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HJ 2016-2012

Chinese Standard: 'HJ 2016-2012'
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BASIC DATA
Standard ID HJ 2016-2012 (HJ2016-2012)
Description (Translated English) Terminology of environmental engineering
Sector / Industry Environmental Protection Industry Standard
Classification of Chinese Standard Z00
Classification of International Standard 13.020
Word Count Estimation 33,393
Drafting Organization China Environmental Protection Industry Association (Solid Waste Treatment and Utilization Committee)
Regulation (derived from) Department of Environmental Protection Notice No. 21 of 2012;
Summary This standard specifies the water pollution control engineering, air pollution control, solid waste pollution control engineering, noise and vibration pollution control engineering, control engineering electromagnetic radiation pollution, contaminated soi

HJ 2016-2012
Terminology of environmental engineering
HJ
Environmental Protection Standards
Environmental engineering terminology
Published on.2012-03-19
2012-06-01 Implementation
Ministry of Environmental Protection released
table of Contents
1 Scope..1
2 Environmental Engineering Basic Terminology.1
3 Water pollution control engineering terminology 1
4 Air Pollution Control Engineering Terminology 12
5 Solid waste pollution control engineering terminology.17
6 Noise and Vibration Pollution Control Engineering Terminology 24
7 Electromagnetic Radiation Pollution Control Engineering Terminology.28
8 Contaminated soil and groundwater remediation engineering terminology..30
Foreword
This standard is formulated for the purpose of implementing the Environmental Protection Law of the People's Republic of China and regulating the use of environmental engineering terminology.
This standard specifies the Chinese and English names and definitions of environmental engineering terminology.
This standard is the first release.
This standard was formulated by the Science and Technology Standards Department of the Ministry of Environmental Protection.
This standard is mainly drafted by. China Environmental Protection Industry Association (Solid Waste Treatment and Utilization Committee), Beijing Guohuan
Tsinghua Environmental Engineering Design and Research Institute Co., Ltd.
This standard was approved by the Ministry of Environmental Protection on March 19,.2012.
This standard has been implemented since June 1,.2012.
This standard is explained by the Ministry of Environmental Protection.
Environmental engineering terminology
1 Scope of application
This standard specifies water pollution control engineering, air pollution control engineering, solid waste pollution control engineering, noise and vibration.
Terminology and definitions commonly used in pollution control engineering, electromagnetic radiation pollution control engineering, and contaminated soil remediation engineering.
This standard applies to terminology used in the fields of environmental engineering design, project management, construction, operation and technical exchange.
2 Environmental Engineering Basic Terms
2.1 Environmental engineering
Protect the natural environment and natural resources, prevent and control environmental pollution, repair the ecological environment, improve the living environment and the quality of urban environment
Construction projects and engineering facilities.
[HJ/T 416-2007, definition 9.2]
2.2 water pollution control engineering
Projects to prevent pollution of the water environment, improve and maintain the quality of the water environment, and realize the recycling of sewage.
2.3 air pollution control engineering
Projects to combat and mitigate atmospheric pollution caused by human production and living activities.
2.4 solid waste pollution control engineering
Reduce the generation of solid waste, fully rational use and harmless treatment of solid waste to prevent it from polluting the environment
Dyeing works.
2.5 noise pollution control engineering noise pollution control engineering
Reduce the noise radiation from the sound source and control the propagation and reception of noise.
2.6 vibration pollution control engineering
A project that weakens the vibration of an object and prevents its propagation.
2.7 Electromagnetic radiation pollution control engineering
A project to prevent harmful effects from electromagnetic radiation.
2.8 Contaminated soil remediation engineering
Works to repair contaminated soil environments.
3 Water pollution control engineering terminology
3.1 Basic terminology
3.1.1 water pollution
The change of the chemical, physical, biological or radioactive properties of a water body due to the intervention of a substance, thereby
Affect the effective use of water, endanger human health or damage the ecological environment, causing deterioration of water quality.
3.1.2 sewage wastewater
A general term for water discharged during production and living activities.
[GB 8978-1996, definition 3.1]
3.1.3 Sludge sludge
Semi-solid or solid matter produced during wastewater treatment, excluding grid slag, scum and grit.
3.1.4 Wastewater reuse wastewater reuse
The general term for the recovery, recycling and utilization of sewage, including the purification and reuse of sewage, the realization of the entire process of water cycle.
3.1.5 physical treatment of wastewater
A physical treatment method that removes pollutants from sewage by physical principles and methods.
3.1.6 chemical treatment of wastewater
A sewage treatment method for removing pollutants in sewage by using chemical principles and methods.
3.1.7 physical chemical treatment of wastewater
A system that uses a combination of physical and chemical reactions to treat wastewater or a single physical operation and chemical unit process
Sewage treatment method.
3.1.8 biological treatment of wastewater
A sewage treatment method that utilizes the metabolism of microorganisms to decompose pollutants in water.
3.1.9 natural treatment of wastewater
A sewage treatment method that uses natural biological action to remove pollutants from sewage.
3.1.10 sludge treatment
The process of reducing, stabilizing and detoxifying sludge.
3.1.11 Sludge disposal
The final treatment of the treated sludge to achieve long-term stability and no harmful effects on human health and the ecological environment
the way.
3.2 Physical sewage treatment
3.2.1 Adjusting regulating
To stabilize and balance the water volume and water quality (concentration, water temperature, etc.) of the sewage, thereby improving the treatability of the sewage.
Cheng.
3.2.2 oil separation
The process of separating and removing oil in suspension from sewage is utilized by utilizing the difference in specific gravity between oil and water.
3.2.3 physical precipitation
The process of removing suspended solids in water by gravity sedimentation by utilizing the specific gravity of the suspended solids to be greater than the characteristics of water.
3.2.4 sedimentation tank sedimentation tank
A structure that uses gravity to precipitate and remove suspended solids from water.
3.2.5 grit chamber grit chamber
The natural sedimentation is used to remove sand or other structures of inorganic particles with a large specific gravity.
3.2.6 primary sedimentation tank primary sedimentation tank
A sedimentation tank located in front of the biological treatment structure to reduce the concentration of solids in the sewage.
3.2.7 secondary sedimentation tank
A sedimentation tank located behind the biological treatment structure for separation of sludge from water.
3.2.8 settling time settling time
The time required to treat the sewage by sedimentation to a certain degree of treatment. Also known as the stop in the sedimentation tank and grit chamber
time.
3.2.9 Clarification of clarification
A sewage treatment method that uses muddy water separation by contact cohesion and precipitation.
3.2.10 filtration filtration
A method of filtering impurities in water using a medium.
3.2.11 Evaporation evaporation
The process of sewage purification is realized by vaporizing water by heat treatment.
3.2.12 Single effect evaporation single-effect evaporation
Also known as single-stage evaporation. After the evaporative heat treatment of the sewage, the generated steam is no longer used as the evaporation point of the evaporation heat source.
Process.
3.2.13 Multi-effect evaporation multi-effect evaporation
Also known as multi-stage evaporation. The steam generated by the first stage evaporation of the sewage is used as the heat source for the next-stage evaporation treatment.
process.
3.2.14 thin film evaporation thin membrane evaporation
The sewage forms a film on the wall of the evaporator, which causes the evaporation process of water vaporization.
3.2.15 Vacuum evaporation vacuum evaporation
Also known as evaporation under reduced pressure. A treatment method that performs an evaporation operation at subatmospheric pressure.
3.2.16 centrifugal separation
The liquid-solid, liquid-liquid or liquid-liquid-solid separation process is achieved by centrifugal force generated by a high-speed rotating liquid stream.
3.2.17 magnetic separation process
The method of using magnetic force to overcome the effects of gravity, inertia force and viscous force against the balance, and to settle and separate the particles after coagulation.
3.3 Chemical wastewater treatment
3.3.1 Neutralization and neutralization
Chemically remove excess acid and base from water to achieve a neutral pH.
3.3.2 redox oxidation-reduction reaction
By adding a chemical (oxidant or reducing agent) to the sewage, it reacts with the pollutants in the sewage and is removed.
the process of.
3.3.3 advanced oxidation processes, AOPs
The process of oxidative degradation of contaminants in sewage that cannot be oxidized by ordinary oxidants by generating hydroxyl radicals.
3.3.4 photocatalytic oxidation
The method of treating pollutants in sewage by utilizing the catalysis of light and the oxidation of an oxidant is one of advanced oxidation.
3.3.5 Ozone oxidation ozonation
Use ozone gas as a strong oxidant to pass into the water layer (or contact with water) to carry out oxidation reaction to remove pollutants from the water.
Cheng is a kind of advanced oxidation.
3.3.6 wet oxidation wet-oxidation process
Degradation of organic matter in water to simple inorganic substances with high temperature and high pressure with air or pure oxygen in the presence or absence of a catalyst
The method is a kind of advanced oxidation.
3.3.7 alkaline chlorination process
A method of oxidizing cyanide in a sewage with a chlorine-based oxidizing agent to remove it under alkaline conditions.
3.3.8 chemical precipitation
Adding a chemical substance to the sewage to chemically react with certain dissolved substances in the sewage to form poorly soluble in water or
The process of precipitating water-insoluble compounds.
3.3.9 Electrolytic treatment
The process of purifying the sewage by using an electrolytic reaction to cause a redox reaction on the electrode.
3.3.10 electrochemical treatment equipment
By means of the action of the direct current electric field, the pollutants in the sewage are redoxed at the anode and the cathode respectively, resulting in no
A device that is soluble in water or a gas to purify the sewage.
3.3.11 electric coagulation equipment
A coagulation device that electrochemically produces hydroxide as a flocculant and reacts with contaminants in water.
3.3.12 Disinfection disinfection
The process of inactivating pathogens in sewage.
3.3.13 chemical disinfection
A method of disinfecting water by adding chemicals.
3.3.14 ozone disinfection by ozone
A method of disinfecting water with ozone.
3.3.15 UV disinfection disinfection with ultraviolet rays
A method of disinfecting water by using ultraviolet rays having a wavelength of.200 nm to 280 nm.
3.3.16 sodium hypochlorite disinfection disinfection by sodium hypochlorite
A method of disinfecting water using sodium hypochlorite (NaClO).
3.3.17 residual chlorine
After chlorination treatment, chlorine still exists in the water, which is still oxidizing, to inhibit the re-growth of bacteria.
3.4 Physical and chemical treatment of sewage treatment
3.4.1 extraction solvent extraction or liquid-liquid extraction
Using the difference in solubility of the solute in water and solvent, the solute in the sewage is dissolved in a solvent that is immiscible with water, and then
The solvent is separated from the moisture layer.
3.4.2 strip distillation
The use of steam as a desorbent to promote the transfer of volatile pollutants from the sewage to the gas phase and the separation of pollutants from the sewage.
3.4.3 blow off the blow-off method
When air is passed through the water layer (or in contact with water), volatile substances dissolved in water enter the gas phase, and the water is obtained.
Water treatment process.
3.4.4 Adsorption adsorption
At the phase interface, the concentration of the substance automatically accumulates or concentrates. Mainly use solid matter table in sewage treatment
Facing the adsorption of substances in sewage.
3.4.5 Desorption desorption
The process of regenerating the adsorbent by allowing the adsorbed component to precipitate from the saturated adsorbent.
3.4.6 adsorption cycle adsorption cycle
The time elapsed from the start of use of the adsorbent to saturation, ie the time interval between two adsorbent regenerations.
3.4.7 adsorption balance adsorption balance
The adsorbent is saturated, and the adsorption rate is equal to the desorption rate.
3.4.8 adsorption capacity
The mass of the adsorbate adsorbed by the unit mass adsorbent when the adsorption equilibrium is reached.
3.4.9 ion exchanger ion exchang agent
A substance capable of performing equivalent ion exchange with ions in an aqueous solution. The ion exchanger used in water treatment is mainly sulfonated
Coal and ion exchange resins.
3.4.10 ion exchange ion exchange
The action or phenomenon of exchange of ions in a solution with ions on an ion exchanger.
3.4.11 ion exchange resin ion exchang resin
An insoluble polymer electrolyte having a network structure and having a reactive group.
3.4.12 ion exchange agent regeneration generation of ion exchange agent
The process of regenerating the ion exchange capacity of a spent ion exchanger with a regenerative agent.
3.4.13 ion exchanger bed expansion rate ion exchange bed expansion rate
The percentage of expansion of the exchanger layer as the water flows back through the exchanger layer during backwashing.
3.4.14 ion exchange unit ion exchange equipment
A device that treats or recovers impurities in water using an ion exchanger.
3.4.15 regenerant consumption
The actual amount of regenerant required to recover the ion exchange capacity of the failed ion exchanger when 1 kg of calcium carbonate is used. Bill of measurement
The position is usually expressed in kg/kg CaCO3.
3.4.16 regeneration period
The time between the two regenerations of the ion exchange resin.
3.4.17 ion exchanger working exchange capacity ion exchanger operating capacity
The ion exchanger starts from the start of operation until the amount of ions removed by the effluent exceeds the required amount, and the unit volume
The amount of ions absorbed by the exchanger.
3.4.18 air float air floation
The process of separating and removing pollutants from sewage by flocculation and flotation.
3.4.19 coagulation
Adding a medicament to destroy the stable dispersion formed by the colloid and the suspension in the liquid, causing it to aggregate and increase to a natural gravity point.
The process of leaving.
3.4.20 Coagulant coagulant
An agent that destabilizes and agglomerates the colloidal particles, thereby allowing them to settle quickly or more easily.
3.4.21 Coagulant flocculation aid
Auxiliary agents added to improve flocculation conditions and effects when the coagulant alone does not achieve the desired effect.
3.4.22 membrane separation
A method of separating or concentrating ions or molecules in water by selective permeation of a membrane.
3.4.23 Membrane flux
The volume of water produced per unit of filter area per unit time.
3.4.24 membrane separation device membrane separation equipment
A device for treating sewage by a membrane separation method.
3.4.25 microfiltration microfiltration, MF
Under the action of pressure, the sewage is passed through a membrane with a pore diameter of 0.05 μm to 5 μm to intercept the pollutants in the sewage.
3.4.26 Ultrafiltration ultrafiltration, UF
Under the action of pressure, the sewage is passed through a membrane with a pore size of 5 nm to 100 nm to trap the pollutants in the sewage.
3.4.27 nanofiltration nanofiltration, NF
Membrane separation for the removal of multivalent ions, partially monovalent ions and organic compounds with molecular weights from.200 to.2000 under pressure
process.
3.4.28 reverse osmosis reverse osmosis, RO
Applying an external pressure higher than the osmotic pressure of the solution on the raw water side of the membrane, allowing the solvent to pass through the semipermeable membrane, while other substances in the solution
The mass is blocked on the high pressure side of the membrane, thereby achieving a process of efficient separation.
3.4.29 Electrodialysis, ED
Under the action of an electric field, the cation and cation exchange membranes are used to selectively permeate the anion and cation in the aqueous solution, so that the ions are transmitted.
The process by which the ion exchange membrane undergoes migration.
3.5 Biological wastewater treatment
3.5.1 sludge retention age, SRT
The average residence time of activated sludge throughout the biological treatment structure.
3.5.2 sludge load sludge loading
The amount of organic matter removed per unit time by the unit mass activated sludge in the biological treatment structure. Unit of measurement
kgBOD5/(kgMLSS·d) indicates that it is a means of expressing the organic load of the biological treatment structure.
3.5.3 Five-day biochemical oxygen demand volume load BOD5-volume loading rate
The biological capacity of the biological treatment structure per unit of daily five-day biochemical oxygen demand. The unit of measurement is in kgBOD5/(m3·d)
Show.
3.5.4 Activated sludge process activated sludge process
A method of biological treatment of sewage. The method is to continuously mix the microbial population in the sewage under artificial conditions.
Cultivate, form activated sludge in suspension state, decompose and remove organic pollutants in sewage, and separate sludge from water, partially contaminated
The mud is returned to the biological reaction tank, and the excess is discharged as excess sludge to the activated sludge system.
[GB/T 50125-2010, definition 3.2.78]
3.5.5 Anaerobic zone
The non-oxygenated zone of the bioreactor and the absence of nitrate or nitrite. Polyphosphate microorganisms absorb organic matter in anaerobic zone
And release phosphorus.
[GB/T 50125-2010, definition 3.2.104]
3.5.6 Anoxic zone
The non-oxygenated zone of the bioreactor and the zone where nitrate or nitrite is present. The bioreactor contains a lot of nitric acid
When the salt, nitrite and sufficient organic matter are obtained, the denitrification reaction can be carried out in the zone.
[GB/T 50125-2010, definition 3.2.105]
3.5.7 Aerobic zone oxic zone
The oxygenation zone of the bioreactor. Microorganisms degrade organic matter and perform nitrification reactions in the aerobic zone.
[GB/T 50125-2010, definition 3.2.103]
3.5.8 Nitrification nitrification
The process of oxidizing ammonia nitrogen in water to nitrate nitrogen using nitrifying bacteria.
3.5.9 Denitrification denitrification
The process of reducing nitrate nitrogen in water to gaseous nitrogen using denitrifying bacteria.
3.5.10 biological nitrogen removal
Using aerobic bacteria to oxidize ammonia nitrogen in sewage to nitrate nitrogen under aerobic conditions, and then using anaerobic bacteria under anoxic conditions
The process of reducing nitrate nitrogen to nitrogen and removing nitrogen from sewage.
3.5.11 Biological phosphorus removal biological phosphorus removal
The phosphorus-producing bacteria in the sludge release phosphorus under anaerobic conditions, and take more phosphorus under aerobic conditions, and discharge high phosphorus content.
The process of removing excess phosphorus from the sewage by excess sludge.
3.5.12 aeration aeration
The process of dissolving oxygen or dissolving dissolved gases and volatile substances in water by contacting water with air.
3.5.13 adsorption biodegradation activated sludge process, AB
The process system consists mainly of A adsorption section and B biodegradation section, and section A mainly relies on the adsorption of activated sludge.
In addition to some heavy metals, refractory organics and pollutants such as nitrogen and phosphorus, the B segment relies mainly on biodegradation to remove most of the
Machine pollutants.
3.5.14 sequencing batch reactor activated sludge process, SBR
In the same reaction tank, it consists of five basic processes of influent, aeration, sedimentation, drainage and standby in chronological order.
Activated sludge wastewater treatment method, referred to as SBR method.
3.5.15 oxidation ditch activated sludge process
Referring to the oxidation ditch, the reaction cell is arranged in a closed, non-terminal circulating flow channel arrangement, and the pool is equipped with oxygenation and water flow equipment.
Sewage treatment method. The main processes include single-channel oxidation ditch, double-slot oxidation ditch, three-slot oxidation ditch, and vertical axis aerator oxygen.
The gully and the concentric circle flow the oxidation ditch, and the deformation process includes an integrated oxidation ditch and a microporous aeration oxidation ditch.
3.5.16 Anaerobic anoxic oxic activated sludge process
Removal of organic pollutants in water by various combinations of anaerobic zone, anoxic zone and aerobic zone and different sludge reflux methods
And activated sludge sewage treatment methods such as nitrogen and phosphorus, referred to as AAO method. The main deformation has improved anaerobic hypoxia and aerobic active pollution
Mud method, anaerobic hypoxia and hypoxia aerobic activated sludge method, anoxic anaerobic anoxic aerobic activated sludge method.
3.5.17 membrane bioreactor process, MBR
Combine the biological reaction with the membrane separation, and use the membrane as the separation medium instead of the conventional gravity sedimentation solid-liquid separation to obtain the effluent, and
A sewage treatment method that changes the progress of the reaction and increases the efficiency of the reaction.
3.5.18 biologically active carbon treatment equipment
A device for treating water by utilizing the physical adsorption capacity of activated carbon and the oxidative degradation of microorganisms grown thereon.
3.5.19 biofilm-process, attached growth process
A method of biological treatment of sewage. The sewage is purified by the adsorption and decomposition of organic pollutants by biofilm.
[GB/T 50125-2010, definition 3.2.109]
3.5.20 biological filter biological filter; biofilter
Physical filtration of fillers filled in the structure by means of sewage (waste) water, and biofilms attached to the filler
The aerobic oxidation, anoxic denitrification and other biochemical processes combined with the manual treatment of pollutants in the waste (waste) water.
3.5.21 ordinary biological filter trickling filter; low-rate biological filter
Also known as drip filter or low load biofilter. The filter material has a large particle size, natural ventilation and oxygen supply, and the influent BOD volume load is higher.
A biofilter that is low (usually no greater than 0.4 kg/(m3·d)).
3.5.22 high-load biofilter high-rate biofliter
On the basis of low-load biofilters, by limiting the BOD content of the influent water and taking the treatment of effluent reflux, etc.
High filtration rate, a biological filter that increases the BOD volume load by 6 to 8 times while ensuring that the BOD removal rate does not decrease significantly.
Pool.
3.5.23 Biological aerated filter, BAF
A biological filter combined with contact oxidation and filtration, using manual aeration, intermittent backwashing, etc.
Removal of organic contaminants and suspended solids.
3.5.24 biological contact oxidation process
Refers to an aerobic biofilm wastewater treatment method. The system consists of a filler immersed in sewage, a biofilm on the surface of the filler, and exposure.
The gas system and the pool body are composed. Under aerobic conditions, the sewage is in full contact with the biofilm fixed on the surface of the filler, through biodegradation
It removes organic matter, nutrients, etc. from the sewage to purify the sewage.
3.5.25 biological fluidized bed biological fluidized bed
A structure of the biofilm process. Using a particulate filler as a carrier, the microorganism grows on the surface of the carrier to form a biofilm,
Under the action of water or gas, the carrier is in a fluidized state, and the biofilm attached to the carrier is in full contact with the sewage to purify the water.
[GB/T 50125, definition 3.2.115]
3.5.26 biological moving bed reactor moving biological bed reactor, MBBR
The sewage is continuously passed through a device equipped with a moving filler to purify the sewage by using a biofilm on the filler.
3.5.27 two-phase anaerobic reactor
A device in which two separate reactors, an acid-producing reactor and a methanogenic reactor, are operated in series.
3.5.28 Upflow anaerobic sludge bed upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor, UASB
The wastewater passes through the water distribution device and sequentially enters the bottom sludge layer and the middle and upper sludge suspension zone, and passes through the upper gas, liquid and solid three-phase
The separator discharges the treated wastewater and outputs an anaerobic reactor that produces biogas.
3.5.29 hydrolysis acidification hydrolytic acidification
Under anaerobic conditions,.
Related standard: HJ 2521-2012    HJ 884-2018
Related PDF sample: GB/T 32355.5-2015    GB/T 23384-2009