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QC/T 792-2022 PDF in English


QC/T 792-2022 (QC/T792-2022, QCT 792-2022, QCT792-2022)
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QC/T 792-2022: PDF in English (QCT 792-2022)

QC/T 792-2022
QC
AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY STANDARD
OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 43.140
CCS T 85
Replacing QC/T 792-2007
Motors and controllers for electric motorcycles and electric mopeds
ISSUED ON: APRIL 08, 2022
IMPLEMENTED ON: OCTOBER 01, 2022
Issued by: Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of PRC
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 6
1 Scope ... 9
2 Normative references ... 9
3 Terms and definitions ... 10
4 Product model compilation ... 12
5 Requirements ... 14
6 Test method ... 23
7 Inspection rules ... 34
Motors and controllers for electric motorcycles and electric mopeds
1 Scope
This document specifies the product model compilation, requirements, test methods,
inspection rules for motors (including motors including reducers) and controllers for
electric motorcycles and electric mopeds.
This document applies to the motors for electric motorcycles and electric mopeds
(hereinafter referred to as motors) and controllers.
2 Normative references
The contents of the following documents constitute the essential provisions of this
document through normative references in the text. Among them, for dated reference
documents, only the version corresponding to the H issue is applicable to this document;
for undated reference documents, the latest version (including all amendments) is
applicable to this document.
GB/T 755 Rotating electrical machines - Rating and performance
GB/T 1184-1996 Geometrical tolerancing - Geometrical tolerance for features
without individual tolerance indications
GB/T 2423.5-2019 Environmental testing - Part 2: Test methods - Test Ea and
guidance: Shock (IEC 60068-2-27:2008; IDT)
GB/T 2423.17-2008 Environmental testing for electric and electronic products - Part
2: Test method - Test Ka: Salt mist (IEC 60068-2-11:1981, IDT)
GB/T 4208-2017 Degrees of protection provided by enclosure (IP code)
GB/T 4942-2021 Degrees of protection provided by the integral design of rotating
electrical machines (IP code) - Classification
GB/T 5171.21-2016 Small power motors - Part 21: General test methods
GB/T 10069.1-2006 Measurement of airborne noise emitted by rotating electrical
machines and the noise limits - Part 1: Method for the measurement of airborne
noise emitted by rotating electrical machines (ISO 1680:1999, MOD)
GB/T 10069.3-2008 Measurement of airborne noise emitted by rotating electrical
machines and the noise limits - Part 3: Noise limits
GB/T 13202-2015 Series of motorcycle rims (ISO 4249-3:2010, ISO 5995-2:1988,
ISO 6054-2:1990, MOD)
GB/T 18387 Limits and test method of magnetic and electric field strength from
electric vehicles
GB/T 18488.1-2015 Drive motor system for electric vehicles - Part 1: Specification
GB/T 18488.2-2015 Drive motor system for electric vehicles - Part 2: Test methods
GB 34660 Road vehicles - Requirements and test methods of electromagnetic
compatibility
ISO 11898.1 Road vehicle - Controller Area Network (CAN) - Part 1: Data link layer
and physical signaling
ISO 11898.2 Road vehicle - Controller Area Network (CAN) - Part 2: High-speed
medium access unit
ISO 14229.2 Road vehicles - Unified Diagnostic Services (UDS) - Part2 : Session
layer services
ISO 15765.2 Road vehicles - Diagnostics on Controller Area Networks (CAN) - Part
2: Network layer services
ISO 16845.1 Road vehicles - Controller Area Network (CAN) conformance test plan
- Part 1: Data link layer and physical signaling
3 Terms and definitions
The following terms and definitions apply to this document.
3.1
Wheel with the outer shell of motor integrated
The motorcycle driving wheel, whose wheel hub and motor casing are made into an
integral part.
3.2
Continuous torque
The specified maximum torque that can work continuously for 30 minutes.
ZK - Brushed DC motor controller;
ZWK- Brushless DC motor controller;
YCK - Permanent magnet synchronous motor controller;
JYK - AC asynchronous motor controller;
KCK - Switched reluctance motor controller.
4.2.2 Voltage level
The controller adopts DC voltage input. The voltage level is indicated by the nominal
voltage value of the DC bus of the controller. If it is less than three digits, add a 0 in
front.
4.2.3 Current level code
The current level of the controller is indicated by the integer value (three Arabic
numerals) of the maximum DC input current of the controller. If there are less than three
digits, add a 0 in front.
4.2.4 Derivative code
The derivative codes are A, B...
Note: The letters I, N, O, Y are not used.
5 Requirements
5.1 General requirements
The motor shall be idling flexibly, without fixed-rotor friction or abnormal noises (such
as periodic abnormal noises, abnormal noises caused by damaged bearings, or abnormal
noises caused by foreign objects stuck in the rotating parts, etc.). The controller shall
have safety management functions, such as communication, fault diagnosis, calibration
and program refresh, which meet the whole vehicle requirements.
5.2 Environmental conditions for use
The motor and controller shall be able to work normally under the following conditions:
- Ambient temperature: -25 °C ~ 60 °C;
- Relative humidity: 0% ~ 100%.
5.3 Rated voltage
The rated voltage shall be the nominal voltage of the DC bus of the controller.
5.4 Appearance
The surface of the motor and controller shall be free of rust, bruises, cracks, peeling of
the coating. The fasteners shall be firmly connected. The lead wires shall be intact. The
contents of nameplate of the motor and controller shall be correct; the words shall be
clear; the background color shall not fade.
5.5 External dimensions and installation dimensions
The external dimensions and installation dimensions of the motor and controller shall
comply with the provisions of the technical documents of the enterprise.
5.6 Assembly requirements
5.6.1 Motor's axial clearance
The axial clearance of the power output end of the direct drive motor, non-direct drive
independent motor, motor and reducer integrated machine shall not be greater than 0.3
mm.
5.6.2 Radial circular runout
The radial circular runout of the output shaft of the inner rotor motors, such as direct
drive motors and non-direct drive independent motors, shall meet the tolerance
requirements of level 6 in GB/T 1184-1996. For the motor and reducer integrated
machine, the radial circular runout of the output shaft of the reducer shall meet the
tolerance requirements of level 6 in GB/T 1184-1996 standard.
5.6.3 End face runout
The end face runout of the outer edge of the integrated wheel-mounted motor wheel
shall not exceed 1 mm.
5.7 Sealing performance of cooling circuit in liquid cooling system
For liquid-cooled motors and controllers, there shall be no leakage, when subjected to
a pressure not lower than 200 kPa.
5.8 Lead wires and connectors
5.8.1 Color of lead wire
Among the three-phase main winding wires of brushless DC motors, permanent magnet
synchronous motors, switched reluctance motors, the U phase wires shall have obvious
blue marks; the V phase wires shall have obvious green marks; the W phase wires shall
have obvious yellow marks.
5.14 Direction of rotation of the motor rotor
The direction of rotation of the motor rotor shall comply with the provisions of the
product technical documentation.
5.15 No-load current
The motor runs at the rated voltage and at the speed specified in the technical documents
of the enterprise, for 5 minutes without load. The bus current shall not be greater than
the limit value, which is specified in the technical documents of the enterprise.
5.16 Motor performance parameters and efficiency
5.16.1 Operating voltage range
The operating voltage range of the motor system shall comply with the provisions of
the product technical documentation.
5.16.2 Continuous torque, continuous power
The continuous torque and continuous power of the motor shall be able to work
continuously, at the rated speed for 30 minutes.
5.16.3 Peak torque, peak power, maximum operating speed
The peak torque and peak power of the motor shall comply with the provisions of the
product technical documents, among which the electric motorcycle's drive motor shall
be able to operate normally for 60 s, under the peak torque and peak power conditions,
meanwhile the electric moped's drive motor shall be able to operate normally for 30 s,
under the peak torque and peak power conditions. Under the rated voltage, the
maximum operating speed of the motor and the size of the load running at the maximum
operating speed shall comply with the product technical documents.
5.16.4 Efficiency
Under rated voltage and continuous torque conditions, the maximum efficiency of the
motor and controller system shall not be lower than 75%. Under rated voltage, 50% and
160% continuous torque operating conditions, the maximum efficiency of the motor
and controller system shall not be lower than 70%.
For the motor and reducer integrated machine, under the rated voltage and continuous
torque conditions, the maximum system efficiency of the motor, controller, reducer
shall not be lower than 70%. Under rated voltage, 50% and 160% continuous torque
conditions, the highest system efficiency of the motor, controller, reducer shall not be
lower than 65%.
5.17 Speed control accuracy, torque control accuracy
For the motor system, which has speed control function and torque control function, the
control accuracy of speed and torque shall meet the requirements of product technical
documents.
5.18 Response time of speed and torque
For the motor system, which has speed control function and torque control function, the
response time of speed and torque shall meet the requirements of product technical
documents.
5.19 Motor overspeed
Run the motor at 1.2 times the maximum operating speed, for 2 minutes without load;
it shall not have mechanical deformation or abnormal noise.
5.20 Maximum input current of controller
The maximum input current of the controller shall be within the range, which is
stipulated in the technical documents of the enterprise.
5.21 Rated input current of controller
Under the rated input current condition of the controller, which is specified in the
technical documents of the enterprise, the controller shall be able to operate normally
for 2 hours continuously.
5.22 Controller efficiency
The maximum efficiency of the controller, under rated voltage and rated input current
conditions, shall not be less than 95%.
5.23 Short-term overload of controller
When the motor is running at the peak torque, corresponding to the overload condition
of the controller, the controller's overload duration of the electric motorcycle is 60 s;
the controller's overload duration of the electric moped is 30 s. After the short-term
overload is completed, the controller shall work normally.
5.24 Controller's adjustment function
The controller for open-loop control shall have the function of motor terminal voltage
regulation. The controller, whose outer loop is speed closed-loop control, shall have the
function of speed regulation. The controller, whose outer loop is torque closed-loop
control, shall have the function of torque regulation.
5.25 Controller's overvoltage and undervoltage protection function
The controller shall have over-voltage and under-voltage protection functions. The
the temperature rise limit, which is specified in GB/T 755.
5.32 Low temperature
After placed in cold power-off state at the ambient temperature range of -25 °C ± 1 °C
for 2 hours, the insulation resistance of the motor and controller shall meet the low
temperature requirements, which are specified in Clause 5.9. The motor and controller
shall be able to start in cold state without load. The performance of the motor and
controller, after standing still to room temperature, shall meet the requirements of 5.16.2.
5.33 High temperature
Within the ambient temperature range of 60 °C ± 2 °C, after the motor and controller
have been running without load for 2 hours, the insulation resistance shall meet the high
temperature requirements of 5.9. The performance of the motor and controller, after
stand still to room temperature, shall meet the provisions of 5.16.2.
5.34 Temperature cycle test
The motor and the controller shall be able to withstand the alternating temperature cycle
test of high temperature 60 °C ± 2 °C and low temperature - 25 °C ± 1 °C; the number
of cycles shall be 100; the maintenance time of high temperature and low temperature
in each cycle shall be 30 minutes, respectively. The switching time between high
temperature and low temperature shall be less than 3 minutes. After the test is completed
and allowed to stand to reach room temperature, the insulation resistance of the motor
and controller shall meet the requirements in 5.9; the performance shall meet the
requirements in 5.16.2.
5.35 Constant damp heat
The motor and controller shall be able to withstand the constant damp heat test, at 40 °C
± 2 °C, relative humidity 90% ~ 95%, for a duration of 48 hours. After the test, the no-
load current shall meet the requirements of 5.15; the insulation resistance shall meet the
constant damp heat test requirements of 5.9. The appearance rust shall not affect the
normal operation; the performance of the motor and the controller shall meet the
requirements of 5.16.2, after the motor is allowed to stand still to reach room
temperature.
5.36 Electromagnetic compatibility
5.36.1 Electromagnetic radiation
The electromagnetic radiation, which is generated by the motor and controller during
operation, shall comply with the provisions of GB/T 18387 and GB 34660.
5.36.2 Immunity to interference
controller reaches the rated input current of the controller, which is specified in the
technical documents of the enterprise, for a duration of 2 hours. Visually inspect the
controller for normal operation.
6.20 Controller efficiency
Fix the motor on the torque tester. Connect the controller and the motor correctly. Apply
the rated voltage to the controller. Adjust the adjustment command, to make the motor
run at the rated speed without load. After the operation is stable, the steering torque
tester gradually increases the motor torque, until the input current of the DC bus of the
controller reaches the rated input current of the controller, which is specified in the
technical documents of the enterprise. Read out the controller's input voltage, input
current, controller's output power, from the power analyzer. The input power of the
controller is the product of the DC bus voltage of the controller and the DC bus current.
The efficiency of the controller is the ratio -- of the output power of the controller TO
the input power of the controller.
6.21 Short-term overload of controller
Fix the motor on the torque tester. Connect the controller and the motor correctly. Apply
the rated voltage to the controller. Adjust the adjustment command, to make the motor
run without load in the speed range, which is corresponding to the peak torque. After
the operation is stable, the steering torque tester gradually increases the motor torque,
until it reaches the peak torque, which is specified in the technical documents of the
enterprise. The overload duration of the controller of the electric motorcycle's drive
motor is 60 s. The overload duration of the controller of the electric moped's drive motor
is 30 s. The controller shall be able to work normally, after the short-time overload is
completed.
6.22 Main functions of controller
6.22.1 Adjustment function of controller
Fix the motor on the torque tester. Connect the controller and the motor correctly. Apply
the rated voltage to the controller.
Controller of open loop control: Under no-load conditions, adjust the voltage regulation
command evenly. Use a voltmeter, to monitor the effective value of the output voltage
of the controller, under different voltage regulation commands. Confirm that the
effective value of the output voltage of the controller changes with the change of the
voltage regulation command.
The controller whose outer loop is the speed closed-loop: Under no-load conditions,
apply rated voltage to the controller. Adjust the speed regulation command evenly. Use
the tachometer, to measure the motor speed, under different speed regulation commands.
Confirm that the motor speed changes with the change of the speed regulation command.
The controller whose outer loop is the torque closed-loop: Evenly adjust the torque
regulation command. Use the torque measuring instrument, to measure the motor torque,
under different torque regulation commands. Confirm that the motor output torque
changes with the change of the torque regulation command.
6.22.2 Overvoltage and undervoltage protection function of controller
Fix the motor on the torque tester. Connect the controller and the motor correctly. Apply
the rated voltage to the controller. Adjust the adjustment command, to make the motor
run at the rated speed without load. Then increase/decrease the input voltage of the
controller to the protection value, which is stipulated in the technical documents of the
enterprise. The controller shall be able to stop working automatically.
6.22.3 Over-temperature protection function of controller
Place the controller in the temperature box. Connect the controller and motor correctly.
Apply the rated voltage to the controller. Adjust the adjustment command, to make the
motor run at the rated speed and continuous torque. Then adjust the temperature of the
temperature box, so that the temperature of the controller reaches the limit value, which
is specified in the technical documents of the enterprise. The controller shall have the
protection function of automatically reducing the output power, stopping the drive
motor or cutting off its own power.
Place the motor in the temperature box. Connect the controller and the motor correctly.
Apply the rated voltage to the controller. Adjust the adjustment command, to make the
motor run at the rated speed and continuous torque. Then adjust the temperature of the
temperature box, to make the motor temperature reach the limit value, which is
specified in the technical documents of the enterprise. The controller shall have the
protection function of automatically reducing the output power, stopping driving the
motor or cutting off its own power.
6.22.4 Overcurrent protection function of controller
Fix the motor on the torque tester. Connect the controller and the motor correctly. Apply
the rated voltage to the controller. Adjust the adjustment command, to make the motor
run at the rated speed without load. After the operation is stable, the steering torque
tester gradually increases the motor torque, until the current reaches the maximum input
current of the controller, which is specified in the technical documents of the enterprise,
or when the phase current output of the controller reaches the maximum output current
condition, THEN, continue to increase the motor torque by operating the torque tester.
The controller shall have the function of maintaining the work within the current limit
range. If a short circuit occurs, the controller shall have the protection function of
stopping the output of the current or cutting off the power itself.
6.22.5 Braking energy recovery function of controller
......
 
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.