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GB/T 40061-2021 (GB/T40061-2021)

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GB/T 40061-2021: PDF in English (GBT 40061-2021)
GB/T 40061-2021
ICS 71.020
F 19
Technical specification for liquid hydrogen production
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
Introduction ... 4 
1 Scope ... 5 
2 Normative references ... 5 
3 Terms and definitions ... 6 
4 Basic technical requirements ... 7 
5 Hydrogen liquefaction device ... 10 
6 Storage of liquid hydrogen ... 12 
7 Hydrogen discharge ... 13 
8 Automatic control and detection analysis ... 14 
9 Electrical facilities ... 17 
10 Lightning protection, anti-static and protective grounding ... 18 
11 Auxiliary facilities ... 19 
12 Safety protection ... 20 
Technical specification for liquid hydrogen production
1 Scope
This standard specifies the basic technical requirements, hydrogen liquefaction
equipment, liquid hydrogen storage, hydrogen discharge, automatic control and
detection analysis, electrical facilities, lightning protection, anti-static and
protective grounding, auxiliary facilities, safety protection of the liquid hydrogen
production system.
This standard applies to the design of newly built, rebuilt, expanded liquid
hydrogen production systems.
This standard does not apply to liquid hydrogen production systems, which are
used in the military, national defense, aerospace fields.
2 Normative references
The following documents are essential to the application of this document. For
the dated documents, only the versions with the dates indicated are applicable
to this document; for the undated documents, only the latest version (including
all the amendments) is applicable to this standard.
GB 3836.4 Explosive atmospheres - Part 4: Equipment protection by intrinsic
safety i
GB 3836.14 Explosive atmospheres - Part 14: Classification of areas -
Explosive gas atmosphere
GB/T 4208 Degrees of protection provided by enclosure (IP code)
GB/T 4830 Industrial process measurement and control instruments -
Pressure range and quality of air supply
GB 4962 Technical safety regulation for gaseous hydrogen use
GB/T 8175 Guide for design of thermal insulation of equipments and pipes
GB/T 8979 Pure nitrogen and high purity nitrogen and ultra-pure nitrogen
GB/T 24499 Technology glossary for gaseous hydrogen, hydrogen energy
hydrogen storage vessels should be installed at the edge of the plant area. The
terrain is required to be flat and open, with good natural ventilation. Meanwhile
it should provide anti-collision walls or fences; set up obvious fire prohibition
signs and safety warning signs.
4.3 Pipes, valves and accessories
4.3.1 For the design of piping and its accessories, it shall comply with the
relevant national standards and special equipment safety technical
4.3.2 When necessary, along the liquid hydrogen pipelines AND at pipeline
connections, it shall be equipped with cold and heat compensation structures.
4.3.3 Cryogenic liquid pipelines shall be equipped with measures, to prevent
the pipeline from overpressure, due to pipeline heating up.
4.3.4 For the selection of insulation method AND insulation materials of the
pipeline, as well as the selection of the thickness of the insulation layer, it shall
be determined according to the medium temperature and cold loss
requirements. Vacuum insulated pipelines should adopt multilayer insulation
materials. The main technical properties shall meet the requirements of GB/T
31480 and GB/T 31481. The main technical properties of non-vacuum insulated
pipelines shall meet the requirements of GB/T 8175.
4.3.5 The selection of pipeline valves AND the welding of pipeline joints shall
comply with the relevant requirements of GB 50177.
4.3.6 The minimum clear distance, BETWEEN the pipelines AND other
overhead pipelines, buried pipelines and buildings, shall comply with the
relevant requirements of GB 50177.
4.3.7 The configuration of liquid hydrogen transmission pipelines shall meet the
following requirements:
a) The material shall be compatible with liquid hydrogen;
b) It shall take thermal insulation measures;
c) The inside of the pipeline shall be carefully cleaned and dried, to remove
grease, moisture and mechanical impurities;
d) The pipe connection should be welded. The pipe joint shall be sealed and
e) Liquid hydrogen transmission pipelines shall be laid on the ground. The
layout of the pipelines shall avoid crossing roads. If open trenches are
production of liquid hydrogen.
5.1.4 The liquefaction process equipment shall be reasonably arranged, in
accordance with the sequence of the process flow AND site conditions.
Meanwhile it shall fully utilize the position difference. The distance, between
equipment and equipment, and between equipment and building (structure)
components, shall meet the requirements of production operation, installation
maintenance, overhead pipelines, underground trenches, etc.
5.1.5 The hydrogen compressor should be installed in a separate building
(structure). The hydrogen concentration alarm device shall be installed in the
hydrogen compressor room, where hydrogen is likely to accumulate,
meanwhile it shall be interlocked with the mechanical exhaust fan.
5.1.6 The unit equipment shall not straddle the two sides of the deformation
joint of the building.
5.1.7 The heating time of the hydrogen liquefaction device shall not be less than
the cooling time.
5.2 Configuration of process equipment
5.2.1 For the configuration of process equipment, it shall be determined after
technical and economic comparisons, based on factors such as product quality
requirements, liquefaction process flow and technical parameters, equipment
production capacity, equipment utilization efficiency.
5.2.2 For the type selection of process equipment, it shall be carried out
according to factors such as the type of material, flow rate, temperature,
5.2.3 For the selection of compressors, turboexpanders, etc., it shall be
determined according to the liquid hydrogen production capacity, process flow
and technical parameters. For the compressors, turboexpanders, vacuum
pumps, water pumps and other equipment, it shall select the high-efficiency
type-finalized products which is stable in operation, low in noise, low in failure
rate, convenient for maintenance.
5.2.4 For the supporting pressure vessel in the hydrogen liquefaction
equipment, it shall comply with the relevant national standards and special
equipment safety technical specifications.
5.2.5 For the motors and machinery and equipment, which are installed
outdoors, they shall have anti-rust and protective measures. The motor shall
comply with the relevant requirements of GB/T 4208.
5.2.6 For units, auxiliary equipment and pipelines, that are prone to vibration in
shall also be a high level alarm interlocking device.
7 Hydrogen discharge
7.1 General provisions
7.1.1 The liquid hydrogen production system shall be equipped with a hydrogen
discharge pipeline, according to the process requirements, including: discharge
pipe, empty valve, safety valve, etc.
7.1.2 On the outer wall of the low-temperature hydrogen discharge pipe at the
outlet of the hydrogen liquefaction device, it shall be provided with an insulation
layer at a place accessible to personnel, to prevent frostbite.
7.1.3 The low-temperature hydrogen discharge pipeline shall have sufficient
length, to ensure that the hydrogen temperature at the discharge port, is higher
than the air liquefaction temperature. The temperature of the discharge nozzle
shall not be lower than 90 K.
7.1.4 For the discharge pipe, whose hydrogen pressure exceeds 10 MPa, AND
the discharge pipe, whose pressure is lower than 1.6 MPa, they shall not share
the discharge main pipe.
7.1.5 In the discharge pipelines of processes such as purging, replacement,
regeneration, it should set up check valves.
7.1.6 The discharge pipes of normal temperature pipelines and low temperature
pipelines shall be set separately.
7.2 Discharge pipe
7.2.1 The discharge of hydrogen shall be equipped with a special discharge
pipe, which shall be directly discharged to the outdoor atmosphere.
7.2.2 The discharge pipe shall be set up vertically. The discharge pipe's opening
shall avoid the radiant heat and the jet flame, which are produced by hydrogen
combustion, from impacting people or equipment, otherwise it may cause
personal injury or equipment performance damage.
7.2.3 The hydrogen discharge pipe shall be made of copper, aluminum alloy,
stainless steel or other metallic materials. Plastic pipes or rubber pipes shall not
be used.
7.2.4 The discharge nozzle shall be equipped with devices, to prevent air
backflow, rain and snow intrusion, anti-condensation, blocking by foreign matter.
Meanwhile, it shall take effective static elimination measures.
8.2.5 For the temperature detection for the liquid hydrogen production system,
it mainly includes the temperature display of each heat exchanger in the liquid
hydrogen cold box, the temperature adjustment of heat exchanger, etc.
8.2.6 For the temperature sensor in the liquid hydrogen cold box, it shall select
a product with a wide temperature range. It shall set up a backup sensor at the
key temperature point.
8.2.7 For the continuous measurement of the liquid level of liquid hydrogen and
liquid nitrogen storage vessels, it should adopt a differential pressure
measuring instrument. The remote display should be converted into a standard
8.2.8 The hydrogen flow rate of the raw material at the inlet of the cold box shall
be monitored.
8.2.9 For the display mode and function of the secondary instrument, it shall be
determined according to the requirements of the liquid hydrogen production
process and control system. When signal transmission is required, it may select
an instrument, which has an analog signal output function OR a digital signal
output function.
8.3 Automatic control
8.3.1 The liquid hydrogen production system should use a digital control system,
such as a distributed control system (DCS), a data acquisition system, an
industrial microcomputer or a programmable control system (PLC). The
hardware and software configuration of the control system shall be adapted to
the production scale and control requirements.
8.3.2 For the control system, it shall be type selected in accordance with the
principles of easy integration with other control equipment and easy expansion
of functions. The selected system shall be stable and reliable.
8.3.3 The detection and control of process parameters in the production
process shall include the following:
a) Detection of operating parameters of the liquid hydrogen production
b) For important parameters for accounting or scheduling, it shall set an
accumulation function;
c) For the main parameters for analyzing the causes of accidents and failures,
it shall set a recording function;
d) Operation status and parameter detection of important valves,
c) At the outlet of the hydrogen liquefaction device and the liquid hydrogen
storage vessel, it should analyze the content of impurities, such as para-
hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, water, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, total
hydrocarbons, in the liquid hydrogen. The parahydrogen content is not
less than 95%.
8.4.2 Detection analysis methods
For the impurity content in hydrogen and liquid hydrogen, the analysis method
shall be implemented in accordance with the relevant requirements of GB/T
9 Electrical facilities
9.1 General provisions
9.1.1 For the electrical facilities of the liquid hydrogen production system, which
is in an explosive environment, they shall comply with the relevant requirements
of GB 50177.
9.1.2 For the arrangement of electrical devices and circuits in explosive
environments, it shall comply with the relevant requirements of GB 50058, GB
3836.4, GB 3836.14.
9.2 Power supply
9.2.1 For the power supply of the liquid hydrogen production system, it shall be
classified according to the load specified in GB 50052.
9.2.2 The main wiring of the power supply shall be simple and reliable, safe in
operation, flexible in operation, convenient in maintenance.
9.2.3 For the power supply's voltage level and power supply loop, it shall be
determined according to the scale of production, nature and power
consumption, combining with the power supply conditions of the regional power
grid. The liquid hydrogen production system should adopt 10 kV power supply.
9.3 Electrical equipment and wiring
9.3.1 The power distribution equipment of the liquid hydrogen production
system shall be close to the load center. It shall be controlled centrally. The
power distribution room and control room shall not be adjacent to places, that
are corrosive and prone to water accumulation.
9.3.2 Explosion-proof lamps shall be used for the lighting of rooms with
explosion hazard. The light source should be high-efficiency light sources, such
electricity in an explosive environment. They shall comply with the relevant
requirements of GB 50177.
10.6 For the equipment and pipelines, which require grounding, they shall be
provided with grounding terminals. Between the grounding terminal and the
grounding wire, it may be fastened and connected by bolts. For the equipment
and pipelines with vibration and displacement, it shall use a flexible connection
wire for transition at the connections.
11 Auxiliary facilities
11.1 Instrument gas supply
11.1.1 The instrument gas source shall comply with the relevant requirements
of GB/T 4830.
11.1.2 For the design capacity of the instrument gas source, it shall be
determined based on the total gas consumption of the process equipment,
considering the utilization factor and the piping system leakage factor.
11.1.3 For the capacity of the gas storage buffer tank for the instrument gas, it
shall ensure that, when all air compressors are stopped, it should guarantee
the gas consumption requirements for 20 min ~ 30 min of equipment, under the
conditions that the gas supply pressure is not lower than the minimum allowable
working pressure of the pneumatic equipment.
11.1.4 For gas supply points with large fluctuations in gas consumption, it
should take gas from the gas source main pipe. It should use a single-line gas
supply method.
11.1.5 For the occasions with multiple instruments or densely arranged
instruments, it should use branch-trunk gas supply method, where it is leaded
from the branch-trunk pipe to the air distributor or the gas supply point.
11.1.6 When the gas supply pipeline network supplies gas to the instruments of
multiple devices (such as hydrogen production device, hydrogen liquefaction
device, hydrogen pipe network, etc.), it should use the loop pipeline network for
gas supply.
11.2 Nitrogen supply
11.2.1 The nitrogen of the liquid hydrogen production system is mainly used for:
regeneration gas of hydrogen purification, purging replacement gas of
hydrogen system, shielding gas of isolating air, positive pressure protection gas,
debugging and repairing gas of pneumatic instrument, instrument purging gas,
standby gas for instrument gas source, etc.
(Above excerpt was released on 2021-06-30, modified on 2021-06-30, translated/reviewed by: Wayne Zheng et al.)
Source: https://www.chinesestandard.net/PDF.aspx/GBT40061-2021