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GB/T 21965-2020

Chinese Standard: 'GB/T 21965-2020'
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BASIC DATA
Standard ID GB/T 21965-2020 (GB/T21965-2020)
Description (Translated English) Steel wire ropes--Vocabulary for acceptance and defect
Sector / Industry National Standard (Recommended)
Classification of Chinese Standard H49
Classification of International Standard 77.140.65
Word Count Estimation 30,367
Date of Issue 2020-07-21
Date of Implementation 2021-02-01
Older Standard (superseded by this standard) GB/T 21965-2008
Drafting Organization National Metal Products Quality Supervision and Inspection Center, Guizhou Steel Rope Co., Ltd., Jiangsu Yunyu Metal Products Co., Ltd., National Wire Rope Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Center, Jiangsu Shenwang Group Steel Cable Co., Ltd., Nantong Songcheng Industry Co., Ltd., Jiangsu Tongjiang New Material Technology Co., Ltd., Metallurgical Industry Information Standard Research Institute
Administrative Organization National Steel Standardization Technical Committee (SAC/TC 183)
Proposing organization China Iron and Steel Association
Issuing agency(ies) State Administration for Market Regulation, National Standardization Administration

GB/T 21965-2020
Steel wire ropes--Vocabulary for acceptance and defect
ICS 77.140.65
H49
National Standards of People's Republic of China
Replace GB/T 21965-2008
Terminology for wire rope acceptance and defects
2020-07-21 released
2021-02-01 implementation
State Administration for Market Regulation
Issued by the National Standardization Management Committee
Terminology for wire rope acceptance and defects
1 Scope
This standard defines the commonly used terms for wire rope acceptance and defects during manufacturing, handling and transportation, storage, installation and use.
This standard applies to the general provisions of wire rope acceptance and defect terms, and does not apply to situations where the product standard provides otherwise.
2 Terms and definitions
2.1 Acceptance
2.1.1
acceptance
According to relevant standards, specifications or contractually agreed sampling quantity, inspection quantity, inspection method and determination
Round (roll) or batch inspection and testing, and make a decision to accept or reject.
2.1.1.1
Reject
The buyer does not accept the behavior of wire rope products that do not meet the relevant standards and regulations.
2.1.2
sampling
The process of drawing individuals or samples from the population.
Note. Due to the particularity of the wire rope structure, the wire rope needs to be firmly bundled and then cut before taking samples to ensure the inspection of the overall performance of the wire rope
Not affected.
2.1.2.1
A certain number of certain products or materials brought together.
Note. The batch of wire ropes usually refers to the unit products that are of the same diameter (dimensions), structure, wire rope grade, surface condition, twisting direction, and delivered for acceptance at the same time.
2.1.2.2
batch
The number of products in the batch.
Note. The batch of wire rope products usually refers to the number of axles or coils in the same delivery batch.
2.1.2.3
Sample
Used for measurement, inspection and testing of wire rope diameter (size), appearance quality, twisting quality, mechanical properties, process properties and chemical properties
sample.
2.1.2.3.1
Sample size
The diameter, or width and height of the sample taken for quality inspection of the wire rope during acceptance.
2.1.3.3.3
Decarburization
One or more chemical reactions occur in the medium in contact between the steel wire and the surface, resulting in the loss of carbon on the surface of the steel wire.
Note. This carbon loss includes partial decarburization or complete decarburization.
2.1.3.3.4
Martensite
The steel wire is heated to a certain temperature and then rapidly cooled, resulting in a supersaturated solid solution structure of carbon in alpha iron (ferrite) with a body-centered cubic structure.
2.1.3.4
Size measurement
Determination of the characteristic dimensions of the cross section of round or special-shaped steel wires.
2.1.3.5
Stretching test
A test to determine the tensile strength and elongation of a steel wire under unidirectional static tension.
2.1.3.5.1
Gauge length
Measure the length between the marking lines of the sample for elongation.
2.1.3.5.2
Stretching rate
The beam displacement per unit time or the increased stress per unit time during a tensile test.
2.1.3.5.3
tensile strength
The ratio of the maximum force that the steel wire can resist breaking under unidirectional static tension to the original cross-sectional area of the sample.
2.1.3.5.4
Knot tension
The maximum force measured by the knotted steel wire sample under the action of unidirectional static tension.
2.1.3.5.5
Knotting rate
The percentage of the knotted tension to the unknotted tension of the wire.
2.1.3.5.6
Elongation after breaking
After the wire is broken, the length of the gauge length is increased by the percentage of the original gauge length.
2.1.3.6
Repeated bending test
Fix one end of the steel wire, apply a certain tension force, bend 90° around the cylindrical support of the specified radius, and then bend in the opposite direction to check the steel
Test of the ability of the wire to withstand plastic deformation.
2.1.3.6.1
Bending tension
Tension force applied to the specimen in order to make good contact between the steel wire and the curved cylinder.
2.1.3.6.2
Number of repeated bending
The free end of the steel wire specimen is bent 90° in one direction from the starting position and then returned to the starting position as the first bend, and then to the
The number of continuous and uninterrupted repeated bending in the opposite direction until the sample breaks (that is, the last bending is not included in the number of bending).
2.1.3.6.3
Bending rate
The number of repeated bendings per unit time of the steel wire sample.
2.1.3.7
Torsion test
A test to check the plastic deformation performance of the steel wire when twisted in a fixed or alternating direction, and show the inhomogeneity and internal and external defects.
2.1.3.7.1
One-way twist
A test in which the steel wire takes itself as its axis and is evenly twisted in one direction until the sample breaks or reaches the specified number of twists.
2.1.3.7.2
Two-way twist
The steel wire sample rotates 360° uniformly in one direction around its own axis as one time, after twisting to the specified number of times, then rotates in the opposite direction
The test to the specified number of times or the sample breaks.
2.1.3.7.3
Twist gauge length
The gauge length between the two chucks.
2.1.3.7.4
Torsion tension
The tension applied to the steel wire in order to keep the sample straight.
2.1.3.7.5
Torsion rate
The number of turns of the steel wire sample around its own axis per unit time.
2.1.3.7.6
Fracture type
The morphology and characteristics of the fracture surface of the steel wire sample after rotating around its own axis.
2.1.3.7.7
Number of twists
The number of times the steel wire sample rotates around its own axis per unit time.
2.1.3.8
Winding/relaxation test
The steel wire sample is tightly spirally wound at the specified speed to the specified number of turns on the core rod with the specified diameter of the relevant standards for inspection
The sample (with or without coating) is tested for the ability of winding deformation or the adhesion of the coating.
2.1.3.8.1
Mandrel diameter
The diameter of the winding mandrel is determined according to the relevant product standards in order to test the ability of the steel wire sample to withstand winding deformation or the adhesion of the coating.
2.1.3.8.2
Winding rate
The number of spiral windings of the steel wire sample around the mandrel per unit time.
2.1.3.8.3
Number of winding
The number of tightly spirally wound turns of the steel wire sample on the core rod with the diameter specified in the relevant product standard.
2.1.3.9
Coating test
Test to check the coating weight, adhesion and uniformity of steel wire per unit area.
2.1.3.9.1
Coating weight
The weight of the coating per unit surface area of the steel wire.
2.1.3.9.2
Coating adhesion
The adhesion of the coating to the steel wire matrix.
2.1.3.9.3
Coating uniformity
The uniformity of the coating thickness distribution on the steel wire surface.
2.1.3.9.4
Salt spray test
Use the artificial simulated salt spray environmental conditions created by the salt spray test equipment to assess the corrosion resistance of metal materials or coverings
test.
Note. The artificial simulated salt spray environment usually includes neutral salt spray (NSS), acetic acid salt spray (AASS) and copper accelerated salt spray (CASS).
2.1.4
Wire rope inspection
Through the appearance, size, mechanical and technological performance of the split steel wire, tensile performance, fatigue performance, rotation performance, radial stiffness, and
The process of measuring, testing or inspecting quality characteristics such as oil rate and evaluating its quality.
2.1.4.1
Visual inspection
Through the inspection of the quality characteristics of the wire rope surface quality, non-looseness, straightness, flatness, residual torsion, and uniformity of oil coating, and
The process of quality evaluation.
2.1.4.1.1
Surface Quality
Sensory evaluation index of wire rope strand and rope twisting quality.
2.1.4.1.2
Not loose
Untie one end of the wire rope about two lay lengths of the two opposite strands.
Loose.
2.1.4.1.3
Flatness
The specified length of the wire rope is placed on a flat surface under no tension, the maximum distance it deviates from the axis, or the specified length of the wire rope
Under the condition of no tension, it sags naturally along the vertical line, and its free end deviates the maximum distance from the vertical line.
2.1.4.1.4
Residual twist
The number of free rotations of a wire rope of a specified length without tension.
Note. The inspection method for residual torsion is usually to pull the wire rope from the rope end of the wheel shaft to a specified length, release its free end, and measure it under no tension.
The number of free rotations.
2.1.4.2
Wire rope size measurement
By measuring the quality characteristics of the wire rope diameter or size, out-of-roundness, lay length, strand gap, wire diameter or size, and center wire diameter,
And the process of evaluating it.
2.1.4.2.1
Wire rope diameter/size
The pitch diameter of the cross-section of a round wire rope or the characteristic dimensions (such as width and thickness) of the non-circular cross-section.
2.1.4.2.2
Out of roundness o
The difference between the maximum and minimum diameters measured on the same cross-section of the wire rope is the percentage value of the nominal diameter of the wire rope.
2.1.4.2.3
Twist length
The outer steel wire of a single-strand steel wire rope, the outer strand of a multi-strand steel wire rope, or the unit wire rope of a cable-type steel wire rope rotates around the wire rope once or
A spiral, parallel to the distance between two corresponding points on the wire rope axis.
2.1.4.2.4
Thigh gap
The distance between two adjacent strands in the same layer.
2.1.4.2.5
Wire diameter/size
The cross-sectional diameter of the round steel wire, the height of the fully sealed steel wire or the height and width of the semi-sealed steel wire.
2.1.4.2.6
Center wire diameter
The diameter of the cross-section of the steel wire at the center of the wire rope in a single-twist wire rope or at the center of the strand in a multi-strand wire rope.
2.1.4.3
Stock split test
The steel wire strands (partially or completely) are disassembled into single steel wires, which are used to determine the total breaking force of the steel wire and the tensile force (tensile strength) of the steel wire,
Repeated bending, twisting, winding, coating weight, coating adhesion, coating uniformity and other performance tests.
2.1.4.4
Wire rope tensile test
A test to determine the breaking force and elongation of a steel wire rope sample under a unidirectional static tension.
2.1.4.4.1
Sample clamping method
The method of holding the wire rope sample on the testing machine.
2.1.4.4.1.1
Alloy casting
A method in which the loose ends of the steel wire rope samples are cast with molten metal, cooled to room temperature, and clamped in the fixture seat of the testing machine for tensile testing.
2.1.4.4.1.2
Resin casting method
The loose end of the steel wire rope sample is cast with resin, and after solidification, it is clamped in the fixture seat of the testing machine for tensile test.
2.1.4.4.1.3
Casing pressing
A method of compressing the steel wire rope sample with a sleeve and then clamping it in the fixture of the testing machine for tensile test.
2.1.4.4.1.4
Direct clamping method
The method in which the steel wire rope sample is directly clamped in the fixture of the testing machine for tensile test.
2.1.4.4.1.5
Winding method
The method of tensile test by winding the steel wire rope sample directly on the winding wheel of the testing machine.
2.1.4.4.2
Wire rope elongation
Under working load or specified load, the percentage of the total elongation of the wire rope in the elastic range to the original gauge length.
2.1.4.4.3
Elastic elongation
Under working load or specified load, the percentage of the recoverable elongation of the wire rope in the elastic range to the original gauge length.
2.1.4.4.4
Permanent elongation
Under the working load or the specified load, the wire rope is in the elastic range due to the change of the position of the wire in the strand and the position of the strand in the rope.
The percentage of recoverable elongation to the original gauge length.
Note. Permanent elongation is also called structural elongation.
2.1.4.4.5
Measurement of actual elastic modulus
In accordance with the prescribed test method, the test to determine the constant in the stress-strain relationship curve of the wire rope sample.
2.1.4.4.6
Measured breaking force determination
In accordance with the prescribed test method, the test to determine the tensile force value when the wire rope sample is broken or when the first broken wire occurs.
2.1.4.4.7
Break location and form
According to the specified tensile test method, the wire rope is stretched to the position and number of wire breaks when the first wire breaks or the wire rope breaks.
Quantity and appearance.
2.1.4.5
Bending fatigue test
The wire rope goes around the test wheel with a certain wrap angle. And apply a specified load to it, repeatedly bend it at a certain frequency, and evaluate
Its ability to withstand repeated bending tests.
2.1.4.6
Axial stress fatigue test
According to the specified test method, the test to determine the ability of the steel wire rope sample to withstand the axial impact load under the specified alternating stress.
2.1.4.7
Rotation performance test
In accordance with the prescribed test method, the test to determine the degree of rotation and torque per unit length of the wire rope sample.
2.1.4.7.1
Wire rope torque
Under the condition of keeping both ends of the wire rope not rotating, apply a static tensile load to it, and determine the
(N·m) represents the characteristic value.
2.1.4.7.2
Rotation of wire rope
Under the condition of keeping the two ends of the wire rope from rotating, apply a static tensile load to it, and the unit length is determined by experiment or calculation.
The characteristic value represented by the number of turns or degrees.
2.1.4.8
Steel wire rope radial stiffness test
A test to determine the ability of a wire rope to resist radial deformation without axial load.
2.1.4.9
Oil content
The general term for steel rope oil content, fiber rope core oil content and strand oil content.
2.1.4.9.1
Oil content of wire rope
The percentage of the mass of steel wire rope grease adsorbed on the surface of the steel wire rope (including the rope core) to the mass of the steel wire rope (including the rope core) after the grease has been removed.
2.1.4.9.2
Oil content of fiber rope core
The percentage of the mass of steel rope grease absorbed on the surface of the fiber rope core to the mass of the dry fiber core after removing the grease.
2.1.4.9.3
Oil content
The percentage of the quality of the steel wire rope grease absorbed on the surface of the rope and the weight of the rope after the grease has been removed.
2.2 Defects
Note. Appendix A gives typical examples of various defects.
2.2.1
Defects during manufacturing
Various defects that affect the use of steel wire ropes produced in the process of wire drawing, twisting and rope bonding.
2.2.1.1
Broken wire
Wire breakage appears in the wire rope strands.
2.2.1.2
Missing wire
The phenomenon of lack of steel wire over the full length or part of the length of the steel wire strand.
2.2.1.3
Jump wire
The surface of the wire rope has the phenomenon that the steel wire becomes bowed or raised in a ring shape.
2.2.1.4
Wire staggered
The steel wire crosses in the wire rope strand and the wire is not in the specified geometric position.
2.2.1.5
Mixed wire diameter
The phenomenon of exceeding the specified allowable deviation in the steel wire of the same nominal diameter in the wire rope strand.
2.2.1.6
Mixing intensity
The phenomenon that the steel wire of the same nominal tensile strength grade in the steel wire rope strand does not meet the tensile strength range of this grade.
2.2.1.7
The center wire is not enlarged
The phenomenon that the diameter of the center wire is not increased as required for strands of the same wire diameter in the wire rope.
2.2.1.8
strain
During the drawing process, due to defects in molds and other tooling or poor lubrication conditions, the wire surface scratches, cracks and other damage phenomena.
2.2.1.9
Stratification
Metal delamination in the longitudinal direction of the steel wire.
2.2.1.10
Bamboo joint
The surface of the steel wire has periodic unevenness in diameter and thickness along the longitudinal direction, and the shape is similar to bamboo joints.
2.2.1.11
Floating rust
The phenomenon of slight oxidation on the surface of the steel wire rope due to lack of steel wire drying and humid atmospheric environment.
Note. Floating rust can usually be wiped off by hand, and generally has no effect on performance.
2.2.1.12
Rust
Oxidation occurs locally or on the surface of the steel wire.
2.2.1.13
Pockmark
The surface of the steel wire appears as a concave rough surface with dots or flakes.
2.2.1.14
Bad connector
The improper method of the steel wire joint in the steel wire rope causes the phenomenon that the joint center is not right and the welding joint is too large.
2.2.1.15
Plating cracking
Cracks or delamination of the coating on the steel wire surface.
2.2.1.16
Coating peeling off
The coating on the steel wire surface has fallen off.
2.2.1.17
Loose strands
The wires in the wire rope strands are loose.
2.2.1.18
Loose strands
After the end of the wire rope is loosened or cut off, the steel wire in the strand is partially or completely scattered and cannot be reset.
2.2.1.19
Core exposed
The phenomenon that the strand core is exposed from the gap between the steel wires.
2.2.1.20
Slack
In the steel wire rope, the strand deformation is inconsistent or the degree of tightness is uneven, and the wire rope is not flat, strands protruding or sinking.
2.2.1.21
Uneven thigh gap
The phenomenon of inconsistent spacing between strands in a wire rope.
2.2.1.22
Loose wire rope
After the end of the wire rope is loosened or cut off, the strands can not be reset after being unfolded or opened.
2.2.1.23
Uneven lay length
The lay length is inconsistent in the whole length or part of the wire rope or strand.
2.2.1.24
Wire rope diameter is out of tolerance
The phenomenon that the total or partial diameter of the wire rope is below the lower limit specified by the standard or higher than the upper limit specified by the standard.
2.2.1.25
Out-of-roundness of wire rope is out of tolerance
The phenomenon that the out-of-roundness of the wire rope exceeds the limit specified by the standard.
2.2.1.26
Rope core exposed
The phenomenon in which the core of the rope is exposed from the gap between the partial or full length of the wire rope.
2.2.1.27
Poor oiling
Uneven grease on the surface of the wire rope or lack of grease on the rope core.
2.2.2
Defects during handling and transportation
Various defects in the handling, loading and unloading and transportation of wire ropes that affect the use of wire ropes.
2.2.2.1
Surface damage
Due to incorrect hoisting methods, improper loading and unloading tools, or improper loading and unloading, the surface of the wire rope caused by partial crushing, bruising, hanging, scratching,
Scratches and other phenomena.
2.2.2.2
Unorganized
Due to incorrect hoisting methods, improper loading and unloading tools, or rolling down from a high place, the wire rope wheel shaft is severely deformed or broken, resulting in the wire rope reel
The phenomenon that the volume is scattered, cannot be unrolled or installed.
2.2.3
Defects during storage
Various defects that affect the use of the wire rope during the storage of the wire rope.
2.2.3.1
Oil loss
Because the storage environment temperature is too high or under direct sunlight for a long time, the grease on the surface of the steel wire rope and even the grease on the rope core melts and loses.
Related standard: GB/T 12753-2020    GB/T 12763.3-2020
Related PDF sample: GB/T 21839-2019    GB/T 20119-2006