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GB/T 34667-2023 PDF in English


GB/T 34667-2023 (GB/T34667-2023, GBT 34667-2023, GBT34667-2023)
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GB/T 34667-2023: PDF in English (GBT 34667-2023)

GB/T 34667-2023
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 25.040.30
CCS J 28
Replacing GB/T 34667-2017
General Specifications of Electrical Self-balancing Vehicles
ISSUED ON: SEPTEMBER 7, 2023
IMPLEMENTED ON: APRIL 1, 2024
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 5
2 Normative References ... 5
3 Terms and Definitions ... 5
4 Classification of Electrical Self-balancing Vehicles ... 6
5 Technical Requirements ... 7
6 Test Methods ... 11
7 Inspection Rules ... 20
8 Packaging, Transportation and Storage ... 21
Appendix A (informative) Requirements for Safe Driving Power of Electrical Self-
balancing Vehicles ... 23
Bibliography ... 26
General Specifications of Electrical Self-balancing Vehicles
1 Scope
This document defines the terms and definitions of electrical self-balancing vehicles, specifies
the classification, technical requirements, inspection rules, packaging, transportation and
storage requirements of electrical self-balancing vehicles, and describes the test methods.
This document is applicable to the design, production and sales of electrical self-balancing
vehicles that use batteries as the power source, except for military, police and other special
purposes.
2 Normative References
The contents of the following documents constitute indispensable clauses of this document
through the normative references in the text. In terms of references with a specified date, only
versions with a specified date are applicable to this document. In terms of references without a
specified date, the latest version (including all the modifications) is applicable to this document.
GB/T 191 Packaging - Pictorial Marking for Handling of Goods
GB/T 2423.1 Environmental Testing for Electric and Electronic Products - Part 2: Test Methods
- Tests A: Cold
GB/T 2423.3 Environmental Testing - Part 2: Testing Method - Test Cab: Damp Heat, Steady
State
GB/T 2423.22-2012 Environmental Testing - Part 2: Test Methods - Test N: Change of
Temperature
GB 17799.3 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) - Generic Standards - Emission Standard
for Industrial Environments
GB/T 34668 Safety Requirements and Test Methods for Electrical Self-balancing Vehicles
GB/T 40309 Electrical Self-balancing Vehicle - Electromagnetic Compatibility - Emission and
Immunity Requirements
SJ/T 11685 Specifications of Lithium-ion Batteries and Battery Packs for Self-balancing
Vehicles
3 Terms and Definitions
The following terms and definitions are applicable to this document.
3.1 electrical self-balancing vehicle
A wheeled manned mobile platform that is based on the inverted pendulum model and the
principle of static instability, and is equipped with a rechargeable electric drive system, thus
maintaining dynamic balance in an autonomous or manual mode of operation.
NOTE: the electrical self-balancing vehicle is referred to as the self-balancing vehicle for short.
3.2 steering column
A component used to control the steering of an electrical self-balancing vehicle, which may be
equipped with other electronic displays or lighting equipment.
3.3 remote control software
An application software installed on an intelligent mobile terminal to set up, control or monitor
an electrical self-balancing vehicle via a wireless connection.
3.4 safety alarm
An alarm (such as: sound, light and vibration, etc.) that may be clearly noticed by the user after
being sent to the user, when an electrical self-balancing vehicle detects internal faults (such as:
abnormal battery voltage and balance control unit failure) or dangerous driving actions or
abnormal working conditions of the vehicle.
3.5 brake
An action of an electrical self-balancing vehicle to stop or decelerate its wheels by self-
induction.
3.6 rated mileage
The mileage accumulated during the period when a fully charged electrical self-balancing
vehicle runs at a constant speed of 60% of the maximum speed prescribed by the manufacturer
on a flat hardened surface at a total load of 75 kg at room temperature, then travels at the
maximum speed that it can reach in the case of failing to run at the speed above due to low
power, until the self-balancing vehicle is unable to continue running due to low battery power.
NOTE: rated mileage is in unit of kilometer (km).
4 Classification of Electrical Self-balancing Vehicles
4.1 In accordance with the number of wheels, it may be classified as:
a) electrical one-wheeled self-balancing vehicle -- an electrical self-balancing vehicle
with only one wheel, including two tires on one wheel;
b) electrical two-wheeled self-balancing vehicle -- an electrical self-balancing vehicle
with two wheels;
c) electrical multi-wheeled self-balancing vehicle -- an electrical self-balancing vehicle
with three or more wheels.
4.2 In accordance with the steering mode, it may be classified as:
a) electrical self-balancing vehicle with a steering column;
b) electrical self-balancing vehicle with no steering column.
4.3 In accordance with whether the seat is equipped, it may be classified as:
a) electrical self-balancing vehicle with a seat;
b) electrical self-balancing vehicle with no seat.
4.4 In accordance with the charging mode, it may be classified as:
a) rechargeable electrical self-balancing vehicle with external power supply -- this type
of electrical self-balancing vehicle is not directly connected to the AC grid during
charging, but connected to AC grid via a charger or external power supply for
charging;
b) rechargeable electrical self-balancing vehicle with built-in power supply -- this type
of electrical self-balancing vehicle is directly connected to the AC grid during
charging.
5 Technical Requirements
5.1 Main Technical Performance Requirements
5.1.1 General
The design of the main technical performance of the self-balancing vehicle shall firstly satisfy
the requirements for safe driving.
In terms of the tyres of the self-balancing vehicle, the minimum diameter is 125 mm and the
minimum width is 25 mm.
Refer to Appendix A for the analysis and evaluation of necessary conditions for the safe driving
of the self-balancing vehicle.
5.1.2 Maximum speed
In accordance with the maximum speed test in 6.2.1, the maximum speed shall not be greater
than 20 km/h.
When the user stands on the vehicle for a long time, each pedal shall be equipped with a non-
slip surface with an area of not less than 150 cm2.
When the user stands on the vehicle for a short time and the vehicle is equipped with a seat, the
non-slip surface of each pedal shall be at least 65 mm in length.
5.2.5 Switch
The electrical self-balancing vehicle shall be equipped with a master control set that is apparent,
easy to access and not easy to operate incorrectly to turn on and off the driving power. In
addition, this set shall be triggered by the user’s autonomous behavior(s).
5.2.6 Foldable mechanism
The foldable mechanism (if any) of the electrical self-balancing vehicle shall be designed to be
locked in a simple, stable and safe way. In the course of driving, the locking device shall not
touch the moving parts, for example, wheels, etc. When driving, the foldable mechanism shall
not have an accidental release, easy release in the case of mis-operation or there is obvious risk
of tripping.
The foldable mechanism (if any) of the electrical self-balancing vehicle shall meet the
requirements of 6.4.2.
5.2.7 Battery and battery pack
The performance of the battery and battery pack of the electrical self-balancing vehicle shall
ensure that the electrical self-balancing vehicle may operate normally under its intended
conditions of use.
The performance of lithium-ion battery and battery pack for the electrical self-balancing vehicle
shall meet the requirements of SJ/T 11685.
5.3 Safety
The electrical self-balancing vehicle shall have sufficient safety to ensure its normal operation
under its intended conditions of use.
The safety of the electrical self-balancing vehicle shall be consistent with GB/T 34668.
5.4 Environmental Adaptability Requirements
5.4.1 Temperature change
In accordance with 6.3.1, carry out the temperature change test. After the test, the self-balancing
vehicle shall not lose its normal driving function, and all electrical components shall function
normally.
5.4.2 Low-temperature operation
In accordance with 6.3.2, carry out the low-temperature operation test. The self-balancing
vehicle shall not lose its normal driving function or suddenly stop running, and all electrical
components shall function normally.
5.4.3 High-temperature and high-humidity operation
In accordance with 6.3.3, carry out the high-temperature and high-humidity operation test. The
self-balancing vehicle shall not lose its normal driving function or suddenly stop running, and
all electrical components shall function normally.
5.4.4 Electromagnetic compatibility
The electromagnetic disturbance produced by the electrical self-balancing vehicle shall not
exceed the level allowed by its intended usage occasion(s). The emission of the electrical self-
balancing vehicle shall meet the requirements of GB/T 40309 or GB 17799.3.
The electrical self-balancing vehicle shall have sufficient immunity against electromagnetic
disturbance to ensure its proper operation in its intended operating environment. The immunity
of the electrical self-balancing vehicle should meet the requirements of GB/T 40309 or GB/T
17799.1.
5.5 Durability Requirements
5.5.1 Durability of steering column
This requirement applies only to the electrical self-balancing vehicles with steering columns.
The steering column shall be conducted with the durability test according to 6.4.1. The steering
column of the electrical self-balancing vehicle and its interconnecting pieces with the vehicle
body shall have no crack, deformation or fracture. After being electrified, the self-balancing
vehicle’s steering function shall be normal. Meanwhile, the self-balancing vehicle may run
normally.
5.5.2 Durability of foldable mechanism
This requirement applies only to the electrical self-balancing vehicles whose main bearing
structures of the steering columns, frames and other manned parts on the vehicle bodies are
equipped with foldable mechanisms.
After the foldable mechanism is conducted with the durability test according to 6.4.2, the
foldable mechanism of the electrical self-balancing vehicle shall have no crack or fracture and
be able to lock properly. Meanwhile, the electrical self-balancing vehicle shall be able to run
normally.
5.5.3 Durability of self-balancing vehicle
After the vehicle is conducted with the durability test according to 6.4.3, the main bearing
structures of the manned part on the body of the electrical self-balancing vehicle shall have no
of the driver and its equipment shall be 75 kg; when the total weight is less than 75
kg, counterweight shall be applied. If the maximum load of the product is less than
75 kg, then, the total weight of the driver and its equipment shall be equal to the
maximum load of the product.
b) Drivers shall master the driving skills and be familiar with the test methods.
c) Drivers shall be equipped with helmets, knee pads, elbow pads and other necessary
protective equipment.
d) Drivers shall drive the test vehicles according to the operation methods specified by
the manufacturer. Throughout the test, drivers shall try to keep the driving position
without significant changes and avoid the operations which are not allowed by the
manufacturer.
6.1.3 Test environment
Unless otherwise required by the test items, the test environment shall meet the following
conditions:
a) The temperature shall be within the range of nominal operating temperature of the
electrical self-balancing vehicle. Unless otherwise specified, the room temperature
specified in this document shall be (25  5) °C;
b) Relative humidity: not greater than 75%;
c) Atmospheric pressure: 86 kPa to 106 kPa;
d) During the test, the average wind speed shall not be greater than 3 m/s; the
instantaneous wind speed shall not be greater than 5 m/s;
e) If it is necessary to test outdoors, rain, snow and other weather shall be avoided.
6.1.4 Test vehicle
The test vehicle shall meet the following conditions:
a) The test vehicle shall be complete and fully charged according to the requirements of
the manufacturer;
b) The test vehicle shall be in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions, so that it
can be in normal driving state;
c) If the test vehicle is mounted with test instrument(s), the impact on the load
distribution on each wheel and the windage effect shall be minimized as far as
possible.
6.2 Main Technical Performance Test
6.3 Environmental Adaptability Tests
6.3.1 Temperature change test
The test shall be carried out in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 8 in GB/T 2423.22-
2012.
Put the power-off self-balancing vehicle into the temperature test chamber. Start the test at room
temperature. The low temperature (TA) is (20  2) C or the minimum storage temperature
specified by the manufacturer. The high temperature (TB) is (60  2) C or the maximum storage
temperature specified by the manufacturer. The exposure time t5 at each temperature is not less
than 3 h, the number of test cycles is 8, and the temperature change rate is (1  0.2) K/min.
6.3.2 Low-temperature operation test
In accordance with the following procedures, carry out the test:
a) Fully charge the self-balancing vehicle in accordance with the method specified by
the manufacturer. In accordance with the stipulations of GB/T 2423.1, put it into the
temperature test chamber;
b) Lower the temperature of the test chamber at a rate of 1 C/min from room
temperature to (10  2) C or the minimum operating temperature specified by the
manufacturer (whichever is lower);
c) Turn on the self-balancing vehicle and maintain normal driving without load. During
this period, the self-balancing vehicle is allowed to have a low-battery safety alarm
or completely exhausted battery for 24 h;
d) At a temperature change rate of 1 C/min, raise the temperature of the test chamber
to room temperature (25  5) C;
e) Take out the self-balancing vehicle and restore it at room temperature. The recovery
time shall allow the temperature to stabilize, at least 1 h. After recovery, in accordance
with the method specified by the manufacturer, fully charge it and check whether the
self-balancing vehicle can normally work.
After the test, check whether the self-balancing vehicle can run normally and whether the
electrical components are functioning normally.
6.3.3 High-temperature and high-humidity operation test
In accordance with the following procedures, carry out the test:
a) In accordance with the method specified by the manufacturer, fully charge the self-
balancing vehicle. In accordance with the stipulations of GB/T 2423.3, put it into the
temperature test chamber;
b) Set the relative humidity of the test chamber to (93  3)%, and at a rate of 1 C/min,
raise it from room temperature to (40  2) C or the maximum operating temperature
specified by the manufacturer (whichever is higher);
c) Turn on the self-balancing vehicle and maintain normal driving without load. During
this period, the self-balancing vehicle is allowed to have a low-battery safety alarm
or completely exhausted battery for 24 h;
d) At a rate of 1 C/min, lower the temperature of the test chamber to room temperature
(25  5) C;
e) Take out the self-balancing vehicle and restore it at room temperature. The recovery
time shall allow the temperature to stabilize, at least 1 h. After recovery, in accordance
with the method specified by the manufacturer, fully charge it and check whether the
self-balancing vehicle can normally work.
After the test, check whether the self-balancing vehicle can run normally and whether the
electrical components are functioning normally.
6.4 Durability Test
6.4.1 Durability test of steering column
The durability test of the steering column of the electrical self-balancing vehicle shall be carried
out according to the following procedures:
a) Fix the electrical self-balancing vehicle on the test platform, only the steering column
may be free to operate according to the normal mode of operation.
b) Rotate the steering column to its maximum limit of motion in a certain direction
according to its normal mode of operation. Let it go back to the initial position. Then,
rotate the steering column in the opposite direction to its maximum limit of motion
afterwards. Let it go back to the initial position. The force applied shall be subject to
the maximum limit of motion of the steering column, and shall not exceed the
maximum tension or thrust that the manufacturer provides for the steering column.
c) Repeat the procedures in b) 10,000 times at a speed of 30 times/min or the speed
specified by the manufacturer.
d) Check the steering column and its interconnecting pieces with the vehicle body.
Check whether the self-balancing vehicle is able to run properly.
6.4.2 Durability test of foldable mechanism
Open the foldable mechanism of the electrical self-balancing vehicle from the folding state to
the operating state during normal driving, then, fold it to the folding state again, forming a
folding cycle.
Visually inspect whether there are safety warning devices, and test the safety alarms, lights and
other devices. The details are as follows:
a) For the self-balancing vehicle with the locking function, turn on the power, move the
self-balancing vehicle in locking state, then, check whether there are any safety alarms
or relevant signals;
b) After turning on the power, check whether the stop lamp lights up after braking;
c) After turning on the light switch, check whether the light is on.
6.6 Inspection of Assembly Requirements
6.6.1 Inspection of general assembly requirements
Perform visual inspection on the appearance. Manually test whether the assembly of each
component of the self-balancing vehicle is solid.
6.6.2 Inspection of overall dimensions
Use a tape measure or other measuring tools to measure the product’s overall dimensions. The
dimensions shall meet the parameter requirements in the instruction manual.
6.6.3 Inspection of electrical assembly requirements
Each electrical component of the electrical self-balancing vehicle shall be installed in place,
with correct polarity. All nodes in the circuit must be in good contact with each other. The
installation and fixation of the electrical elements shall be solid and reliable. Cables shall be
fixed in a reliable manner. If necessary, other mechanical fixings may be added.
6.7 Inspection of Appearance Requirements
In accordance with the requirements of 5.7, perform visual inspection on the product
appearance.
7 Inspection Rules
7.1 General
The inspection specified in this document is type inspection.
Unless otherwise specified, the inspection specified in this document is carried out only on the
products manufactured within one year.
7.2 Type Inspection
Type inspection is generally carried out when the product design is finalized. However, it shall
also be carried out when significant changes in major design, process, components and
Appendix A
(informative)
Requirements for Safe Driving Power of Electrical Self-balancing Vehicles
In addition to relying on the driver’s operations, the safe driving of the electrical self-balancing
vehicle is also highly dependent on the maximum power that the self-balancing vehicle is able
to output. The maximum output power of the self-balancing vehicle depends on the minimum
value among the maximum output power of the battery pack PB, the maximum output power of
the motor PM, and the maximum output power of the controller PC. Since the maximum output
power of the controller PC may be designed to be variable in relation to operating conditions
and difficult to measure, this document assumes that PC has been reasonably designed to be
safe enough to be greater than PB and PM. Therefore, the maximum allowable power of the
electrical self-balancing vehicle PU = min (PM, PB), that is, the maximum allowable output
power of the self-balancing vehicle Pmax. In general, the maximum output power of the electrical
self-balancing vehicle Pmax may be indicated in the instruction manual or on the nameplate.
On the other hand, in order to ensure the safe operation of the electrical self-balancing vehicle
under various harsh conditions to the greatest extent, when operating within a reasonable range
under harsh conditions, the maximum demanded power of the self-balancing vehicle PW may
reasonably be described as follows: in the case of maximum load nominated by the
manufacturer, the driver passing the maximum climbing angle nominated by the manufacturer
at a constant speed of 80% of the maximum speed nominated by the manufacturer or without
deceleration; the ramp length shall not be less than 2 m; considering the usual service
environment (for example, underground garage ramp or urban road, etc.) of the electrical self-
balancing vehicle, the climbing angle in this test shall not be less than 10°.
In order to leave a certain safety margin, the maximum climbing angle and the maximum output
power nominated by the manufacturer shall be multiplied by a certain safety factor based on
the calculated value or the measured limit value. This safety factor may be taken between 0.6
and 0.8.
The methods for calculating the maximum output power of the battery pack PB, the maximum
output power of the motor PM, the maximum demanded power PW, and the maximum output
power Pmax, of the entire vehicle as well as their relations are shown in Formula (A.1) to
Formula (A.5).
a) Maximum output power of the battery pack PB
Where,
UB---the rated output voltage of the self-balancing vehicle’s battery pack, expressed
in (V);
......
 
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.