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GB/T 31498-2015 (GB/T31498-2015)

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GB/T 31498-2015: PDF in English (GBT 31498-2015)
GB/T 31498-2015
ICS 43.020
T 47
National Standard
of the People’s Republic of China
The safety requirement
of electric vehicle post crash
ISSUED ON. MAY 15, 2015
Issued by. General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and
Standardization Administration Committee.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
1 Scope ... 4 
2 Normative references ... 4 
3 Terms and definitions ... 4 
4 Technical requirements ... 7 
5 Test procedure ... 8 
Appendix A ... 10 
This Standard was drafted in accordance with the rules of the GB/T 1.1-2009.
This Standard was proposed by the Ministry of Industry and Information
This Standard shall be under the jurisdiction of the National Technical
Committee on Automobile of Standardization Administration of China (SAC/TC
Drafting organizations of this Standard. China Automotive Technology
Research Center, Anhui Jiang Huai Automobile Corp, BYD Automobile Industry
Co. Ltd., Chongqing Changan Automobile Company Limited, FAW Technology
Center, SAIC Motor Technical Center, the Pan Asia Technical Automotive
Center Co. Ltd., the National Automobile Quality Supervision and Inspection
Center (Xiangfan), Shanghai Motor Vehicle Inspection Center, Zhejiang Geely
Automobile Research Institute Co. Ltd., Beiqi Foton Motor Co. Ltd., Guangzhou
Automobile Group Co, Auto Engineering Research Institute, Qoros Automotive
Co., Ltd, Guangzhou Toyota Automobile Limited company R & D Center, FAW-
Volkswagen Automobile Co. Ltd., Shanghai Volkswagen Co. Ltd., Beijing
Hyundai Motor Co. Ltd.
Main drafters of this Standard. Liu Guibin, Sun Zhendong, Li Yugang, Xie Shibin,
Zhao Hui, Yu Huili, Li Hongjian, Qiu Shaobo, Wang Dazhi, Shen Haidong, Li
Qianghong, Yang Hui, Wu Cheng Ming, Zhang Lili, Chen Jinhua, Liu Yang,
Chen Wencai, Lu Fang, Lin Song, Wu Qing, Fan Dapeng, Chi Yonghao, Zhang
Wei, Xu Kai.
The safety requirement of electric vehicle post crash
1 Scope
This Standard specifies the specific safety requirements and test methods for
pure electric vehicles with voltage class B circuit and hybrid electric vehicles in
the event of a frontal or lateral collision.
This Standard applies to pure electric vehicles with voltage class B circuit and
hybrid vehicles in line with GB 11551 and GB 20071.
2 Normative references
The following documents are essential to the application of this document. For
the dated documents, only the versions with the dates indicated are applicable
to this document; for the undated documents, only the latest version (including
all the amendments) are applicable to this Standard.
GB 4208 Degrees of Protection Provided By Enclosure (IP Code)
GB 11551 The protection of the passenger in the event of a frontal collision for
passenger car
GB/T 18384 (all parts) Electric vehicles-Safety specification
GB/T 18385-2005 Electric vehicles - Power performance - Test method
GB/T 19596-2004 Terminology of electric vehicles
GB 20071 The protection of the passengers in the event of a lateral collision
3 Terms and definitions
The terms and definitions defined in GB/T 18384 and GB/T 19596-2004 AND
the following ones are applicable to this document.
3.1 Working voltage
According to the manufacturer's instructions, in any normal working state, the
effective value of AC voltage (rms) or the maximum value of the d.c. voltage
(without considering the transient peak) possible in the power system.
A set of electrically connected conductive parts. Its potential is used as the
reference potential.
3.12 High voltage bus
A high-voltage circuit connected to the REESS, including the external
transmission part and the charging section of the REESS.
3.13 Fire
The occurrence of continuous flame.
Note. the instant spark or the electric arc is not included.
3.14 Explosion
A sudden release of energy capable of structural or physical damage to the
surrounding objects by its pressure wave.
3.15 Balance of electric power system
When disconnect all REESS and fuel cell stacks, the remaining voltage class B
4 Technical requirements
4.1 General principles
After the vehicle preparation and crash test in accordance with 5.1 and 5.2, the
high-voltage system of vehicles with REESS and the high-voltage components
connected with high-voltage transmission shall meet the requirements of 4.2 ~
4.2 Requirements for protection against electric shock
4.2.1 General requirements
Every high-voltage bus shall meet at least one of the four provisions specified
in 4.2.2 to 4.2.5. If the crash test is carried out when the vehicle’s REESS is
disconnected with the power system, the vehicle’s power-system load shall
meet one of the provisions specified in 4.2.4 or 4.2.5. The REESS and high-
voltage bus for charging shall meet one of provisions specified in 4.2.2 to 4.2.5.
4.2.2 Voltage requirements
According to test method specified by A.1, the voltage Vb, V1 and V2 of the high-
voltage bus shall not be more than 30 V a.c. or 60 V d.c..
4.2.3 Electric energy requirements
The total electric energy of the high voltage bus TE shall be less than 0.2 J. TE
can be obtained by one of the following two ways. One is to follow the
measuring procedure specified by formula A.1 to get the total energy TE. The
other is to follow formula A.2. Use voltage Vb of the high voltage bus and the
capacitance (Cx) specified by the Manufacturer's X-capacitor to calculate the
total energy TE.
The energy stored in the Y-capacitor (TEy2, TEy1) shall be less than 0.2J. Use
voltage V1 of the high voltage bus, Voltage V2 of the electrical chassis, and the
capacitance (Cy1, Cy2) specified by the Manufacturer's Y-capacitor to calculate
this value by formula A.3.
4.2.4 Physical protection
To prevent the direct contact with high voltage electric parts, the vehicle shall
be protected by IPXXB degree after the crash, and the test method is A.3. In
addition, to prevent the electric shock from the indirect contact, use electric
current of more than 0.2 A to test. The resistance between all the exposed
conductive parts and the electrical chassis shall be lower than 0.1Ω. When the
electric connection uses welding, then it shall meet this requirement.
5.1.1 Pure electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles shall follow 5.1
in GB/T 18385-2005 for full charge.
5.1.2 Hybrid electric vehicles with no external charging shall remain the normal
operation state for testing.
5.1.3 Pure electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles’ crash test shall
be carried out within 24 hours of vehicle charging.
5.1.4 To carry out frontal crash test, other conditions for the vehicle shall be
prepared by GB 11551.
5.1.5 To carry out side crash test, other conditions for the vehicle shall be
prepared by GB 20071.
5.2 Crash test
The form and method of frontal crash test shall follow the relevant provisions of
GB 11551.
The form and method of side crash test shall follow the relevant provisions of
GB 20071.
5.3 Post-crash inspection and testing of the electrical safety requirements
Related electrical safety test shall follow the provisions in Appendix A.
5.4 Vehicles after the test shall conform to the provisions in Chapter 4.
If part or all of the joint test-finger enter the physical protection part, the joint
test-finger shall be placed in the position specified below.
From the straight line position, rotate the two joints of the test-finger, until the
maximum angle of the axis of adjacent sections is 90 degrees. And place them
in every possible position.
The internal barrier is regarded as a part of the shell.
Use a mirror or fiberscope to check whether the joint test-finger is in contact of
a high-voltage bus, or use low-voltage signal circuit to check whether the joint
test-finger is in contact with the high voltage live parts.
If the IPXXB test-finger is not in contact with the high-voltage live parts, it is
deemed as meeting the requirements of 4.2.3.
A.4 Insulation resistance measurement method
A.4.1 General Rules
The insulation resistance between the high-voltage bus and the electrical
chassis can be obtained by following the measurement and calculation method
in A.4.2, or the measuring method in A.4.3.
A.4.2 Measurement method by using the internal d.c. voltage source
(connected to d.c. circuit poles)
Connect the vehicle’s REESS or the energy conversion system, or other power
sources to the class-B circuit, the voltage class shall be within the normal
operating range specified by the vehicle manufacturer. If in the collision process,
the REESS or the energy conversion system or other power supply is
automatically disconnected with the class-B circuit; to measure the insulation
resistance, re-connect it or connect it with an external voltage source to the
class-B circuit. An external voltage source shall provide at least the same
voltage as the REESS or the energy conversion system or other voltage source
The measurement steps are as follows.
- Measure and record the voltage (Vb) between the cathode side and the
positive side of the high-voltag...
(Above excerpt was released on 2015-11-07, modified on 2021-06-07, translated/reviewed by: Wayne Zheng et al.)
Source: https://www.chinesestandard.net/PDF.aspx/GBT31498-2015