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GB/T 37586-2019 (GB/T37586-2019)

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GB/T 37586-2019: PDF in English (GBT 37586-2019)

GB/T 37586-2019
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 25.200
J 36
Technical regulation for simulation on heat treatment
process of heavy steel forgings
ISSUED ON: JUNE 04, 2019
IMPLEMENTED ON: JANUARY 01, 2020
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of
China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
1 Scope ... 4 
2 Normative references ... 4 
3 Terms and definitions ... 5 
4 Basic procedures of simulation on heat treatment process of heavy steel
forgings ... 6 
5 Numerical simulation technical specification for heat treatment process ... 6 
6 Physical simulation technical specification for heat treatment process ... 13 
7 Safety and hygiene ... 16 
8 Report of heat treatment process simulation ... 16 
Annex A (informative) Reference examples for heat treatment process
simulation of heavy steel forgings ... 17 
Technical regulation for simulation on heat treatment
process of heavy steel forgings
1 Scope
This Standard specifies basic procedures, numerical simulation technical
specification for heat treatment process, physical simulation technical
specification for heat treatment process, safety and hygiene requirements, and
heat treatment process simulation report of simulation on heat treatment
process of heavy steel forgings.
This Standard is applicable to quenching, tempering, annealing and normalizing
process simulation of heavy steel forgings used for heavy equipment in
industries such as energy, metallurgy, transportation. It is not applicable to
chemical heat treatment and surface heat treatment process.
2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of
this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated
references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any
amendments) applies.
GB/T 228.1, Metallic materials - Tensile testing - Part 1: Method of test at
room temperature
GB/T 229, Metallic Materials - Charpy Pendulum Impact Test Method
GB/T 231.1, Metallic materials - Brinell hardness test - Part 1: Test method
GB/T 2975, Steel and steel products - Location and preparation of samples
and test pieces for mechanical testing
GB/T 6394, Metal - Methods for estimating the average grain size
GB/T 6803, Test method for drop-weight test to determine nil-ductility
transition temperature of ferritic steels
GB/T 7232, Terminology of metal heat treatment
GB/T 9452, Testing method for working zone of heat treatment furnace
GB/T 13298, Inspection methods of microstructure for metals
GB/T 13324, Terminology of heat treatment equipment
GB 15735, Requirements for the safety and health in production process of
metal heat treatment
GB/T 15749, Measuring method in quantitative metallography
GB/T 30825, Pyrometry for heat treatment
GB/T 31054, Computer aided engineering for mechanical products - Finite
element numerical calculation - Terminology
GB/T 32541, Quality control system for heat treatment
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions defined in GB/T
7232, GB/T 13324 and GB/T 31054 as well as the followings apply.
3.1 numerical simulation
computer simulation
A method that combines the concepts and methods such as finite element
method, finite volume method, finite difference method, that uses computer,
through numerical calculation and image display, to achieve a purpose of
researching engineering and physical issues and even various issues in nature.
NOTE: In this Standard, it refers that performing analysis on physical quantities such as
temperature, tissue and stress of heavy steel forgings during the given heat treatment
process, to obtain details of their distribution and evolution in heavy steel forgings, so as
to provide temperature curve for simulation on heat treatment process of heavy steel
forgings. It can also be used directly as a basis for the development of heat treatment
process.
3.2 physical simulation
A method that simulates real physical process through physical experiment in
the laboratory. Usually, place the reduced model of the actual object into the
experimental body (such as heating furnace, wind tunnel, sink, etc.). Based on
the satisfaction of basic similar conditions (including geometry, motion, thermal,
dynamic and boundary conditions), it simulates the main features of the real
process.
NOTE 1: Since all similar conditions cannot be fully satisfied, proper selection of similar
a) Mathematical model
Numerical simulation on temperature field for heat treatment process of
heavy steel forgings usually contains transient heat transfer model with
internal heat source.
b) Boundary conditions
- Interface heat transfer boundary conditions refer to the quantitative
expression of heat exchange between heavy steel forgings and heating
or cooling media interface. It usually uses the third type of boundary
conditions, that is, set the heat transfer coefficient and ambient
temperature.
- Internal heat source boundary conditions refer to the release or
absorption of latent heat due to phase change during heat treatment
process of heavy steel forgings. It can be treated by equivalent specific
heat method or internal heat source method.
c) Input parameters
Input parameters of numerical simulation on temperature field for heat
treatment of heavy steel forgings include density, specific heat, thermal
conductivity, latent heat of phase change and heat transfer coefficient. In
order to improve the accuracy of numerical simulation, it shall consider the
influence of tissue type and temperature change on density, specific heat
and thermal conductivity, as well as the influence of phase change type
and phase change temperature change on latent heat of phase change.
5.2.3 Numerical simulation on tissue field
Numerical simulation on tissue field of heavy steel forgings takes phase
transition kinetic model as basis. It calculates the phase transition during heat
treatment process through numerical method so obtain detailed information on
the evolution of the tissue field during the whole process of heat treatment of
heavy steel forgings, including tissue type, mass or volume fraction and
distribution. Numerical simulation on tissue field contains the following two parts:
a) Mathematical model
Numerical simulation on tissue field of heavy steel forgings contains
Austenite grain growth model and phase variable calculation model. In the
analysis of temperature-tissue-stress three-field coupling, the phase
transition kinetic model shall consider the effect of stress on the tissue
field.
b) Input parameters
coefficient. In order to improve numerical simulation accuracy, it shall
consider the influence of tissue type and temperature change on
mechanical properties of material as well as the influence of phase
transformation type on phase transformation strain coefficient and phase
transformation plastic coefficient.
5.2.5 Numerical simulation on multi-field coupling
Numerical simulation on multi-field coupling for heat treatment of heavy steel
forgings uses numerical method to simultaneously find solution for multiple
physics fields with mutual coupling during heat treatment process, to obtain
detailed information of distribution of physical quantities such as temperature,
tissue, stress in heavy steel forgings as well as evolution over time. There are
usually three heat treatment process numerical simulation levels, that is, single
field simulation of temperature field, two-field coupling simulation of
temperature field-tissue field, temperature field-stress field, three-field coupling
simulation of temperature field-tissue field-stress field.
According to the material properties and heat treatment process characteristics
of specific heavy steel forgings, it can select numerical simulation on different
levels of heat treatment process so as to support or optimize the heat treatment
process from different degrees.
5.3 Solution calculation
Solution calculation mainly refers to use computer, according to specific
settings, to perform solution calculation of large linear equations in the
background. These settings include numerical methods used, accuracy
requirements, storage frequency, thread allocation.
5.4 Post-processing
Post-processing outputs the numerical simulation results into graphical images
and 3D animations with engineering implications for guiding process analysis
so as to realize the visualization of numerical simulation results.
5.5 Benchmark experiment
5.5.1 If it needs to evaluate the applicability of the numerical simulation tool, it
can entrust a third party or a numerical simulation tool provider to conduct the
benchmark experiment.
5.5.2 The benchmark experiment shall select a sample made of heavy forged
steel, of which the diameter is 20mm~50mm, the length is 60mm~200mm, for
temperature, tissue, distortion and residual stress testing.
5.5.3 According to supercooled austenite continuous transformation kinetic
time-temperature curve at sampling position of heavy steel forging that is
extracted from numerical simulation results of heat treatment process as the
process curve of heat treatment simulation experiment. According to
performance testing requirements, prepare the sample of heat treatment
simulation test. In the simulation experimental furnace, conduct heat treatment
experiment during the entire processes such as heating, insulation and cooling.
Perform performance testing and microstructure analysis to the sample that has
been subject to heat treatment simulation experiment.
6.2 Simulation experimental furnace
6.2.1 Simulation experimental furnace shall integrate heating, insulation and
cooling functions, for easy operation.
6.2.2 The temperature uniformity of the effective heating zone of the empty
furnace of heat treatment simulation experimental furnace shall be less than or
equal to 3°C. The effective heating zone is tested according to the method of
GB/T 9452 or GB/T 30825.
6.2.3 Temperature measurement and temperature control shall be conducted
according to the following methods:
a) Temperature control system that meets the requirements of GB/T 32541
shall be configured according to the heat treatment process requirements;
b) Recording devices that track the temperature of heating, insulation, and
cooling processes shall be equipped;
c) Calibration period and calibration tolerance of the temperature sensor
shall meet the requirements of GB/T 9452 or GB/T 30825;
d) It shall ensure the temperature curve of the temperature-controlled
thermocouple be consistent with the temperature curve of the physical
simulation process;
e) Calibration period and calibration tolerance of the load thermocouple shall
comply with the provisions of GB/T 30825;
f) Accuracy requirements of instrument system shall meet the requirements
of Class I equipment in GB/T 32541.
6.2.4 Cooling rate shall meet the following requirements:
a) It may use wind cooling and/or water-spraying cool, equipped with fans,
pumps, nozzles and control valves, to make gas and/or water go through
furnace interior. And evenly cool the sample.
b) Cooling rate of heat treatment simulation experimental furnace can be
6.6 Metallographic analysis
The microstructure analysis and grain size analysis of the physical simulation
samples are carried out according to the methods specified in GB/T 13298 and
GB/T 6394, respectively.
7 Safety and hygiene
The safety and hygiene of heat treatment operations shall meet the
requirements of GB 15735, good ventilation and dust removal conditions in the
workplace.
8 Report of heat treatment process simulation
Heat treatment process simulation shall issue a report. The report shall contain:
- project name;
- project number;
- organization’s name;
- report writer;
- report date;
- basic information of heat treatment process simulation, including material
composition, geometry and dimensions, sampling, performance
requirements, process information and tools used for numerical simulation
of heat treatment of heavy steel forgings;
- numerical simulation results, including temperature curve of the sampling
position of heavy steel forging, temperature distribution of heavy steel
forging at different times, tissue distribution cloud map, stress distribution
cloud map and final geometry and dimensions. If multiple numerical
simulations are performed, the above results obtained by simulation under
each heat treatment process condition shall be included;
- physical simulation results, including actual sample temperature curve,
sample tissue and performance testing data;
- final recommended heat treatment process.
......
 
(Above excerpt was released on 2019-11-02, modified on 2021-06-07, translated/reviewed by: Wayne Zheng et al.)
Source: https://www.chinesestandard.net/PDF.aspx/GBT37586-2019