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CJJ/T 135-2009 (CJJ/T135-2009, CJJT 135-2009, CJJT135-2009) & related versions
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CJJ/T 135-2009: PDF in English (CJJT 135-2009)
CJJ/T 135-2009
UDC
CJJ
INDUSTRY STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
Record number J965-2009
Technical specification for pervious cement concrete
pavement
[2023 Edition]
ISSUED ON: NOVEMBER 16, 2009
IMPLEMENTED ON: JULY 01, 2010
Issued by: Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People’s
Republic of China.
Table of Contents
1 General provisions ... 6
2 Terms and symbols ... 7
2.1 Terms ... 7
2.2 Symbols ... 7
3 Materials ... 9
3.1 Raw materials ... 9
3.2 Pervious cement concrete ... 10
3.3 Pervious cement concrete mix proportions ... 10
4 Structural combination and tectonic ... 14
4.1 Structural combination design ... 14
4.2 Surface design ... 16
4.3 Drainage system design ... 16
5 Construction ... 18
5.1 General requirements ... 18
5.2 Mixing and transport ... 18
5.3 Pervious cement concrete pavement paving ... 19
5.4 Joint construction ... 21
5.5 Curing ... 21
5.6 Seasonal construction... 21
6 Acceptance ... 23
6.1 General requirements ... 23
6.2 Quality test standards ... 24
7 Maintenance ... 28
Appendix A Test method of permeability coefficient ... 29
Explanation of wording in this Specification ... 32
Normative standards ... 33
1 General provisions ... 36
2 Terms and symbols ... 36
3 Materials ... 37
4 Structural combination and tectonic ... 40
5 Construction ... 46
6 Acceptance ... 50
7 Maintenance ... 51
Appendix A Test method of permeability coefficient ... 52
Appendix B Test method for continuous void ... 53
Normative standards ... 55
Technical specification for pervious cement concrete
pavement
1 General provisions
1.0.1 This Specification is formulated in order to enhance the quality of pervious
cement concrete pavement projects and make them technologically advanced,
economical, reasonable, convenient and applicable.
1.0.2 This Specification applies to the design, construction, acceptance and
maintenance of pervious cement concrete pavements such as newly built urban light
load roads, light load roads in gardens, squares and parking lots. This Specification does
not apply to pavements in severe cold areas, collapsible loess areas, saline soil areas,
and expansive soil areas.
1.0.3 The structural form of pervious cement concrete pavement shall take into account
geological conditions, load levels, landscape requirements, environmental conditions,
construction conditions and other factors.
1.0.4 This Specification specifies the basic technical requirements for the design,
construction, acceptance and maintenance of pervious cement concrete pavement.
Where this Specification conflicts with the provisions of national laws and
administrative regulations, the provisions of national laws and administrative
regulations shall prevail.
1.0.5 The design, construction, acceptance and maintenance of pervious cement
concrete pavement shall not only comply with the provisions of this Specification, but
also comply with the provisions of the relevant current national standards.
2 Terms and symbols
2.1 Terms
2.1.1 Pervious cement concrete
Concrete, with a continuous void structure, which is formed by mixing coarse aggregate
and cement-based binder.
2.1.2 Continuous void
The percentage of the volume of continuous void existing inside pervious cement
concrete to the volume of pervious cement concrete.
2.1.3 Water-washing pervious cement concrete
Pervious cement concrete whose coarse aggregate on the surface is exposed after the
cement-based binder wrapped on the surface of the coarse aggregate is water-washed
before final setting.
2.1.4 Reinforcer
An additive used to improve the bonding performance of coarse aggregate and binder
and increase the strength of pervious cement concrete.
2.1.5 Permeability coefficient
An index indicating the water permeability of pervious cement concrete.
2.1.6 Light load road
Urban roads, and roads such as parking lots and residential areas, on which only
vehicles with an axle load of less than 40 kN are allowed to travel.
2.1.7 Total pervious structure
Road structure system where road surface water can directly penetrate into the subgrade
soil through the surface and base of the road.
2.1.8 Semi-pervious structure
Road structure system where road surface water can only penetrate into the surface and
not into the subgrade soil.
2.2 Symbols
h1 – pervious cement concrete pavement surface thickness;
4.2 Surface design
4.2.1 When the sidewalk design adopts a total pervious structure, its pervious cement
concrete surface strength level shall not be less than C20, and its thickness (h1) should
not be less than 80 mm. For other pavements, when using the total pervious structure,
its pervious cement concrete surface strength level shall not be less than C30, and its
thickness (h1) should not be less than 180 mm; when using the semi-pervious structure,
its pervious cement concrete surface strength level shall not be less than C30, and its
thickness (h1) should not be less than 180 mm.
4.2.2 The structure design of the pervious cement concrete pavement is divided into
monochrome layer or two-color combination layer. When the two-color combination
layer is adopted, the thickness of the surface layer shall not be less than 30 mm.
4.2.3 The pervious cement concrete pavement shall be designed with vertical and
transverse joints. The distance between vertical joints shall be determined according to
the width of the pavement in the range of 3.0 m ~ 4.5 m. The distance between
transverse joints should be 4.0 m ~ 6.0 m; the plane view size of the square should not
be greater than 25 m2, and the length-width ratio of the surface plate should not exceed
1.3. When the base has structural joints, the surface contraction joint shall be consistent
with the position of the corresponding structural joint, and flexible materials shall be
filled in the joint.
4.2.4 When the construction length of the pervious cement concrete pavement exceeds
30 m, expansion joints shall be set. Expansion joints shall be set at the connection
between the pervious cement concrete pavement and other constructions such as side
gutters, buildings, gutter inlets, surfacing blocks and asphalt pavement.
4.3 Drainage system design
4.3.1 The drainage design of pervious cement concrete pavement should comply with
the relevant provisions of the current industry standard Code for design of urban road
engineering, CJJ 37.
4.3.2 When designing the total pervious structure, drainage under the pavement shall
be considered. The drainage under the pavement can be set with drainage blind ditch
which shall be connected to the municipal drainage system during the road design. The
combination of the gutter inlet with the base and the surface shall be designed into the
pervious form to facilitate the gathering of excess water from the base to the gutter inlet.
Impervious geotextile with a width of not less than 1 m shall be set on the subgrade
surface around the gutter inlet (Figure 4.3.2).
4.3.3 When designing the drainage system, municipal drainage ditches or gutter inlets
can be used. The pervious cement concrete can be directly laid to the municipal drainage
ditches or gutter inlets. Squares of large area should be set with drainage blind ditches
(Figure 4.3.3).
5 Construction
5.1 General requirements
5.1.1 Before construction, the construction site shall be inspected, the location and
elevation of underground hidden facilities shall be reviewed, the construction plan shall
be determined based on the design documents and construction conditions, and the
construction organization design shall be prepared.
5.1.2 Before construction, water and electricity supply, traffic roads, mixing and
stacking sites, work sheds and warehouses, fire protection and other facilities shall be
solved. The construction site shall be equipped with a rainproof and moisture-proof
material storage area. Materials shall be stacked according to markings and must not be
thrown randomly during loading, unloading and transportation.
5.1.3 Before surface layer construction, the base layer and drainage system shall be
inspected and accepted according to regulations. Surface layer construction can only be
carried out after meeting the requirements.
5.1.4 Before the construction of the pervious cement concrete pavement, the base layer
shall be cleaned, and the treated base surface shall be rough, clean, free of water, and
kept in a certain moist state.
5.1.5 The construction site shall be equipped with auxiliary equipment, auxiliary
materials, and construction tools required for construction, and shall be provided with
safety protection facilities.
5.2 Mixing and transport
5.2.1 Pervious cement concrete should be mixed with a mandatory mixer. The capacity
of the mixer shall be selected based on parameters such as engineering quantity,
construction progress, construction sequence, and transportation means. The
transportation time of fresh concrete from the machine to the working surface should
not exceed 30 minutes.
5.2.2 The raw materials entering the mixer must be measured accurately and shall meet
the following requirements:
1 Bagged cement shall be randomly checked for accuracy of bag weight;
2 The moisture content of the aggregate shall be accurately measured before mixing in
each shift, and the water consumption in the pervious cement concrete ratio shall be
adjusted based on the moisture content of the aggregate. The construction mix
proportion shall be determined through on-site testing;
3 The allowable error of pervious cement concrete raw materials (by mass) shall not
exceed the following regulations:
2) The plane position and elevation of the formwork shall meet the design
requirements, and the surface of the formwork in contact with the concrete shall
be coated with separant.
3) Before paving the pervious cement concrete mixture, a comprehensive inspection
shall be conducted on the height, support stability, etc. of the formwork.
2 The pervious cement concrete mixture shall be paved evenly, and the flatness and
drainage slope shall meet the requirements. The paving thickness shall consider the
coefficient of loose paving material, which should be 1.1.
3 Pervious cement concrete should be rolled using a leveling compactor or a low-
frequency flat vibrator and other special rolling tools. Compaction shall be
supplemented by manual feeding and leveling. During manual leveling, construction
workers shall wear pressure-reducing shoes for operation.
4 After the pervious cement concrete is compacted, a trowelling machine should be
used for surface finishing of the pervious cement concrete. If necessary, it should be
assisted by manual compaction and leveling. During leveling, the top surface of the
formwork must be kept clean and the board surfaces at the joints shall be flat.
5 The removal of formwork shall comply with the following regulations:
1) The formwork removal time shall be determined based on the temperature and
concrete strength growth;
2) The corners of the concrete pavement shall not be damaged when removing the
formwork, and the permeable cement concrete blocks shall be kept intact.
5.3.2 When the two-color combination layer of colored pervious cement concrete is
used for construction, the upper layer shall be laid before the lower layer is initially set.
5.3.3 The construction of water-washing pervious cement concrete shall be the same as
the construction of ordinary pervious cement concrete. The process after paving and
smoothing shall meet the following requirements:
1 Check the initial setting status of the construction surface at any time. If there is initial
setting, spray an appropriate amount of retarder evenly, use plastic film covering and
other methods for maintenance, and prevent direct sunlight.
2 Before the final setting of the surface concrete, the surface layer shall be washed with
a high-pressure water gun in time to remove the cementitious material on the surface
and expose the natural stone evenly, so that the particles are not loose.
3 After rinsing the surface, the remaining slurry on the surface and in the air gap shall
be removed in time, and the surface shall be covered with plastic film for moisturizing
and curing.
5.4 Joint construction
5.4.1 The cutting depth of pavement contraction joints should be (1/2~1/3) h1; the
pavement expansion joints shall be the same as the thickness of the pavement.
Construction joints can replace expansion joints during construction.
5.4.2 Contraction joints and expansion joints during construction shall be embedded
with elastic joint materials.
5.5 Curing
5.5.1 After the construction of pervious cement concrete pavement is completed,
methods such as covering it with plastic film should be adopted for curing. The curing
time shall be determined based on the strength growth of pervious cement concrete, and
the curing time should not be less than 14 days.
5.5.2 During the curing period, the pervious concrete pavement shall not be opened to
traffic, and the integrity of the covering material shall be ensured.
5.5.3 Pervious cement concrete pavement shall not be put into use before it reaches the
design strength. The strength of pervious cement concrete pavement shall be based on
the strength of pervious cement concrete test blocks.
5.6 Seasonal construction
5.6.1 During construction, the start and end times of winter, summer and rainy season
shall be determined according to the climate environment of the project location.
5.6.2 During rainy season construction, contact with the meteorological department
shall be strengthened, to keep abreast of changes in meteorological conditions and be
prepared for precautions.
5.6.3 During rainy season construction, the terrain and existing drainage facilities shall
be fully utilized to ensure rain-proof and drainage.
5.6.4 Base course construction should not be carried out on rainy days, and pervious
cement concrete pavements shall not be poured on rainy days.
5.6.5 When paving the base course after rain, the subgrade condition shall be checked
first, and paving can only be carried out after meeting the requirements.
5.6.6 When the daily average outdoor temperature is below 5 °C for 5 consecutive days,
pervious cement concrete pavement shall not be constructed.
5.6.7 The construction of pervious cement concrete pavement in summer shall comply
with the following regulations:
6 Acceptance
6.1 General requirements
6.1.1 The construction quality of pervious cement concrete pavement shall be inspected
and accepted according to the following requirements:
1 Engineering construction shall comply with the requirements of engineering survey
and design documents; engineering construction quality shall comply with the
provisions of this Specification and relevant professional acceptance specifications.
2 Personnel from all parties involved in engineering construction quality acceptance
shall have the required qualifications.
3 The acceptance of engineering quality shall be based on the construction unit’s own
inspection and assessment.
4 Before the concealed work is concealed, the construction unit shall notify the
supervision unit and relevant units to conduct concealment acceptance. After the
concealment is confirmed to be qualified, a concealment acceptance document shall be
formed.
5 The supervision unit shall conduct parallel testing and witness sampling testing of test
blocks, test pieces and on-site testing items in accordance with regulations.
6 The quality of the inspection batch shall be inspected and accepted by the dominant
items and general items.
7 The unit responsible for re-inspection or testing shall be an independent third party
with corresponding qualifications.
8 The appearance quality of the engineering shall be jointly confirmed by the
acceptance personnel through on-site inspection.
6.1.2 The following information shall be collected during construction:
1 Design documents and completion data;
2 Completion acceptance report;
3 Test report of test pieces;
4 Engineering construction and material inspection or material testing records;
5 Inspection records;
6 Documents for handling major engineering issues.
6.1.3 When there is doubt or dispute about the quality of pervious cement concrete
during construction, the construction unit shall organize a physical inspection under the
witness of the supervision unit or construction unit. Physical inspection shall be
entrusted to a testing agency with corresponding qualification levels.
6.1.4 When the construction quality of pervious cement concrete pavement does not
meet the requirements, it shall be dealt with according to the following provisions:
1 In case of rework and reform, it shall be re-accepted.
2 Where the design requirements are met after detection and identification carried out
by a qualified testing unit, it shall be accepted.
3 Where the design requirements are not met after detection and identification by a
qualified testing unit, but the structural safety and functional requirements are met after
calculation and approval by the original design unit, it may be accepted.
4 The repaired or reinforced partial engineering, which can still meet the use
requirements although the external dimensions have been changed, can be accepted
according to the technical treatment plan and negotiation documents.
6.1.5 Pervious cement concrete pavements that cannot meet the requirements for safe
use after repair or reinforcement are strictly prohibited from acceptance.
6.2 Quality test standards
Dominant items
6.2.1 The quality of raw materials shall meet the following requirements:
1 The variety, grade, quality, packaging and storage of cement shall comply with the
relevant national standards.
Inspection quantity: For cement from the same manufacturer, the same grade, the same
variety, the same batch number, and that enters the site continuously, bagged cement
not exceeding 200 t is a batch, and bulk cement not exceeding 500 t is a batch, sampled
once per batch.
When the cement leaves the factory for more than 3 months, it shall be re-inspected and
can only be used after passing the re-inspection.
Inspection method: Check the product certificate, factory inspection report and on-site
re-inspection report.
2 The quality of admixtures added to concrete shall comply with the current national
standards Concrete admixtures, GB 8076, and Code for utility technical of concrete
admixture, GB 50119.
2 Stopwatch: The accuracy is 1 s.
3 Graduated cylinder: The capacity is 2 L, and the minimum scale is 1 mL.
4 Thermometer: The minimum scale is 0.5 °C.
A.0.4 The test water shall be airless water. Newly prepared distilled water can be used
for exhaust treatment. The water temperature during the test should be (20±3) °C.
A.0.5 Three cylinders with a diameter of 100 mm and a height of 50 mm shall be
respectively prepared from the sample as test pieces.
A.0.6 The test should be carried out according to the following steps:
1 Use a steel ruler to measure the diameter (D) and thickness (L) of the cylindrical test
piece twice and take the average value, accurate to 1 mm. Calculate the upper surface
area (A) of the test piece.
2 Seal the surroundings of the test piece with sealing materials or other means to prevent
water from escaping. Water only penetrates from the upper and lower surfaces of the
test piece.
3 After the sealing material solidifies, put the test piece into the vacuum device, to
evacuate to (90±1) kPa, and maintain it for 30 minutes. While maintaining the vacuum,
add enough water to cover the test piece and make the water level higher than the test
piece by 100 mm; stop vacuuming; soak for 20 minutes; take it out; put it into the
permeability coefficient test device; connect the test piece to the water permeable
cylinder and seal it. Put it into the overflow tank; open the water supply valve; let airless
water enter the container; when water flows out of the overflow hole of the overflow
tank, adjust the water inflow to keep the water level of the permeable cylinder at a
certain level (about 150 mm). After the water flow rate of the overflow port of the
overflow tank and the overflow port of the permeable cylinder is stable, use a measuring
cylinder to collect water from the water outlet; record the water volume (Q) flowing out
in 5 minutes; measure 3 times, and take the average value.
4 Use a steel ruler to measure the difference (H) between the water level of the
permeable cylinder and the water level of the overflow tank, accurate to 1 mm. Use a
thermometer to measure the temperature (T) of the water in the overflow tank during
the test to the nearest 0.5 °C.
A.0.7 The permeability coefficient shall be calculated according to the following
formula:
Where
the stacking state before paving. The transportation time of fresh concrete from the
machine to the working surface should not exceed 30 minutes.
5.2.3 The pervious cement concrete should be mixed by first adding the aggregate and
50% of the water to the mixer and mixing for 30 seconds, then adding cement,
reinforcer, and admixture and mixing for 40 seconds, and finally adding the remaining
water and mixing for more than 50 seconds. In order to feed the raw materials of ready-
mixed pervious cement concrete, it is advisable to put the aggregate, admixtures and
cement into the mixer first, to dry-mix for 10 seconds, then add 90% of the water and
continue mixing for 40 s ~ 60 s, and adjust the remaining water according to the state
of the mixture and continue mixing for 10 s ~ 20 s. The total mixing time shall not be
less than 60 seconds; the slump shall comply with the current national standard Ready-
mixed concrete, GB/T 14902.
5.2.5 During the transportation of pervious cement concrete mixture, segregation shall
be prevented, and attention shall be paid to maintaining the humidity of the mixture.
Covering and other measures shall be taken when necessary. The pervious cement
concrete truck mixer shall comply with the current national standard Concrete truck
mixer, GB/T 26408, and shall be provided with thermal insulation or heat insulation
measures.
5.2.5A The loading capacity of the pervious cement concrete truck mixer shall be
determined based on the transportation distance, traffic conditions, climatic conditions,
and the paving volume per unit time. The mixture transported to the site shall be used
as needed and must not be backlogged.
5.2.6 The allowable maximum time from the pervious cement concrete mixture is
discharged from the mixer to it is transported to the construction site for paving,
compaction, and pouring can be determined by the laboratory based on the initial setting
time of the cement and the construction temperature, and shall comply with the
provisions of Table 5.2.6. When transporting using a truck mixer, the maximum time
should not exceed 1.5 hours.
5.3 Pervious cement concrete pavement paving
5.3.3 The construction of water-washing pervious cement concrete shall be the same as
the construction of ordinary pervious cement concrete. The process after paving and
smoothing shall meet the following requirements:
1 Before the final setting of the surface concrete, the surface layer shall be washed with
a high-pressure water gun in time to remove the cementitious material on the surface
and expose the natural stone evenly, so that the particles do not loosen or fall off.
2 After rinsing the surface, the remaining slurry on the surface and in the air gap shall
be removed in time, and the surface shall be covered with plastic film for moisturizing
and curing.
......

BASIC DATA
Standard ID CJJ/T 135-2009 (CJJ/T135-2009)
Description (Translated English) Technical specification for pervious cement concrete pavement
Sector / Industry Urban Construction Industry Standard (Recommended)
Classification of Chinese Standard P66
Classification of International Standard 93.080.20
Word Count Estimation 56,583
Date of Issue 2009-11-16
Date of Implementation 2010-07-01
Quoted Standard GB 175; GB 8076; GB 50119; GB/T 12988; GB/T 14685; JGJ 55; JGJ 63; CJJ 1; CJJ 37; GB/T 50082
Drafting Organization Jiangsu Construction Engineering Group Co., Ltd.
Administrative Organization ?Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development
Regulation (derived from) Bulletin of the Ministry of Housing and Urban No. 440
Summary This standard applies to the new town light load path, garden light loads roads, squares and parking lots pervious concrete pavement design, construction, inspection and maintenance. This procedure does not apply to cold regions, loess areas, salinization of land area, the expansion of land area of the road.