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GB/T 3511-2018 PDF in English


GB/T 3511-2018 (GB/T3511-2018, GBT 3511-2018, GBT3511-2018)
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GB/T 3511-2018: PDF in English (GBT 3511-2018)

GB/T 3511-2018
Rubber, vulcanized and thermoplastic-Resistance to weathering
ICS 83.060
G40
National Standards of People's Republic of China
Replace GB/T 3511-2008
Vulcanized rubber or thermoplastic rubber weatherability
(ISO 4665.2016, IDT)
Published on.2018-02-06
2018-09-01 implementation
General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People's Republic of China
China National Standardization Administration issued
Foreword
This standard was drafted in accordance with the rules given in GB/T 1.1-2009.
This standard replaces GB/T 3511-2008 "Vulcanized rubber or thermoplastic rubber weatherability", compared with GB/T 3511-2008, the main
The technical changes required are as follows.
--- Revised the terms and definitions of "comparisons" (see 3.1,.2008 edition 3.1);
--- Added "Recommended to use one or more of the weathering reference materials described in Appendix A as an alignment in the exposure test"
Terms (see Chapter 5, Chapter 6);
--- Added normative reference document "ISO 18314-1 Analytical Colorimetric Method Part 1. Practical Color Determination" (see Chapter 2);
--- Added Appendix A; Adjusted Appendix A of the.2008 edition to Appendix B;
--- Add a "compression deformation" test project in Appendix B;
--- Added "References";
--- Removed the normative reference documents "GB/T 11186.1, GB/T 11186.2 and GB/T 11186.3" (see Chapter 2, see.2008
Chapter 2 of the edition).
This standard uses the translation method equivalent to ISO 4665.2016 "Vulcanized rubber or thermoplastic rubber weatherability".
The documents of our country that have a consistent correspondence with the international documents referenced in this standard are as follows.
---GB/T 250-2008 Textile color fastness test for gray color card for color change (ISO 105-A02..1993, IDT);
--- GB/T 2941-2006 Rubber physical test methods General procedures for preparation and adjustment of specimens (ISO 23529.2004, IDT);
---GB/T 7762-2014 Vulcanized rubber or thermoplastic rubber ozone crack resistance static tensile test (ISO 1431-1.
2004, NEQ);
---GB/T 13642-2015 Vulcanized rubber or thermoplastic rubber resistance to ozone cracking dynamic tensile test (ISO 1431-1.
2004, NEQ);
GB/T 16422.1-2006 - Test methods for exposure of light sources - Part 1 . General (ISO 4892-1..1999,
IDT);
--- GB/T 16422.2-2014 exposure test methods for plastics - Part 2. Xenon arc lamps (ISO 4892-2.
2006, IDT);
Test method for exposure of plastics laboratory - Part 3. Fluorescent UV lamps (ISO 4892-
3.2006, IDT);
Test method for exposure of plastics laboratory - Part 4. Open carbon arc lamps
(ISO 4892-4.2004, IDT).
This standard was proposed by the China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Federation.
This standard is under the jurisdiction of the National Rubber and Rubber Products Standardization Technical Committee (SAC/TC35).
This standard was drafted. Northwest Rubber Plastics Research and Design Institute Co., Ltd., Fengshen Tire Co., Ltd., Guangzhou Synthetic Materials Research
Institute Co., Ltd., Fushun Ikesi New Materials Co., Ltd., Jiangsu Mingzhu Testing Machinery Co., Ltd.
The main drafters of this standard. Zhu Wei, Huang Lei, Ren Shaowen, Ma Tiancheng, Liu Xiaodan, Xie Yufang, Lin Qingju, Wang Longqing, Bao Dafei.
The previous versions of the standards replaced by this standard are.
---GB/T 12831-1991;
---GB/T 14835-1993;
---GB/T 16996-1997;
---GB/T 3511-2001, GB/T 3511-2008.
introduction
A variety of different exposure methods can be used to obtain the effects of environmental factors (eg, light, heat, and water) on rubber. Each method
They all have their special uses and relationships. As a guide and guidance, the test methods for natural exposure and artificial climate can be based on ISO 877-1 and
ISO 4892-1. The ozone crack resistance exposure test method can be based on ISO 1431-1. Standard method basis for climate exposure testing of plastic materials
This applies to rubber materials, so the equipment and procedures of this standard relate to national standards related to plastics.
The procedure for determining the change in performance is preferably to use the same exposure conditions and the results are expressed in the same manner. Related procedures in this
There are detailed regulations in the standard.
Climate exposure can alter the properties of materials, especially on the surface of materials. Methods for determining performance changes should be considered, for example,
The important properties of the material used and the performance degradation may be concentrated on the surface of the situation. The method chosen should be able to guarantee
Testing of important performance changes in inter-applications is within a sufficiently precise range, so that the corresponding performance changes are judged on a meaningful basis.
Vulcanized rubber or thermoplastic rubber weatherability
Caution - Personnel using this standard should be familiar with the procedures of the formal laboratory. This standard does not indicate all possible security questions.
question. It is the responsibility of the user to take appropriate safety and health measures and to ensure compliance with the conditions set by the relevant national regulations.
Attention - some of the steps in this standard may involve the use or production of materials or waste generated, causing harm to the local environment,
After the test, it should be safely disposed and disposed of according to the corresponding documents.
1 Scope
This standard specifies the change of color, appearance and physical properties of vulcanized rubber or thermoplastic rubber after exposure to natural or artificial climate.
Test method.
This standard applies to the determination of weatherability of vulcanized rubber and thermoplastic rubber.
2 Normative references
The following documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the dated version applies to this article.
Pieces. For undated references, the latest edition (including all amendments) applies to this document.
ISO 105-A02 Textile colour fastness test Part A02. Gray-like card for assessing discoloration (Textiles-Testsforcolour
fastness-PartA02. Greyscaleforassessingchangeincolour)
ISO 877-1.2009 Test methods for exposure to solar radiation - Part 1. General (Plastics-Methodsofexposure
tosolarradiation-Part 1.Generalguidance)
ISO 877-2.2009 Test methods for exposure to solar radiation - Part 2. Direct weathering and s
Ageing (Plastics-Methodsofexposuretosolarradiation-Part 2.Directweatheringandexposurebe-
Hindwindowglass)
ISO 877-3.2009 Test methods for exposure to solar radiation - Part 3. Concentration enhanced natural climate (Plastics-
Methodsofexposuretosolarradiation-Part 3.Intensifiedweatheringusingconcentratedsolarradia-
Tion)
Vulcanized rubber or thermoplastic rubber - Ozone cracking - Part 1 . Static and dynamic tensile test (Rubber,
vulcanizedorthermoplastic-Resistancetoozonecracking-Part 1.Staticanddynamicstraintesting)
ISO 4892-1 - Test methods for exposure of light sources - Part 1 . General (Plastics-Methodsofexposure
tolaboratorylightsources-Part 1.Generalguidance)
ISO 4892-2 exposure test methods for plastics - Part 2. X-ray lamps (Plastics-Methodsofexposure
tolaboratorylightsources-Part 2.Xenon-arclamps)
ISO 4892-3 - Laboratory test methods for exposure to light sources - Part 3. Fluorescent UV lamps (Plastics-Methodsofex-
posuretolaboratorylightsources-Part 3. FluorescentUVlamps)
Plastics -- Test methods for exposure of light sources - Part 4. Open carbon arc lamps (Plastics-Methodsof
exposuretolaboratorylightsources-Part 4.Open-flamecarbon-arclamps)
ISO 18314-1 Analytical colorimetric method Part 1. Practical colour measurement (AnalyticalColorimetry-Part 1.Practical
ColourMeasurement)
ISO 23529 Rubber Physical Testing Methods General Procedures for Sample Preparation and Conditioning (Rubber-Generalproceduresforpre-
Paringandconditioningtestpiecesforphysicaltestmethods)
3 Terms and definitions
The following terms and definitions defined by ISO 877 and ISO 4892 apply to this document.
3.1
Comparator control
A material that is subjected to an exposure test at the same time as the material to be tested for comparison.
Note. The alignment may be a material that has similar or related components to the material being tested, or a material whose properties are known under given exposure conditions.
3.2
Sample filetestpiece
A portion of the material being tested is stored under stable conditions for the purpose of changing the performance between the exposed sample and the original sample.
Comparison.
3.3
Covered face maskedarea
A portion of the samples subjected to the exposure test were covered to avoid exposure to light.
3.4
Weather aging reference material weatheringreferencematerial
There are detailed data on the weathering resistance of reference materials and their reproducibility when exposed to the same environment.
3.5
Exposure stage exposurestage
The exposure interval between performance changes is measured, expressed as available time or radiation exposure.
4 Principle
After the sample is exposed to a natural or artificial climate, changes in color, appearance, and physical properties are measured.
5 Direct atmospheric exposure, glass filtration, solar atmospheric exposure, and Fresnel mirror reflection, sunlight enhanced atmospheric exposure
The exposure test is carried out in accordance with the appropriate method specified in ISO 877, including the following additions and changes.
For the tensile strain test, prepare the specimen and test it under strain conditions in accordance with ISO 1431-1.
It is recommended to use one or more of the weathering reference materials described in Appendix A as the comparison in the exposure test. The choice of materials depends on the choice.
The type of formulation of the rubber being tested. The effects of various climates on the natural aging of these materials can be found in references [1] and [2].
The environmental adjustment of the sample is carried out in accordance with ISO 23529.
6 Laboratory light source exposure
Artificial weathering exposure tests are carried out in accordance with ISO 4892-1, ISO 4892-2, ISO 4892-3 or ISO 4892-4, including
Added or changed content.
For the tensile strain test, prepare the specimen and test it under strain conditions in accordance with ISO 1431-1.
It is recommended to use one or more of the weathering reference materials described in Appendix A as the comparison in the exposure test. The choice of materials depends on the choice.
The type of formulation of the rubber being tested. The effects of various climates on the natural aging of these materials can be found in [1] and [2] in the references.
The environmental adjustment of the sample is carried out in accordance with ISO 23529.
Note 1. The general application of the plastic weather exposure test specified in ISO 4892-1 applies to rubber.
Note 2. Daylight-type carbon arc lamps are generally not recommended because the spectral energy distribution of daylight-type carbon arc lamps does not represent sunlight.
7 color changes
7.1 Instrument
7.1.1 Instrument for measuring color
Instruments used to determine color or color changes shall comply with ISO 18314-1.
7.1.2 Instruments for visual assessment
Use a gray standard card in accordance with ISO 105-A02.
7.2 Sample
Specimens used to determine color change shall be in any permissible manner to ensure that the surface of the specimen is sufficiently flat.
Note. Specimens that are commonly used to measure changes in physical properties can also be measured for color change of the sample.
7.3 Procedure
7.3.1 Overview
The use of instruments that measure color or gray labels to assess color changes requires the consent of the parties involved.
7.3.2 Instrument determination
The color of the sample before and after exposure was measured at each exposure stage according to ISO 18314-1. If needed, at the same time
Determine the color of the sample or cover.
7.3.3 Visual assessment
At each exposure stage, the color change level of the exposed sample and the unexposed test shall be in accordance with ISO 105-A02.
Compare with the gray standard card and use the cover if needed.
8 Other changes in appearance performance
The change in the appearance of the specimen is checked at each exposure stage and, if appropriate, in accordance with the relevant national standards. For example some can be used
See Appendix B for parameters to evaluate changes in appearance.
Ozone aging cracking shall be assessed in accordance with ISO 1431-1.
Note. Cracking or cracking of rubber specimens exposed to the outdoors is caused by photoaging and ozone. The difference between cracking and cracking is not obvious, especially
For light colored rubber. The cracking caused by sunlight is characterized by shallow cracks and it is usually independent of strain. However, when the strain exceeds the critical value
Ozone-induced cracking can occur. In view of the uncertainty here, it is necessary to expose the unstretched sample exposed to the outdoors to the stretch exposed to the outdoors.
The samples were compared.
9 Physical property changes
9.1 Overview
Physical performance testing is carried out in accordance with national standards for materials and may be carried out in accordance with the methods agreed by the parties concerned. Partially applicable
See Appendix B for performance.
9.2 Instruments
The test instruments selected for different test items shall comply with the relevant national standards.
9.3 Sample
The test specimens shall comply with the relevant national standards for the selected test performance.
The sample can be cut directly from the exposed test piece of the material. In this case, the cutting position of the sample should be from the fixture of the fixed material or
The bracket that is not used to simulate the exposed state of the material in actual use is not less than 20 mm. In the sample preparation process, no matter how
Remove any material from the exposed surface.
9.4 Procedure
The sample is subjected to environmental conditioning and then tested for performance in accordance with the relevant national standards. Determining the original of the unexposed sample separately
Physical properties and physical properties of the samples after exposure to aging at each exposure stage. If necessary, the performance of the sample or cover can be measured simultaneously.
Repeat the test on the selected comparator samples.
Note. For some tests, the test results depend on the exposed face of the sample. For example. bending fatigue test, the result depends on whether it is exposed or unexposed
The face is subjected to a tensile force.
10 results are expressed
10.1 Color changes
10.1.1 Instrument Measurement
The determination of the color change is carried out in accordance with the provisions of ISO 18314-1.
10.1.2 Visual inspection
The color change of the exposed sample and the unexposed sample was compared with the gray sample card and the grade was evaluated. If the level of change is gray
The middle of a certain level of the color sample card can be set as the intermediate level. For example. Levels 3 to 4 indicate that the color change rating is greater than 3 but less than 4.
At the same time, the following terms are used to record the characteristics of color changes.
Dark blue or dark blue
Green darker or greener
Red is darker or red is lighter
Yellow becomes darker or yellower becomes lighter
Blurred color purity
Brighten
Brighter brightness
Dim
Typical visual color change reports, such as "yellow darkening, blurred color purity, brighter brightness, gray card rating 2 to 3 levels."
10.2 Changes in other appearance properties
For quantitative methods, the change in performance can be calculated according to equation (1).
C=P-Px (1)
In the formula.
C --- performance change value;
P --- raw performance value;
Px --- performance value after exposure phase x.
For quantitative methods, the relevant parties agree to use the rating method. The following is a review of the recommendations in addition to the evaluation of ozone cracking
Level method.
0 no change
1 perceptible slight change
2 Moderate change
3 significant changes
Note. Although this method plays an important role in the simultaneous evaluation of several samples, such a rating method is uncertain, so the different observations are sorted out.
Must be very careful when it comes to it.
The evaluation of surface cracking of strained specimens after a certain exposure period shall be carried out in accordance with ISO 1431-1 Evaluation Method for Ozone Crack Resistance.
10.3 Changes in physical properties
Statistics on test results tested in accordance with relevant national standards, test performance Px after exposure test and original test
The value of the sample or sample test performance P change can be expressed in the following ways.
a) expressed as a percentage of performance compared to the original sample or sample, as in equation (2).
Px
P × 100
(2)
b) expressed as a performance change value, as in equation (3).
P-Px (3)
c) expressed as a percentage of performance degradation compared to the original sample or sample, as in equation (4).
P-Px
P × 100
(4)
d) Draw a plot of performance values versus exposure time or radiation exposure.
11 test report
The test report should contain the following information.
a) The name and serial number of this standard.
b) Sample description.
1) a detailed description of the sample and its source;
2) Detailed instructions for mixing and vulcanization (if required);
3) Preparation method of the sample;
4) a description of the sample or cover used;
5) A description of any reference material or comparison used.
c) Test description.
1) relevant standards for testing performance changes;
2) the type of exposure test and the test equipment used;
3) If necessary, indicate the location of the exposure and the local natural climate;
4) A detailed description of the exposure period and exposure conditions used;
5) determine the procedures for the exposure phase;
6) Whether the test is carried out under a certain strain, and if so, the degree of strain;
7) the type of bracket, fixture and auxiliary device used;
8) Storage conditions for sample retention (if required);
9) methods for determining the amount of radiation exposure (if required);
10) a description of the relevant washing situation (if required);
11) Any description of the deviation from the standard procedure.
d) Test results.
1) the exposure phase, expressed as exposure time or radiation exposure;
2) climate data and/or radiation exposure;
3) color change (if needed);
4) other changes in appearance (if needed);
5) Surface cracking after strain test exposure test;
6) separate data from each performance test;
7) the results of each test performance at each exposure stage;
8) Change results and indication units for each performance test.
e) Test date.
Appendix A
(informative appendix)
Weathering reference material
A.1 Overview
This appendix describes weathering reference materials that can be used to prepare comparative samples to evaluate physical properties in natural or artificial aging.
Variety.
A.2 Rubber type
The formulations of four rubbers, SBR, EPDM, CR and NR, are shown in Tables A.1 to A.4.
In a related study conducted by a Japanese expert, these four rubbers exhibited superior performance as a weathering reference material.
In particular, SBR gives a linear relationship between exposure and various performance changes.
The study found that 100% modulus and elongation at break were a gradual change, even in a three-year outdoor exposure.
At the same time, the study found that the four rubbers are related to outdoor exposure and laboratory light exposure.
Other formulations are also studied (refer to [1]), but are not recommended. Carbon black formula without anti-aging agent after three years of outdoor exposure
A big change has taken place, but there has been only a slight change since the laboratory light source was exposed. Formulas without carbon black occurred early in the aging test
Great performance changes, but long-term exposure tests did not give appropriate results.
A.3 components
The components of these formulations can be found in Tables A.1 to A.4.
Table A.1 Components of styrene-butadiene rubber formulations
Ingredient parts
Styrene-butadiene rubber 1502 100
Carbon black, N330 50
Zinc oxide
Stearic acid
Anti-aging agent, 6PPDa
Anti-aging agent, TMQb
Wax c
Accelerator, TBBSd
sulfur
1.75
Vulcanization conditions. 160 ° C, 25 min
aN-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N'-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine.
B2,2,4-Trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline polymer.
c Melting point. 65 ° C; density. 0.93 mg/m3.
dN-tert-butyl-2-benzothiazole sulfenamide.
Table A.2 Components of EPDM Formulation
Ingredient parts
EPDM rubber 100
Carbon black, N330 80
Zinc oxide
Stearic acid
Paraffin oil b
Anti-aging agent, TMQc 2
Accelerator, TMTDd
Accelerator, MBTe
sulfur
0.5
1.5
Vulcanization conditions. 160 ° C, 20 min
aEP24 [Money viscosity ML (1 4) 100 ° C. 65; ethylene content (mass fraction, %). 54; ternary from JSR Co., Ltd. or other equivalent companies
Comonomer content (mass fraction, %). 4.5.
b DianaPW90 operating oil from Japan Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd. or other equivalent company [viscosity (98.9 ° C). 11.25 cSt; pour point. -15 ° C;
Aniline point. 127.7 ° C; density. 0.87 mg/m 3 ].
c 2,2,4-Trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline polymer.
d Tetramethylthiuram disulfide.
e 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole.
Table A.3 Components of the neoprene formula
Ingredient parts
Neoprene (sulphur modified type) a 100
Carbon black, N330 25
Zinc oxide
Magnesium oxide
Stearic acid
0.5
Anti-aging agent, 6PPDb 2
Vulcanization conditions. 160 ° C, 15 min
a SkypreneR22 rubber from Tosoh Corporation or other comparable companies.
b N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N'-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine.
Table A.4 Components of natural rubber formulations
Ingredient parts
Natural Rubber (RSS1) 100
Carbon black, N330 35
Table A.4 (continued)
Ingredient parts
Zinc oxide
Stearic acid
Anti-aging agent, 6PPDa
Anti-aging agent, TMQb
Wax c
Accelerator, TBBSd
sulfur
0.7
2.25
Vulcanization conditions. 150 ° C, 10 min
aN-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N'-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine.
B2,2,4-Trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline polymer.
c Melting point. 65 ° C, density. 0.93 mg/m3.
dN-tert-butyl-2-benzothiazole sulfenamide.
A.4 Use of weathering reference materials
One or more of the four rubber materials specified in the table should be used, and the same polymer should be selected as the material to be tested. If not
Choice, it is recommended to use styrene butadiene rubber formula.
Appendix B
(informative appendix)
Parameters that can be used to evaluate performance changes after exposure testing
B.1 Appearance
---colour;
---luster;
---Powdering;
---cracks, cracks, defects, perforations or looseness;
---Microbial growth;
--- The migration of matter from the inside to the surface of the sample.
B.2 Physical properties
--- tensile stress/tensile strain;
--- Dynamic modulus and loss factor;
---hardness;
---Tear strength;
---Fixed stress;
---Compression set;
--- Stress relaxation.
B.3 Other performance
---size;
---Resistivity;
---Electrical breakdown strength;
---Dielectric constant;
---Chemical analysis.
references
[1] AIMURA, Y.
Polym.Test.2006, 25(2) pp. 166-175
[2] MITSUHASHI, K., OKUTSU, S.TAKANE, Y.TheStudyofWeatheringReferenceMaterialsfor
Rubber.MateriaruRaifuGakkaishi.2003,15(1)p.15[inJapanese]
......
 
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.