remote sensing
ISSUED ON: JUNE 07, 2018
IMPLEMENTED ON: JANUARY 01, 2019
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
1 Scope ... 4 
2 General terminology ... 4 
3 Terminology for interaction between electromagnetic radiation and ground
objects ... 10 
4 Terminology for interaction between electromagnetic radiation and
atmosphere ... 12 
Appendix A (Informative) Radiative transfer models ... 17 
Bibliography ... 21 
Index ... 23 
Basic terminology of radiative transfer in optical
remote sensing
1 Scope
This Standard specifies the general terminology involved in the radiative
transfer of optical remote sensing in the 0.38 μm~15 μm spectral band, the
terminology for interaction between electromagnetic radiation and ground, and
the terminology for interaction between electromagnetic radiation and
atmosphere.
This Standard applies to optical remote sensing and its applications.
2 General terminology
2.1 [Electromagnetic] radiation
a) The phenomenon that energy is emitted from a source to space in the
form of electromagnetic waves.
b) Energy travels through space in the form of electromagnetic waves.
[GB/T 4365-2003, definition 161-01-10]
2.2 [Electromagnetic] spectrum
The graph which represents the wavelength or frequency distribution of
electromagnetic radiation.
[GB/T 14950-2009, definition 4.109]
2.3 Solar radiation
Electromagnetic radiation from the sun.
2.4 Solar radiation spectrum
The graph which shows the distribution of solar radiant energy by wavelength
or frequency.
Note: Modify GB/T 14950-2009, definition 4.108.
2.5 Radiant energy
The radiant flux of a radiant source in a unit solid angle in a given direction.
Note: The unit is Watts per spherical degree (W/sr).
2.14 Spectral radiant intensity
Radiant intensity at unit wavelength.
Note: The unit is Watts per spherical degree micrometer [W/(sr • μm)].
2.15 Monochromatic radiation
Radiation with a single wavelength or frequency.
2.16 Optical radiation
Electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength between a transition region to
X-rays (about 1 nm) and a transition region to radio waves (about 1 mm).
2.17 Visible radiation
Optical radiation which can directly cause visual perception.
Note: There is no clear limit on the spectral range of visible radiation. It depends on the
radiant power reaching the retina and the responsiveness of the observer. The lower
limit is generally between 360 nm and 400 nm. The upper limit is between 760 nm
and 830 nm. Its spectral range is usually 0.38 μm~0.78 μm.
2.18 Ultraviolet radiation
Optical radiation with a wavelength less than the wavelength of visible radiation.
2.19 Infrared radiation
Optical radiation with a wavelength greater than the wavelength of visible
radiation.
Note: The spectral range of infrared radiation is usually 0.78 μm~15 μm, which can be
divided into near-infrared radiation (0.78 μm~1.4 μm), shortwave infrared radiation
(1.4 μm~3 μm), middle infrared radiation (3 μm~6 μm), and thermal infrared radiation
(6 μm~15 μm).
2.20 Thermal radiation
a) The emission of radiant energy due to the thermal excitation of particles
of matter (e.g., atoms, molecules, ions).
b) The radiation emitted by this process.
2.30 Lambert’s [cosine] law
The radiant intensity emitted by an ideal diffuse reflection surface is proportional
to the cosine of the angle between the direction of light exit and the normal of
the diffuse reflection surface.
Note: Its expression is: I(θ)=I0cos(θ), where I(θ) is the radiant intensity in the θ direction; I0
is the radiant intensity in the normal direction.
2.31 [Absolute] blackbody; full radiator, full emitter; Planckian radiator
An ideal thermal radiator which can absorb all incident radiation in any incident
direction, wavelength, and polarization state.
Note: The emissivity of a blackbody at any wavelength is equal to 1.
2.32 Grey body
Thermal radiator with emissivity between 0~1 that does not change with
wavelength.
2.33 Selective radiator
The thermal radiator whose spectral emissivity varies with wavelength in the
considered spectral range.
[GB/T 2900.65-2004, definition 845-04-10]
2.34 Lambertian radiator; Lambertian surface
The radiator or radiating surface which radiates at an angle specified by
Lambert's cosine law.
[GB/T 14733.12-2008, definition 731-01-38]
2.35 Point radiant source
The radiant source with a sufficiently small size. Its size, compared with its
distance from the irradiated surface, can be ignored in calculation and
measurement.
Note: Point sources which radiate uniformly in all directions are called isotropic point
sources or uniform point sources.
[GB/T 2900.65-2004, definition 845-01-19]
2.36 Standard radiant source
3 Terminology for interaction between electromagnetic
radiation and ground objects
3.1 Reflectance
The ratio of the radiant flux reflected by an object to the incident radiant flux.
3.2 Absorptance
The ratio of the radiant flux absorbed by an object to the incident radiant flux.
3.3 Transmittance
The ratio of the radiant flux passing through an object to the radiant flux incident
on the object.
3.4 [Hemispherical] emissivity
The ratio OF the radiant exitance of a thermal radiator TO the radiant exitance
of a blackbody at the same temperature.
3.5 Spectral characteristics of ground objects
USE the form of a spectral curve to describe the characteristics of the reflection,
absorption, emission, scattering, and transmission of ground objects as a
function of wavelength.
3.6 Bidirectional reflectance distribution function; BRDF
The ratio OF the micro-increment of the reflected radiance in a specific direction
of the object surface TO the micro-increment of the incident irradiance in a
specific direction.
Note: The unit is per spherical degree (sr-1).
3.7 Bidirectional reflectance factor
The ratio OF the reflected radiance of an object surface in a particular direction
TO the reflected radiance of an ideal diffuse reflector in that direction under the
same irradiance.
3.8 Albedo
The ratio OF the radiant flux reflected from an object surface to the hemisphere
(2π) space TO the radiant flux incident on the object surface from the
hemisphere (2π) space.
4 Terminology for interaction between electromagnetic
radiation and atmosphere
4.1 Atmospheric window
Some specific electromagnetic wave bands where the atmosphere does not
have a strong attenuation effect (absorption, scattering, etc.) on
electromagnetic wave transfer.
4.2 Atmospheric radiation
Electromagnetic radiation scattered and emitted by atmospheric molecules and
particles.
4.3 Atmospheric up-welling radiance; atmospheric path radiance
The radiance which directly reaches the remote sensor from the atmospheric
scattered solar radiation and the emitted radiation of the atmosphere itself
without reflection from the ground.
Note: The unit is Watts per square meter spherical degree [W/(m2 • sr)].
4.4 Atmospheric down-welling radiation
The atmospheric scattered solar radiation and the emitted radiation of the
atmosphere itself received by the earth’s surface.
Note: The unit is Watts per square meter (W/m2).
4.5 Diffuse sky radiation
Atmospheric scattered solar radiation received by the earth’s surface from
hemisphere (2π) space.
Note: The unit is Watts per square meter (W/m2).
4.6 Atmospheric effect
Scattering, refraction, absorption, scintillation caused by interaction with the
atmosphere during the propagation of electromagnetic radiation, and the
emission of the atmosphere itself.
4.7 Atmospheric attenuation
The phenomenon that when the electromagnetic radiation is propagated in the
atmosphere, it is absorbed and scattered by the atmosphere and the radiant
4.15 Mie scattering
The scattering of a scatterer (e.g. atmospheric aerosol, raindrops, etc.) whose
size is close to the wavelength of the incident electromagnetic wave.
Note: Mie scattering intensity is independent of wavelength.
4.16 Forward scattering
The scattering in which the angle between the propagation direction of the
scattering radiation and the original incident direction is less than 90° when the
electromagnetic radiation propagates in the atmosphere.
4.17 Backscattering
The scattering in which the angle between the propagation direction of the
scattering radiation and the original incident direction is greater than 90° when
the electromagnetic radiation propagates in the atmosphere.
4.18 Atmospheric aerosol
A relatively stable suspension system formed by dispersion of liquid or solid
particles in the atmosphere.
[GB/T 31159-2014, definition 2.1]
4.19 Atmospheric aerosol particle; particulate matter; PM
Solid and liquid particles suspended in the atmosphere.
[GB/T 31159-2014, definition 2.2]
4.20 Aerosol absorption coefficient
The physical quantity which characterizes the degree of attenuation of radiant
energy caused by atmospheric aerosol absorption.
Note: The value is equal to the sum of the absorption cross-sections of all aerosol particles
in a unit volume. The commonly-used units are per meter (m-1) and per kilometer
(km-1).
[GB/T 31159-2014, definition 4.8]
4.21 Aerosol scattering coefficient
The physical quantity which characterizes the degree of attenuation of radiant
energy caused by atmospheric aerosol scattering.
Appendix A
(Informative)
Radiative transfer models
A.1 Shortwave radiative transfer model
Assume that the sky is uniform Lambertian, i.e., isotropic radiation, and that the
earth’s surface is homogeneous Lambertian; ignore the refraction, turbulence,
and polarization of the atmosphere. The shortwave radiative transfer model for
monochromatic light can be abbreviated, see equation (A.1):
Where:
ρ*(θs,θv,φs-φv,λ) - Apparent reflectance at the entrance pupil of the remote
sensor;
θs - Solar zenith angle, in degrees (°);
θv - View zenith angle, in degrees (°);
φs - Solar azimuth, in degrees (°);
φv - View azimuth, in degrees (°);
λ - Wavelength, in micrometers (μm), wave number (cm-1);
ρ0(θs,θv,φs-φv,λ) - Atmospheric path reflectance;
ρ(λ) - Target true reflectance;
S - Atmospheric hemispherical albedo;
τ - Atmospheric optical depth;
μs - Solar zenith angle cosine;
μv - View zenith angle cosine;
e-τ(λ)/μs - Direct atmospheric transmittance from the sun to the ground;
θ' - Incident zenith angle, in degrees (°);
φ' - Incident azimuth, in degrees (°);
Ld(θ',φ',λ) - Atmospheric down-welling spectral radiance in a particular direction,
in Watts per square meter spherical degree micrometer [W/(m2 • sr • μm)];
θs - Solar zenith angle, in degrees (°);
φs - Solar azimuth, in degrees (°);
Lsun(λ) - Solar spectral irradiance at the top of the atmosphere, in Watts per
square meter micrometer [W/(m2 • μm)].
Note: The middle infrared nighttime radiative transfer is not affected by solar radiation. Its
nighttime radiative transfer model is the same in the form as the thermal infrared
radiative transfer model, with only differences in wavelength. See A.3 for details.
A.3 Thermal infrared radiative transfer model
Under clear sky atmospheric conditions, assume that the atmospheric level is
uniform. Under the condition of local geothermal balance, the influence of
atmospheric scattering is not considered. The thermal infrared radiative transfer
model for monochromatic light can be abbreviated, see equation (A.3):
Where:
L(θv,φv,λ) - Spectral radiance at the entrance pupil of the remote sensor, in
Watts per square meter spherical degree micrometer [W/(m2 • sr • μm)];
θv - View zenith angle, in degrees (°);
φv - View azimuth, in degrees (°);
λ - Wavelength, in micrometers (μm);
τ - Atmospheric transmittance;
ε - Target emissivity;
B(Ts,λ) - Planckian function, in Watts per square meter spherical degree
micrometer [W/(m2 • sr • μm)];
Bibliography
[1] GB/T 2900.65-2004 Electrotechnical terminology - Lighting
[2] GB/T 3102.6-1993 Quantities and units of light and related electromagnetic
radiations
[3] GB/T 4365-2003 Electrotechnical terminology - Electromagnetic
compatibility
[4] GB/T 12936-2007 Solar energy - Thermal application - Terminology
[5] GB/T 14733.12-2008 Terminology for telecommunication - Optical
communication
[6] GB/T 14950-2009 Terms of photogrammetry and remote sensing
[7] GB/T 17050-1997 Thermal radiation terms
[8] GB/T 20479-2006 Technical regulations of sand and dust storm monitoring
[9] GB/T 20480-2006 Grade of sand and dust storm weather
[10] GB/T 30115-2013 Specifications for vegetation index production from
satellite remote sensing imagery
[11] GB/T 31159-2014 Terminology of atmospheric aerosol observation
[12] ISO/TS 19101-2 Geographic information - Reference model - Part 2:
Imagery
[13] ISO 20473:2007 Optics and photonics - Spectral bands
[14] Chen Shupeng. A Dictionary of Remote Sensing [M]. Beijing: Science
Press, 1990.
[15] Liao Guonan. An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation [M]. Beijing: China
Meteorological Press, 2004.
[16] Shi Guangyu. Atmospheric Radiology [M]. Beijing: Science Press, 2007.
[17] Xu Xiru. Remote Sensing Physics [M]. Beijing: Peking University Press,
2005.
[18] Zhao Yingshi. Principles and Methods of Remote Sensing Application
Analysis (Second Edition) [M]. Beijing: Science Press, 2013.
......
 
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.