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GB/T 18314-2009 PDF in English

GB/T 18314-2009 (GB/T18314-2009, GBT 18314-2009, GBT18314-2009)
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GB/T 18314-2009: PDF in English (GBT 18314-2009)

GB/T 18314-2009
ICS 07.040
A 76
Replacing GB/T 18314-2001
Specifications for global positioning system (GPS)
Issued by: General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and
Quarantine of PRC;
Standardization Administration of PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 4 
1 Scope ... 5 
2 Normative references ... 5 
3 Terms and definitions ... 6 
4 Basic requirements ... 7 
5 Level division and survey accuracy ... 8 
5.1 Level division ... 8 
5.2 Survey accuracy ... 8 
5.3 Use ... 9 
6 Principles of layout ... 9 
6.1 Basic principles ... 9 
6.2 Naming of GPS points ... 11 
6.3 Technical design... 12 
7 Point selection ... 12 
7.1 Preparation for point selection ... 12 
7.2 Basic requirements for point locations ... 12 
7.3 Auxiliary points and azimuth points ... 13 
7.4 Point selection work ... 13 
7.5 Information to be submitted after point selection ... 14 
8 Stone burial ... 14 
8.1 Mark stone ... 14 
8.2 Stone burial work ... 15 
8.3 External treatment of mark stone ... 16 
8.4 Control of key procedures ... 16 
8.5 Information submitted after stone burial ... 17 
9 Instruments ... 17 
9.1 Selection of receivers ... 17 
9.2 Inspection of instrument ... 17 
9.3 Maintenance of instrument ... 18 
10 Observations ... 19 
10.1 Basic technical requirements ... 19 
10.2 Division of observation areas ... 20 
10.3 Observation plan ... 20 
10.4 Preparation before observation ... 20 
10.5 Requirements for observation work ... 21 
11 Field result record ... 22 
11.1 Field work record of level A GPS network ... 22 
11.2 Field work record of level B, C, D, E GPS network ... 22 
12 Data processing ... 24 
12.1 Basic requirements ... 24 
12.2 Field data quality verification ... 24 
12.3 Solution of baseline vector ... 25 
12.4 Quality inspection of baseline processing results of levels A and B GPS ... 27 
12.5 Re-survey and additional survey ... 28 
12.6 GPS network balancing ... 29 
12.7 Compilation of data processing results and preparation of technical summary ... 31 
13 Results acceptance and submitted data ... 32 
13.1 Acceptance of results ... 32 
13.2 Submitted data ... 33 
Appendix A (Informative) Description of earth coordinate system ... 34 
Appendix B (Normative) Point selection and stone burial and their description
... 36 
Appendix C (Normative) Main technical requirements for meteorological
instruments ... 42 
Appendix D (Normative) Survey handbook records and related requirements
... 44 
Appendix E (Informative) Determination and calculation of centering elements
... 48 
Appendix F (Normative) Verification of simultaneous observation loop ... 51 
Specifications for global positioning system (GPS)
1 Scope
This standard specifies the use of global positioning system (GPS) static survey
technology to establish the principles, survey methods, accuracy indicators,
technical requirements of the GPS control network.
This standard applies to the design, layout and data processing of national and
local GPS control networks.
2 Normative references
The provisions in following documents become the provisions of this Standard
through reference in this Standard. For the dated references, the subsequent
amendments (excluding corrections) or revisions do not apply to this Standard;
however, parties who reach an agreement based on this Standard are
encouraged to study if the latest versions of these documents are applicable.
For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document applies.
GB/T 12897 Specifications for the first and second order leveling
GB/T 12898 Specifications for the third and fourth order leveling
GB/T 17942 Specifications for national triangulation
CH 1002 Specifications for inspection and acceptance of surveying and
mapping products
CH 1003 Quality assessment criteria of surveying and mapping products
CH/T 1004 General rules for technical design of surveying and mapping
CH/T 2008 Specifications for construction of the continuously operating
reference stations using global navigation satellite system
CH/T 8016 Verification procedure of survey receiver of global positioning
system (GPS)
points as specified in Table 2.
5.3 Use
5.3.1 The GPS survey for the establishment of the national level-1 geodetic
control network, study of global geodynamics, crustal deformation survey,
precision orbit determination shall meet the accuracy requirements of level A
GPS survey.
5.3.2 GPS survey used to establish national level-2 geodetic control networks,
establish local or urban coordinate datum frames, regional geodynamic studies,
crustal deformation surveys, local deformation monitoring, various precision
engineering surveys shall meet the accuracy requirements of level B GPS
5.3.3 GPS survey used to establish level-3 geodetic control networks, as well
as basic control networks for regional, urban, and engineering survey shall
meet the accuracy requirements for level C GPS surveys.
5.3.4 GPS surveys used to establish the level-4 geodetic control network shall
meet the accuracy requirements of level D GPS surveys.
5.3.5 GPS surveys for control purposes of small and medium-sized cities, towns,
and survey and survey of maps, cadastre, land information, real estate,
geophysical surveys, explorations, construction, etc., shall meet the accuracy
requirements of levels D and E GPS surveys.
6 Principles of layout
6.1 Basic principles
6.1.1 GPS networks at all levels are generally laid out level by level. If it can
guarantee the technical requirements of accuracy and density, it may be laid
out across levels.
6.1.2 The layout of GPS networks at all levels shall be considered
comprehensively in accordance with the factors of its layout purpose, accuracy
requirements, satellite status, type and number of receivers, existing data in the
survey area, terrain and traffic conditions of the survey area, operational
efficiency. It is carried out in accordance with the principles of optimal design.
6.1.3 The minimum number of independent observation loops or attachment
routes of GPS networks at all levels shall not exceed the requirements of Table
observation mode, the network shall be established by the method of side
connection of point connection.
6.1.12 When using GPS surveys to establish various levels of geodetic control
networks, the following principles shall be followed in their layout:
a) When used in the national level 1 earth control network, its points shall be
evenly distributed to cover China's land. In the case of meeting the
conditions, the points should be laid near the national level 1 leveling line
or the node of the national level 1 level network.
b) When used in the national level 2 earth control network, it shall
comprehensively consider such factors as the application service and the
large-scale stability monitoring of the national levels 1 and 2 leveling
networks, etc., design it in a unified manner, lay it into a continuous
network. The point shall, on the basis of even distribution, coincide as
practical as possible to the node of the national levels 1 and 2 leveling
network, the existing national high-level GPS point, the crustal
deformation monitoring network, the basic tide station.
c) When used for level 3 earth control network survey, it shall meet the basic
requirements of the national basic scale map, combine the leveling and
gravity survey techniques to refine the area to be similar the geoid.
6.2 Naming of GPS points
6.2.1 The GPS point shall be named after the location of the point. If it cannot
be distinguished, it can be distinguished by adding (1), (2), etc. after the name
of the point. Minority areas shall use the standardized transliteration Chinese
name; the original text can be attached after transliteration.
6.2.2 When new and old points coincide, it shall use the old point name and not
change it. If the name of the original location has been changed, the old name
shall be indicated in parentheses after the new name. If coincident with the
benchmark, it shall indicate the benchmark level and number in parentheses
after the new name.
6.2.3 The name writing shall be accurate and regular; the simplified Chinese
characters published by the State Council shall prevail.
6.2.4 When the point number is prepared for the GPS point, it shall make
consideration as a whole, unify the number. The point number shall be unique
and suitable for computer management.
stable and easy for long-term preservation, it may be selected based on actual
8.1.3 Various types of mark stones shall be provided with a center mark. The
center mark of the bedrock and basic mark stone is made of copper or stainless
steel. The center mark of the common mark stone can be made of iron or a
hard composite material. At the center of the mark, there shall be engraved of
clear and fine crosshair or embedded with a metal (stainless steel or copper)
center point which has a diameter of less than 0.5 mm and different colors. For
the GPS points used for the refinement of the area like the geoid, its mark shall
also meet the requirements of leveling.
8.1.4 Forced alignment devices shall be installed for various antenna piers. The
alignment error of the forced centering device shall not be greater than 1 mm.
8.2 Stone burial work
8.2.1 Mark stone shall be prepared by pouring concrete. In areas where
conditions permit, it can also be made of hard stone such as whole piece of
granite or bluestone, but its specifications shall not be less than the
specifications of similar mark stone.
8.2.2 When embedding the antenna pier, bedrock mark stone and basic mar
stone, the concrete shall be poured on site. Ordinary mark stone can be pre-
made and then transported to various points for burying.
8.2.3 For the burial of the mark stone, the marking center of each layer shall be
strictly on the same vertical line; the deviation shall not exceed 2 mm.
8.2.4 When using the old point, first confirm that the mark stone at this point is
in good condition, meet the corresponding specifications and requirements for
stone burial, can be stored for a long time. If necessary, it needs to dig the side
of the mark stone to check it. In case of damage to the mark stone, it may be
based on the lower mark stone to bury the upper mark stone again.
8.2.5 At the azimuth points, it shall bury common mark stone and mark it
appropriately, to distinguish them from the control points.
8.2.6 The land occupied by the buried stone shall be approved by the land user
or the management department and the corresponding formalities shall be
handled. When the new mark stone is buried, it shall prepare the entrusted
custodial books of the survey mark, in triplicate, one for the custody
organization or individual of mark stone, one submitted, one archived. When
using the old points, it needs to verify the entrusted custodial books. If the
entrusted custody is not implemented, it shall proceed it again. The circular level, the optical plummet, the antenna height gauge of the
antenna or base shall be checked at least once a month during the operation.
9.2.2 Inspection of auxiliary equipment
Ventilation wet & dry meters, empty box air pressure gauges and other auxiliary
equipment used for GPS surveys shall be sent to the metrological verification
department for inspection and used within the validity period. The main
technical requirements for meteorological instruments are as shown in
Appendix C.
9.3 Maintenance of instrument
9.3.1 For the instruments such as GPS receivers, it shall designate dedicated
personnel for custody. No matter what mode of transportation is used, it shall
be escorted by special personnel and take anti-shock measures. No collision,
inversion or heavy pressure shall occur.
9.3.2 During the operation, it shall strictly follow the technical requirements and
operational requirements. The non-operating personnel shall not operate the
instrument without permission.
9.3.3 Receiving instruments shall be protected against shock, moisture, sun
exposure, dust, corrosion and radiation. The cable shall not be twisted, or
dragged and smashed on the ground. Its joints and connectors shall be kept
9.3.4 After the end of the operation, it shall wipe clean the water vapor and dust
on the receiver in time and store it in the instrument box in time. The instrument
box shall be placed in a ventilated, dry and cool place. When the desiccant in
the box is pink, it shall be replaced in time.
9.3.5 When the instrument is handed over, it shall be inspected according to
the specified general inspection items. The handover record shall be filled.
9.3.6 Before the receiver uses the external power supply, it shall check whether
the power supply voltage is normal. The positive and negative terminals of the
battery shall not be reversed.
9.3.7 When the antenna is placed on the top of the building, high places and
other facilities for operation, it shall take reinforcement measures. There shall
be lightning protection facilities or stop observation during thunderstorms.
9.3.8 During indoor storage of receiver, it shall perform indoor ventilation
regularly. Check it at power-on state once every 1 ~ 2 months. The battery in
the receiver shall be fully charged. The external battery shall be charged and
10.5.9 Observers shall be careful to prevent the receiving equipment from
vibrating during the observation period. It must not move. It shall prevent people
and other objects from touching the antenna or blocking the signal.
10.5.10 During the observation period, the radio shall not be used within 50 m
near the antenna; the intercom shall be used within 10 m.
10.5.11 When the weather is very cold, the receiver shall be properly warmed;
when the weather is very hot, the receiver shall avoid direct sunlight, to ensure
the receiver works normally.
10.5.12 The following operations shall not be performed during the observation
a) The receiver is restarted;
b) Conduct a self-test;
c) Change the satellite cut-off height angle;
d) Change the data sampling interval;
e) Change the antenna position;
f) Press the function key such as Close File and Delete File.
10.5.13 After inspection, all the specified work items have been fully completed
and meet the requirements, meanwhile the records and information are
complete and correct before they can move to another station.
11 Field result record
11.1 Field work record of level A GPS network
The contents and requirements of the field work records of the level A GPS
network shall be implemented in accordance with the relevant provisions of
CH/T 2008.
11.2 Field work record of level B, C, D, E GPS network
11.2.1 Type of records
The record of results obtained by GPS survey operations shall include the
following three categories:
and shall be bound into a booklet and shall not be defective. Other records shall
be bound separately.
12 Data processing
12.1 Basic requirements
12.1.1 The baseline data processing of the level A and B GPS network shall
use special software for high-precision data processing. The baseline solution
of the level C, D, E GPS network may use the commercial software equipped
with the receiver.
12.1.2 Data processing software shall be tested and approved by the relevant
department and approved by the business department before use.
12.1.3 The level A GPS network shall use the coordinates and original
observation data of the appropriate number and uniform distribution of the IGS
station as the starting data; the level B GPS network shall use the coordinates
and the appropriate number and distribution of the level A GPS network points
or IGS stations as the starting data. The levels C, D, E GPS networks use the
coordinates and original observation data of the levels A and B GPS network
points of appropriate quantity and uniform distribution as the starting data.
12.1.4 All starting data shall be checked for data integrity, correctness, reliability.
12.2 Field data quality verification
12.2.1 The data rejection rate of observations at the same session should not
exceed 10%.
12.2.2 When the point observation mode is adopted, the data of the repeated
baseline, synchronization loop and independent loop are not checked between
different points, but the baseline data of same point at different sessions shall
be subject to various data verification in accordance with 12.2.3 ~ 12.2.7.
12.2.3 The inspection of the A-level GPS network observation data shall be
carried out in accordance with the relevant provisions of CH/T 2008.
12.2.4 For the baseline field pre-processing of B-level GPS network and the
baseline processing C, D, E-level GPS network, the length range of the re-
tested baseline ds shall meet the requirements of formula (1):
Table 3. Otherwise, the synchronous pattern related to the baseline shall be re-
12.5.3 For the observation session or baseline to be subjected to additional
survey or resurveyed, the cause shall be analyzed in detail. Under the premise
of meeting the requirements of Table 4, it shall be arranged for simultaneous
observation together.
12.5.4 The analysis of the additional survey or resurvey shall be written into the
data processing report.
12.6 GPS network balancing
12.6.1 Unconstrained adjustment is performed for the levels A and B GPS
networks During unconstrained adjustment, according to the staging of the field
work period and the technical requirements of the operation, it can be divided
into several sub-areas, respectively, for unconstrained adjustment respectively.
If joint unconstrained adjustment of adjacent subintervals is performed, it may
introduce several systematic error parameters (scale, orientation, etc.) and
carry out significance inspection of each system error parameter. For the unconstrained adjustment, it shall carry out the inspection of
the variance component estimation σ2 and the inspection of the gross error of
each correction. Unconstrained adjustment shall output the geocentric coordinates and
geodetic coordinates of each point in the 2000 national geodetic coordinate
system, the correction values of each baseline and the baseline vector adjusted
value, the geocentric coordinate components of each baseline, the earth
coordinate components and their precision, etc.
12.6.2 Overall adjustment of levels A and B GPS network The overall adjustment shall be made in the 2000 National Geodetic
Coordinate System or the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF).
When the epochs of different subnets are different, the plate motion model and
the velocity field shall be used for unified reduction. In the overall adjustment, the full variance-covariance matrix of the
starting point shall be introduced and multiplied by the appropriate relaxation
factor for weighting. For the overall adjustment, it shall check the post-verification unit
weight variance factor σ2 and the significance of the conversion parameters.
e) The type, accuracy, inspection and use of the operating instrument;
f) The evaluation of point observation conditions, stone burial and
g) Translocation method, completion of points and additional surveys at all
levels, resurvey, description of problems in the operation;
h) Quality analysis and data review of field observation data.
12.7.3 The internal technical summary shall include the following:
a) The data processing scheme, software used, ephemeris, starting data,
coordinate system, epoch, unconstrained adjustment, constraint
b) The error inspection and accuracy estimation of related parameters and
the adjusted result;
c) Existing issues and other issues, suggestions or improvements that need
to be addressed in the submitted outcome;
d) Various schedules and drawings.
13 Results acceptance and submitted data
13.1 Acceptance of results
13.1.1 Acceptance of results shall be carried out in accordance with the
provisions of CH 1002. The results submitted for acceptance, including the
storage medium of the observation record and its backup, shall be complete
and intact in contents and quantity; the notes and finishing shall meet the
13.1.2 Acceptance points include the following:
a) Whether the implementation scheme meets the specifications and
technical design requirements;
b) Whether the additional survey, resurvey and data elimination are
c) Whether the software for data processing meets the requirements,
whether the processed items are complete, whether the data is correct;
d) Whether the technical indicators meet the requirements.
Appendix C
Main technical requirements for meteorological instruments
C.1 Main technical requirements and use of ventilated wet & dry meters
C.1.1 The main technical requirements are as follows:
a) In the temperature range of -10 °C ~ +45 °C, it can measure the relative
humidity of 10% ~ 100%;
b) The scale of the thermometer shall be in the range of -26 °C ~ +51 °C or
-26 °C ~ +41 °C, the minimum division value shall be 0.2 °C;
c) After the ventilator is started, at the end of the 4th minute, the ventilation
speed around the ball of the thermometer shall not be less than 2.5 m/s;
at the end of the 6th minute, it shall not be less than 2.2 m/s;
d) The change in ventilation speed at the end of each minute shall not exceed
0.2 m/s.
C.1.2 Ventilated wet & dry meter shall be re-calibrated if one of the following
conditions occurs.
a) At the same altitude, when the action time of the second rotation of the
barrel is increased by more than 6 s;
b) When calibrating or replacing the thermometer;
c) When repair and replacing accessories;
d) When there is doubt about the calibration results.
C.2 Main technical requirements and use of empty box barometer
C.2.1 The main technical requirements are as follows:
a) The empty box barometer shall be able to work normally under the
conditions of atmospheric pressure of 53329 Pa ~ 106658 Pa and air
temperature of -10 °C ~ +40 °C;
b) For the change of temperature coefficient, it shall not exceed ±27 Pa per
c) The maximum difference of the indication correction value shall not exceed
observation time is filled in year, month, day, followed by a slash to fill in
the annual product date.
e) Receiver model and number, antenna type and number: Fill in the full
name, such as “Ashtech ZXtreme”, “choke double-band antenna”, host
and antenna number (S/N, P/N) (found from the host and antenna). Fill it
f) Storage media and serial number, backup storage media and serial
g) File name of raw data, File name of Rinex format data.
h) Approximate latitude, approximate longitude, approximate elevation:
Approximate latitude and longitude are accurate to 1'; approximate
elevation is accurate to 100 m.
i) Sampling interval, start recording time, end recording time: The sampling
interval is the data sampling rate actually set by the receiver.
j) Station session number, day session number.
k) Antenna height and its determination method and sketch: The
determination method is as shown in D.3. The measured values are taken
to be 0.001 m.
l) Point thumbnail: It is drawn according to the topographical features near
the point. There shall be 3 land feature points of the marked points. The
scale is determined according to the specific situation of the point. After
the change of the point environment, it shall indicate the nature of the
newly added obstacles, such as: woods, buildings, etc.
m) Station operation record: Record the number of effective observation
satellites, PDOP value, etc., the level B is recorded once every 4 h, the
level C is recorded once every 2 h, the levels D and E are recorded once
at the beginning and once at the end.
n) Event record: Record the weather conditions; fill in the weather conditions
at the start-up; fill in one of sunny, cloudy, light rain, moderate rain, heavy
rain, light snow, medium snow, heavy snow, wind, wind direction; record
the cloud amount and distribution; record whether or not to perform
eccentric observations, which records in the handbook, as well as the
important issues occurred in the entire observation, the time of occurrence,
the handling conditions.
D.3 Survey methods and requirements of antenna height
D.3.1 Determination of antenna height on antenna pier
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.