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HJ 494-2009 English PDF

HJ 494-2009_English: PDF (HJ494-2009)
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BASIC DATA
Standard ID HJ 494-2009 (HJ494-2009)
Description (Translated English) Water quality. Guidance on sampling techniques
Sector / Industry Environmental Protection Industry Standard
Classification of Chinese Standard Z12
Classification of International Standard 13.060
Word Count Estimation 21,218
Date of Issue 2009-09-27
Date of Implementation 2009-11-01
Older Standard (superseded by this standard) GB/T 12998-1991
Quoted Standard GB 12999-1991
Drafting Organization China Environmental Monitoring Station
Administrative Organization Ministry of Environment Protection
Regulation (derived from) Department of Environmental Protection Notice No. 47 of 2009
Summary This standard specifies the quality assurance control, water quality characteristics of the bottom sediment and sludge sampling technical guidance is to ensure that water quality sampling of the normative and design. This standard applies to the open river, closed pipes, reservoirs and lakes, bottom sediments, surface water, groundwater and wastewater samples. This standard is the basic principle guiding sampling technique, do not include detailed sampling procedures.

Standards related to: HJ 494-2009

HJ 494-2009
Water quality.Guidance on sampling techniques
HJ
National Environmental Protection Standard of the People's Republic
Replace GB 12998-91
Water quality sampling technical guidance
Published on.2009-09-27
2009-11-01 Implementation
Ministry of Environmental Protection released
Ministry of Environmental Protection
announcement
No. 47 of.2009
In order to implement the "Environmental Protection Law of the People's Republic of China", protect the environment, and protect human health, we now approve the measurement of water quality polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
Eighteen standards, such as fixed liquid extraction and solid phase extraction high performance liquid chromatography, are national environmental protection standards and are released.
The standard name and number are as follows.
I. Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Solid Phase Extraction High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HJ 478-2009);
2. Determination of nitrous oxides (nitrogen oxides and nitrogen dioxide) - Determination of naphthalene diamine hydrochloride spectrophotometric method (HJ 479-
2009);
III. Determination of Fluoride in Ambient Air Filtration of Fluoride Ion Selective Electrode Method (HJ 480-2009);
IV. Determination of fluoride in ambient air Determination of fluoride ion-selective electrode method for lime filter paper (HJ 481-2009);
V. Determination of Sulfur Dioxide in Ambient Air - Formaldehyde Absorption - Pararosaniline Spectrophotometry (HJ 482-2009);
6. Determination of Sulfur Dioxide in Ambient Air - Tetrachloromercury Salt Absorption - Pararosaniline Spectrophotometry (HJ 483-2009);
VII. Determination of water content cyanide volumetric method and spectrophotometry (HJ 484-2009);
VIII. Determination of copper in water quality by diethyldithiocarbamate spectrophotometry (HJ 485-2009);
IX. Determination of copper in water quality 2,9-Dimethyl-1,10 phenanthroline spectrophotometry (HJ 486-2009);
X. Determination of Fluoride in Water Quality by Spectrophotometric Method of Zirconium Sulfate Sulfate (HJ 487-2009);
XI. Determination of Fluoride in Water Quality Fluorescence Spectrophotometry (HJ 488-2009);
XII. Determination of Silver in Water Quality 3,5-Br2-PADAP Spectrophotometry (HJ 489-2009);
XIII. Determination of Silver in Water Quality by Cadmium Reagent 2B Spectrophotometry (HJ 490-2009);
XIV. Determination of Total Chromium in Soils by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (HJ 491-2009);
15. Air Quality Vocabulary (HJ 492-2009);
XVI. Technical Regulations for the Preservation and Management of Water Quality Samples (HJ 493-2009);
18. “Technical Guidance for the Design of Water Quality Sampling Plans” (HJ 495-2009).
The above standards have been implemented since November 1,.2009 and published by the China Environmental Science Press. The standard content can be found on the website of the Ministry of Environmental Protection.
From the date of implementation of the above standards, the following 20 national environmental protection standards approved and issued by the former National Environmental Protection Agency shall be abolished.
The exact name and number are as follows.
1. "Determination of six specific polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water quality by high performance liquid chromatography" (GB 13198-91);
2. Determination of nitrogen oxides in air quality - Determination of naphthylethylenediamine hydrochloride (GB 8969-88);
3. "Saltzman method for determination of nitrogen oxides in ambient air" (GB/T 15436-1995);
4. Determination of the concentration of fluoride in ambient air, filter membrane and fluoride ion selective electrode method (GB/T 15434-1995);
V. Determination of Fluoride in Ambient Air Lime Filter Paper · Fluoride Ion Selective Electrode Method (GB/T 15433-1995);
6. Determination of Sulphur Dioxide in Ambient Air - Formaldehyde Absorption - Pararosaniline Spectrophotometry (GB/T 15262-94);
VII. Determination of Air Quality, Sulfur Dioxide, Tetrachloromercury Salt - Pararosaniline Hydrochloride Colorimetric Method (GB 8970-88);
VIII. Determination of Cyanide in Water Quality Part I Determination of Total Cyanide (GB 7486-87);
IX. Determination of Cyanide in Water Quality Part 2 Determination of Cyanide (GB 7487-87);
X. Determination of copper in water quality by diethyldithiocarbamate spectrophotometry (GB 7474-87);
XI. Determination of Copper in Water Quality 2,9-Dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline Spectrophotometric Method (GB 7473-87);
Twelve, "Determination of Fluoride in Water Quality, Zirconium Sulfonic Acid Visual Colorimetric Method" (GB 7482-87);
XIII. Determination of Fluoride in Water Quality Fluorescence Spectrophotometry (GB 7483-87);
XIV. Determination of Silver in Water Quality, 3,5-Br2-PADAP Spectrophotometry (GB 11909-89);
Fifteen, "Measurement of mercury in water, cadmium reagent 2B spectrophotometry" (GB 11908-89);
XVI. Determination of Total Chromium in Soil Quality by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (GB/T 17137-1997);
17. Air Quality Vocabulary (GB 6919-86);
18. Technical Regulations for the Preservation and Management of Water Samples (GB 12999-91);
Nineteen, "Water Quality Sampling Technical Guidance" (GB 12998-91);
20. Technical Regulations for the Design of Water Quality Sampling Plans (GB 12997-91).
Special announcement.
September 27,.2009
Content
Foreword..iv
1 Scope..1
2 Normative references..1
3 water sample type..1
4 sampling type..3
5 sampling equipment..7
6 sample container 11
7 Avoidance of sampling pollution 12
8 signs and records..13
Appendix A (Normative Appendix) Required Performance for Automatic Sampling Equipment.15
Foreword
To implement the "Environmental Protection Law of the People's Republic of China" and the "Water Pollution Control Law of the People's Republic of China", strengthen the regulation of water quality sampling
Fan and guidance, the development of this standard.
This standard specifies quality control, water quality analysis, sampling techniques for bottom sediments and sludge, and is applicable to open rivers.
Closed pipelines, reservoirs and lakes, bottom sediments, groundwater and sewage sampling.
This standard has revised the "Water Quality Sampling Technical Guidance" (GB 12998-91). This standard was first published in.1991.
The standard drafting unit is the China National Environmental Monitoring Center. This is the first revision.
The main revisions are as follows.
-- The water sample type is supplemented with the contents of the instantaneous water sample and the integrated water sample, and the two types of water samples of the large volume water sample and the average sewage sample are added.
-- Sampling types supplemented closed pipelines, reservoirs and lakes, as well as groundwater sampling content, adding to the sampling method for wastewater.
-- Instantaneous non-automatic sampling equipment adds sampling equipment for dissolved gases (or volatile substances), adding automatic sampling equipment
Regulations.
-- Added precautions for sampling equipment.
-- Increased the avoidance of sampling contamination.
The national environmental protection standard “Water quality approved and issued by the former National Environmental Protection Agency on January 25,.1991 since the implementation of this standard.
Sampling Technical Guidance (GB 12998-91) is abolished.
This standard was formulated by the Science and Technology Standards Department of the Ministry of Environmental Protection.
This standard was drafted. China Environmental Monitoring Station, Liaoning Provincial Environmental Monitoring Center Station.
This standard was approved by the Ministry of Environmental Protection on September 27,.2009.
This standard has been implemented since November 1,.2009.
This standard is explained by the Ministry of Environmental Protection.
Iv
Water quality sampling technical guidance
1 Scope of application
This standard specifies the quality assurance control, water quality characteristics analysis, bottom sediment and sludge sampling technical guidance, is to ensure water quality
Designed like a norm.
This standard applies to the sampling of open rivers, closed pipelines, reservoirs and lakes, bottom sediments, surface water, groundwater and sewage.
This standard is the basic principle guide for sampling technology and does not include detailed sampling steps.
2 Normative references
The contents of this standard refer to the terms in the following documents. For undated references, the valid version applies to this standard.
GB 12999-91 Technical regulations for the preservation and management of water sampling samples
3 water sample type
3.1 Overview
In order to account for water quality, certain parameters of water, such as inorganic matter, dissolved ore, are to be determined at specified times, locations or at specific time intervals.
The concentration of substances or chemicals, dissolved gases, dissolved organics, suspended solids, and bottom deposits. Certain parameters should be determined in the field as much as possible
To get accurate results.
Due to the different collection, processing steps and equipment of biological and chemical samples, samples should be collected separately.
Sampling techniques should be determined on a case-by-case basis. In some cases, samples need to be collected instantaneously at some point, and in some cases complex sampling equipment is used.
Sampling. Static water bodies and flowing water bodies are sampled differently and should be distinguished. Both instantaneous and mixed sampling are suitable for static water bodies
For mixed water bodies, mixed sampling is more suitable for static water bodies; periodic sampling and continuous sampling are suitable for flowing water bodies.
3.2 Instant water sample
Samples that are randomly collected from a water body are called transient water samples. For a water body with a relatively stable composition, or a component of a water body is quite long
The time and considerable spatial extent have not changed much, and the acquisition of transient samples is well represented. When the composition of a water body changes over time,
Instantaneous sampling is performed at appropriate intervals and analyzed separately to determine the degree, frequency and period of change in water quality. When the body of water
When the composition changes spatially, it is necessary to sample at each corresponding part. Instantaneous water samples, whether at the surface, at a specified depth, or at the bottom, are usually
It can be collected manually or automatically. Automatic sampling is a series of transient samples based on a predetermined time or flow interval, one
The samples collected under normal conditions only represent the water quality at the time of sampling and at the sampling point.
Instant sampling is available for the following situations.
a) When the flow rate is not fixed and the measured parameters are not constant (if mixed samples are used, they will be masked by the interaction between individual samples)
The difference between)
b) discontinuous flow of water, such as water discharged in batches;
c) when the water or wastewater characteristics are relatively stable;
d) need to investigate possible contaminants, or to determine when the contaminants appear;
e) when data on the highest, lowest or change in contaminants is required;
f) when it is necessary to determine the change law of water quality based on the data in a short period of time;
g) when it is necessary to measure the spatial variation of parameters, such as the variation of a parameter in different sections (or depths) of water flow or open water
condition;
h) before developing a larger sampling plan;
i) Determination of certain unstable parameters such as dissolved gases, residual chlorine, soluble sulfides, microorganisms, oils, organics and pH.
3.3 cycle water sample (discontinuous)
3.3.1 Collecting periodic samples at fixed time intervals (depending on time)
The sample is automatically started and stopped at a specified time interval by a timing device. Usually samples are taken during a fixed period of time, one will
A fixed volume of sample is injected into one or more containers.
The size of the time interval depends on the parameter to be tested.
When manually collecting samples, collect periodic samples as described above.
3.3.2 Collecting periodic samples at fixed emission intervals (depending on volume)
When the water quality parameters change, the sampling method is not affected by the discharge flow rate, and such samples are attributed to the flow ratio sample.
For example, for a unit volume of liquid flow (eg, 10 000 L), the amount of sample taken is fixed regardless of time.
3.3.3 Collecting periodic samples at fixed emissions intervals (depending on flow)
When the water quality parameters change, the sampling method is not affected by the discharge flow rate, and the water sample can be collected by this method. At fixed time intervals,
Different volumes of water are taken and the volume collected depends on the flow.
3.4 continuous water sample
3.4.1 Collect continuous samples at a fixed flow rate (depending on time or time average)
Continuous samples collected at a fixed flow rate can measure all components present during the sampling period, but cannot provide the concentration of each parameter during the sampling period.
The change.
3.4.2 Continuous samples collected at variable flow rates (depending on flow or proportional to flow)
The collection flow ratio sample represents the overall mass of the water. Even if the flow and composition are changing, the flow ratio sample can also reveal the benefits.
These changes are not observed with transient samples. Therefore, for the flow water and the concentration of the pollutant to be tested, there is a significant change in the flow of water, the collection flow
A proportional sample is an accurate sampling method.
3.5 mixed water samples
Mix at a known ratio (intermittent or continuous) at the same sampling point based on flow, time, volume or flow rate
A sample together, this sample is called a mixed water sample. Mixed water samples can be collected automatically or manually.
The mixed water sample is a mixture of several separate samples, which reduces the monitoring and analysis workload, saves time and reduces reagent loss.
The mixed sample provides an average of the components, so the data for these sample parameters should be verified before the sample is mixed to ensure that the sample is mixed.
The accuracy of the product data. If the test components are subject to significant changes during the storage of the water sample, mixed water samples, such as volatile phenols,
Oils, sulfides, etc. To determine these substances, a single storage method is required.
Mixed water samples are available in the following cases.
a) when the average concentration needs to be determined;
b) calculating the mass load per unit time;
c) To evaluate the impact of special, changing or irregular emissions and production operations.
3.6 Comprehensive water sample
Mix instantaneous water samples collected simultaneously from different sampling points into one sample (time should be as close as possible to get the required capital
Material), called integrated water sample. The collection of integrated water samples includes two cases. collecting a series of water samples of different depths at a specific location (longitudinal section)
Sample); collect a series of water samples (cross-sectional samples) at different depths at specific depths. Comprehensive water samples are an important way to obtain an average concentration.
It is sometimes necessary to mix the sewage at each point on the representative section or several sewage discharges in a relatively proportional flow rate to obtain the average concentration.
The collection of comprehensive water samples shall be determined by the specific conditions of the water body and the purpose of sampling. Such as several sewage discharge canals to build a comprehensive sewage treatment plant, from each
It is more scientific and reasonable to take a single sample analysis of a river channel because the mutual reaction of each sewage may affect the treatment performance and composition of the facility.
Significant effects are produced, and since it is not possible to mathematically predict interactions, taking integrated water samples may provide more reliable information. and
In some cases, it is reasonable to take a single sample. For example, lakes and reservoirs often show changes in composition in depth and horizontal direction.
Or the change in the total value is not significant, and the local changes are obvious. In this case, the integrated water sample loses its meaning.
3.7 Large volume of water sample
Some analytical methods require the collection of large volumes of water, ranging from 50 L to a few cubic meters. For example, to analyze unknown pesticides in water bodies and
For microorganisms, it is necessary to collect large volumes of water. The water sample can be collected into a container or a sample tank by the usual method, and sampling should be ensured during sampling.
Cleaning of the vessel; it is also possible to pass the sample through a volumetric meter and then through an absorption cartridge (or filter), depending on the monitoring requirements
Selected.
Subsequent sampling procedure details should be based on the type of water sample and monitoring requirements. Control the pressure through a suction tube under a certain pressure with a regulating valve
(or filter) traffic. In most cases, a pump should be installed behind the absorption tube (or filter) and the volume meter. If the object to be tested
Volatile, the pump should be placed as close as possible to the sample source, and the volume should be placed behind the absorption tube (or filter).
If the collected water sample is turbid and contains suspended solids that can clog the filter (or absorption tube), or the amount of sample required for analysis exceeds
The maximum capacity of the filter (or absorption tube) should be placed in a parallel position with a series of filters (or absorption tubes) installed at the inlet and outlet.
Plug valve. At the beginning of sampling, the water sample passes through only one filter (or absorption tube), and the rest is not sampled; when the flow rate is significantly reduced, the water sample is allowed to flow.
New filter (or absorption tube). Be careful not to exceed the maximum capacity of the filter (or absorption cartridge), so be in the first filter (or
A series of new filters (or absorbers) are arranged to be replaced before the absorption tube reaches the maximum capacity. Filter to the maximum capacity
The pump (or absorber) should stop sampling.
If multiple filters (or absorbers) are used for sampling, they should be combined together as a mixed sample. If you want to sample
During the process, the excess water is dumped back into the water body, and the location should be far enough away from the sampling point to avoid affecting the water quality at the sampling point.
3.8 Average sewage sample
For enterprises that discharge sewage, the periodicity of production affects the regularity of sewage discharge. In order to get a representative sample of sewage (often required
To obtain an average concentration, periodic sampling should be performed according to the discharge situation. Different factories and workshops have different production cycles and periodic discharges
The difference is also great. It should generally be sampled at regular intervals during one or several production or discharge cycles. For stable soil
For dyes, the separately collected samples can be mixed and measured once; for unstable pollutants, they can be sampled separately and separately measured.
The average is representative.
The periodicity of production also affects the discharge of sewage. In the case of unstable discharge flow, a sewage can be discharged at different times.
In the same way, according to the size of the flow, the mixture is mixed in proportion to obtain an average proportion of mixed sewage samples. This is the most commonly used method to obtain an average concentration.
Sometimes it is necessary to mix several water samples of the sewage outlets to represent the instantaneous integrated sewage concentration.
In the monitoring of pollution sources, suspended solids or solid particles flowing with sewage should be regarded as an integral part of the sewage sample and should not be analyzed.
Pre-filtered. Oil, organic matter and metal ions may be adsorbed by suspended solids, and some suspended matter may contain substances to be measured, such as beneficiation,
Heavy metals in smelting wastewater. Therefore, the sample must be shaken before analysis.
4 sampling type
4.1 Sampling of open rivers
When sampling open rivers, the following basic points should be included.
a) sampling of the location of the water;
b) After the sewage has flowed into the river, it should be sampled at a well-mixed location and at the location before the inflow;
c) sampling of well-mixed locations and mainstream and tributary locations prior to mixing after tributary convection;
d) the choice of locations after mainstream diversion;
e) Sampling locations set according to other needs.
In principle, samples should be taken at different locations in the lateral and vertical directions of the river. The sampling time is generally selected to be at least two consecutive before sampling.
Sunny days, when the water quality is stable (except for special needs). Sampling time is considering human activities, working hours of factory companies and pollution
The arrival time of the dye is determined based on the time. In addition, in the tidal zone, the situation of the tide should be considered, and the worst moment of water quality should be included in the sampling.
in time.
4.2 Sampling of closed pipes
Sampling in closed pipelines can also encounter similar problems with sampling in open rivers. The sampler probe or sampling tube should be properly
Placed downstream of the inlet water, the sampling tube cannot be close to the tube wall. Turbulence parts, such as in the "T" shaped tube, elbows, and the rear of the valve, can be fully mixed
It is generally used as the best sampling point, except for equal power sampling (equal speed sampling).
When collecting water samples from tap water or pumping equipment, the water should be drained for a few minutes to remove the impurities and old water accumulated in the water pipes, and then
Resample. Before collecting the water sample, the sampler container, the sample bottle and the stopper should be washed with water samples 2 to 3 times (except oil).
4.3 Sampling of reservoirs and lakes
Sampling of reservoirs and lakes can cause large differences in water quality due to different sampling locations and temperature stratification.
When investigating water quality conditions, it should be considered that the water quality in the layering and circulation periods is significantly different. Understand the water quality during the cycle, and collect surface water samples.
To understand the water quality of the layering period, it should be sampled in depth.
When investigating the pollution status of waters, it is necessary to conduct comprehensive analysis and judgment, and grasp the basic points to obtain representative water samples. If the wastewater flows in,
Some places that are fully mixed after inflow, water use locations, outflow locations, etc., may refer to the sampling of open rivers, but not equivalent.
Where it is possible to drown directly, it can be sampled in a suitable container, such as a bucket. When sampling from a place such as a bridge, you can gather the rope
A vinyl drum or a sample bottle with a sinker is thrown into the water to drown. Be careful not to mix with substances floating on the water.
A vertical or plexiglass water collector can be used when collecting a certain depth of water. This type of device is in the process of sinking, the water is sampled
Flow through the device. When the predetermined depth is reached, the container can be closed to draw a water sample. In the case of slow water flow, when using the above method,
It is best to attach a suitable weight to the sink under the sampler. When the water is deep, the corresponding heavy lead fish should be attached and equipped with a winch.
The sampling process should pay attention to.
a) Do not agitate the sediment at the bottom of the water during sampling.
b) The sampling point sho......
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