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GB/T 24160-2022 (GB/T24160-2022)

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GB/T 24160-2022: PDF in English (GBT 24160-2022)

GB/T 24160-2022
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 23.020.30
CCS J 74
Replacing GB/T 24160-2009
Hoop-wrapped composite cylinders with steel liner for the
on-board storage of compressed natural gas as a fuel for
automotive vehicles
(ISO 11439:2013, Gas cylinders - High pressure cylinders for the on-
board storage of natural gas as a fuel for auto motive vehicles, NEQ)
ISSUED ON: MARCH 09, 2022
IMPLEMENTED ON: APRIL 01, 2023
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
1 Scope ... 5 
2 Normative references ... 5 
3 Terms, definitions and symbols ... 7 
4 Type and parameters ... 8 
5 Technical requirements ... 9 
6 Test methods ... 15 
7 Inspection rules ... 23 
8 Marking, coating, packaging, transportation, storage ... 33 
9 Product certificate, product instruction manual and batch inspection quality certificate
... 34 
Annex A (normative) Hydrogen sulfide stress corrosion test ... 37 
Annex B (informative) Determination method for NDE defect size ... 39 
Annex C (normative) Ultrasonic testing ... 40 
Annex D (informative) Batch inspection quality certificate for hoop-wrapped
composite cylinders with steel liner for the on-board storage of compressed natural gas
as a fuel for automotive vehicles ... 45 
Bibliography... 47 
Hoop-wrapped composite cylinders with steel liner for the
on-board storage of compressed natural gas as a fuel for
automotive vehicles
1 Scope
This document specifies the types and parameters, technical requirements, test methods,
inspection rules, marking, coating, packaging, transportation and storage requirements
for hoop-wrapped composite cylinders with steel liner for the on-board storage of
compressed natural gas as a fuel for automotive vehicles (hereinafter referred to as "the
hoop-wrapped cylinder").
This document applies to the hoop-wrapped cylinders, of which the designed and
manufactured nominal working pressure is 20MPa, 25MPa, 30MPa, the nominal
volume is 30L~450L, the working temperature is -40℃~65℃, and the designed service
life is 15 years.
The hoop-wrapped cylinders manufactured in accordance with this document are only
used for the compressed natural gas storage containers for vehicles that are fixed on
vehicles and filled in compliance with GB 18047 and used as a vehicle fuel. Additional
loads due to external forces are not included in the conditions of use.
2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this
document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references,
the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
GB/T 222, Permissible tolerances for chemical composition of steel products
GB/T 223 (all parts), Iron, steel and alloy - Determination
GB/T 224, Determination of the depth of decarburization of steels
GB/T 226, Test method for macrostructure and defect of steel by etching
GB/T 228.1, Metallic materials - Tensile testing - Part 1: Method of test at normal
temperature
GB/T 229, Metallic materials - Charpy pendulum impact test method
d) Impact of gravel;
e) Contact with acid and alkali solutions, fertilizers;
f) Corrosion of automotive fluids, including gasoline, hydraulic fluids, battery acids,
glycols and oils;
g) Exposure to exhaust gases.
5.2 Materials
5.2.1 Liner materials
5.2.1.1 It shall be timeless sedated steel smelted by electric furnace or oxygen converter.
5.2.1.2 It shall use high-quality chrome-molybdenum steel (30CrMo or 34CrMo4).
5.2.1.3 It shall comply with the corresponding national standards or industry standards
and have a quality certificate. The manufacturer of the hoop-wrapped cylinder shall
carry out verification and analysis of various indicators according to the furnace tank
number.
5.2.1.4 The chemical composition of the material is limited as shown in Table 2. The
allowable deviation of its chemical composition shall be in accordance with the
provisions of GB/T 222.
5.2.1.5 The low magnification structure of the billet shall not have white spots, residual
shrinkage cavities, delamination, bubbles, foreign bodies and inclusions. The central
porosity shall not be greater than level 2.0. The segregation shall not be greater than
level 2.5.
Table 2 -- Chemical composition of steel
5.2.1.6 Seamless steel pipe
5.2.1.6.1 The straightness of the steel pipe shall not exceed 1.5mm/m. The roundness
shall not be greater than 80% of the allowable deviation of the outer diameter.
5.2.1.6.2 There shall be no cracks, folds, folds, delamination and scars on the inner and
outer surfaces of the steel pipes. If there are defects, they shall be completely removed.
The clearance shall be smooth. The actual wall thickness after removal shall not be less
than the minimum allowable wall thickness.
5.2.1.6.3 The seamless steel pipe shall be inspected for longitudinal and transverse
Element
Content
ultrasonic flaw detection one by one by the steel mill according to the provisions of
GB/T 5777. The requirements for acceptance level U2 shall be met.
5.2.2 Wrapping layer material
5.2.2.1 Resin
5.2.2.1.1 The impregnating material may be a thermoset or thermoplastic resin. Suitable
matrix materials are: epoxy, modified epoxy, polyester and vinyl thermosetting resins
and polyethylene, polyamide thermoplastic resins.
5.2.2.1.2 The performance and technical indicators of the impregnating material shall
comply with the provisions of the corresponding national standards or industry
standards. There shall be a quality certificate.
5.2.2.2 Fiber
5.2.2.2.1 The type of fiber material for structural reinforcement shall be glass fiber,
aramid fiber or carbon fiber.
5.2.2.2.2 The fiber material shall comply with the provisions of the corresponding
national standards or industry standards. It shall have a quality certificate.
5.3 Design
5.3.1 General provisions
5.3.1.1 This document does not provide design formulas. However, proper calculation,
analysis and demonstration are required in the design, so as to make the hoop-wrapped
cylinder can successfully pass the tests of materials, types and batches specified in this
document.
5.3.1.2 The design shall ensure that the failure mode of the hoop-wrapped cylinder due
to the degradation of the quality of the pressure-bearing components during normal use
is "leak before explosion". If the metal liner leaks, it shall only be due to the expansion
of fatigue cracks.
5.3.1.3 The maximum tensile strength of the liner material shall be limited. If the sulfur
and phosphorus content is not more than 0.005% and 0.010% respectively, and the
hydrogen sulfide stress corrosion test (stress ring method) is carried out according to
Annex A and GB/T4157, the actual tensile strength of the allowable material shall be
greater than 880MPa but not greater than 1000MPa. When designing, the guaranteed
value of the yield strength of the liner material shall not exceed 90% of the guaranteed
value of the tensile strength.
5.3.1.4 The hydrostatic test pressure Ph of the hoop-wrapped cylinder is 1.5 times the
nominal working pressure P.
5.4.1 The manufacture of the liner and the hoop-wrapped cylinder shall comply with
the provisions of this document. It shall comply with the product drawings and the
provisions of the relevant technical documents.
5.4.2 The liner generally adopts the following manufacturing methods:
a) It uses billets, ingots and bars as raw materials. It is made by squeezing, stretching
or spin thinning and mouth closing;
b) It uses seamless steel pipe as raw material. It is made by closing the bottom and
closing the mouth;
c) It uses steel plate as raw material. It is made by stamping, stretching or spinning,
thinning and mouth closing.
5.4.3 The chemical composition of the material shall be verified by the furnace number
of the material before the liner is manufactured. The analysis method shall be performed
according to GB/T 223 (all parts) or GB/T4336. The results shall meet the requirements
of 5.2.1.
5.4.4 The liner shall not be welded.
5.4.5 The liner made of seamless steel pipe and made by closing the bottom shall be
subjected to the bottom sealing test one by one before mouth closing.
5.4.6 Special tools are allowed to use to grind the surface defects on the liner and the
hoop-wrapped cylinder.
5.4.7 Manufacturing shall be managed in batches. For the finished liners and finished
hoop-wrapped cylinders, a batch shall be: no more than 200 pieces plus the number of
liners or hoop-wrapped cylinders for the destructive test.
5.4.8 The heat treatment liner shall be heat treated as a whole through a continuous
heating furnace. The heat treatment shall be carried out according to the qualified heat
treatment process. Quenching process can use oil or water with additives as quenching
medium. When adding additives in water as a quenching medium, the cooling rate of
the liner in the medium shall not be greater than 80% of the cooling rate in water at
20°C. After the liner is heat-treated, non-destructive testing shall be carried out one by
one.
5.4.9 Before the manufacture of the hoop-wrapped cylinder, the wrapping layer
materials shall be confirmed in batches. It shall meet 5.2.2 and the following
requirements:
a) The epoxy equivalent of the grease shall be determined according to GB/T 4612;
b) The fiber linear density (metric number) shall be determined according to GB/T
7690.1;
c) The breaking strength of fiber shall be determined according to GB/T 7690.3 or
GB/T 3362.
5.4.10 Wrapping and curing shall be carried out according to the qualified process.
According to the method specified in GB/T 19466.2, measure the glass transition
temperature of the wrapping layer composite material.
5.4.11 The self-tightening treatment shall be carried out before the hydrostatic test of
the hoop-wrapped cylinder. The self-tightening pressure shall be greater than the
hydraulic test pressure and not greater than the upper limit of the self-tightening
pressure calculated according to 5.3.1.7.
5.4.12 After the hydrostatic test of the hoop-wrapped cylinder, the inner surface shall
be dried. There shall be no residual water spots.
5.4.13 The thread shape, size and tolerance of the thread of the cylinder mouth shall be
in accordance with the provisions of GB/T 8335 or related standards.
5.5 Accessories
5.5.1 Cylinder valve
5.5.1.1 The cylinder valve shall be in accordance with the provisions of GB/T 17926.
There shall be a safety pressure relief device. The type shall be a composite structure
of fusible alloy plug and rupture disc.
5.5.1.2 The nominal burst pressure of the bursting disc is the hydraulic test pressure.
The allowable deviation is . The operating temperature of the fusible alloy plug is
110℃±5℃. The remaining requirements shall comply with the provisions of the
relevant standards.
5.5.1.3 The rated displacement of the safety pressure relief device shall be calculated
according to GB/T 33215. It shall not be less than the safe discharge volume of the gas
cylinder. It can ensure that the gas cylinder passes the fire test specified in 6.2.10.
5.5.2 Collar
If assembly is required, welding is prohibited for the assembly of the collar and the
barrel.
5.5.3 Cylinder cap
If assembly is required, the cylinder cap shall adopt a detachable structure.
5.5.4 Accessory thread
For accessories using threaded connections, the thread profile, dimensions and
tolerances shall be in accordance with the provisions of GB/T 8335 or related standards.
6 Test methods
6.1 Liner
6.1.1 Wall thickness and manufacturing tolerance
The wall thickness of the liner shall be measured by ultrasonic full coverage wall
thickness according to Annex C. The manufacturing tolerance of the liner shall be
checked with standard measuring tools or special measuring tools and templates.
6.1.2 Bottom sealing test
Use a suitable test device to pressurize the central area of the inner surface of the bottom
of the liner. The pressurized area shall be at least 1/16 of the bottom area of the liner.
The diameter of the pressurized area is at least 20mm. The test medium can be clean air
or nitrogen. After being pressurized to the sealing test pressure, the pressure shall be
maintained for at least 1min. Apply soap solution to the center area of the outer surface
of the bottom of the liner during the pressure holding period. Observe if there is leakage.
6.1.3 Inner, outer appearance
Visually inspect. The inner surface can be inspected with the aid of an endoscopic light
or endoscope.
6.1.4 Internal thread of cylinder mouth
Visually inspect and use the gauge according to GB/T 8336 or the corresponding
standard to inspect.
6.1.5 Determination of various performance indexes of liner after heat treatment
6.1.5.1 Sampling
The sampling requirements are as follows:
a) The sampling site is shown in Figure 2;
b) The specimen shall be taken from the middle of the cylinder. Use actual flat-
specimens;
c) Number of specimens: 1 tensile specimen, 3 transverse impact specimens, and 4
cold bending specimens.
a) The specimen can be taken from the liner for the tensile test. The preparation, size
and test method of the specimen shall be carried out according to GB/T 13298;
b) The depth of decarburization layer is performed according to GB/T 224.
6.1.7 Bottom anatomy
The bottom inspection shall meet the following requirements:
a) The specimen can be taken from the liner for the tensile test. The cross section of
the specimen shall be on the axis of the liner;
b) The height dimension of the specimen shall ensure that the part of the cylinder
above the transition section at the bottom of the cylinder is left;
c) The test method shall be performed according to GB/T 226.
6.1.8 Nondestructive testing
On-line automatic ultrasonic testing shall be used, according to Annex C.
6.1.9 Hardness testing
The hardness shall be tested on-line, according to GB/T 230.1 or GB/T 231.1.
6.1.10 Hydraulic burst test
According to the test method specified in GB/T 15385, the hydraulic burst test is carried
out under normal temperature conditions. The following requirements are met at the
same time:
a) There shall be no gas in the pipeline;
b) The boosting speed shall not be greater than 0.5MPa/s;
c) Measure the total pressure of water from the beginning to the moment when the
liner is blasted;
d) Automatically draw pressure-time and pressure-water inflow curves.
6.1.11 Hydrogen sulfide stress corrosion test
The hydrogen sulfide stress corrosion test shall be carried out in accordance with Annex
A.
6.2 The hoop-wrapped cylinder
6.2.1 Mechanical properties of wrapping layer
6.2.1.1 Interlaminar shear strength
It shall use a representative specimen of the wrapping layer made in accordance with
GB/T 1458. The number of valid test specimens shall be no less than 3. After the water
is boiled for 24h, the test shall be carried out according to the method specified in GB/T
1458.
6.2.1.2 Tensile strength
It shall use a representative specimen of the wrapping layer made in accordance with
GB/T 1458. The number of valid test specimens shall be no less than 3. Then carry out
the test according to the method specified in GB/T 1458.
6.2.2 Wrapping layer appearance
Visually inspect.
6.2.3 Hydrostatic test
The hydraulic test is carried out according to the external test method specified in GB/T
9251. The test pressure is 1.5P.
6.2.4 Hydraulic burst test
According to the test method specified in GB/T 15385, the hydraulic burst test is carried
out under normal temperature conditions. Meet the following requirements at the same
time:
a) There shall be no gas in the pipeline;
b) The boosting speed after 80% of the design pressure shall not be greater than
1.4MPa/s. If the pressure increase rate after exceeding the design pressure by 80%
is greater than 3.5MPa/s, the pressure shall be maintained for 5s under the designed
minimum burst pressure;
c) Measure the total pressure of water from the beginning to the moment when the
wrapped gas cylinder bursts;
d) Automatically draw pressure-time or pressure-water inflow curves.
6.2.5 Air tightness test
After passing the hydrostatic test, carry out the air tightness test according to the test
method specified in GB/T 12137. The test pressure is P.
6.2.6 Pressure cycle test at normal temperature
According to the test method specified in GB/T 9252, the pressure cycle test is carried
out at normal temperature conditions. Meet the following requirements at the same time:
a) The lower limit of circulation pressure shall not be higher than 2MPa. The upper
Use armor-piercing projectiles not smaller than 7.62mm to penetrate a hoop-wrapped
cylinder that is pressurized to nominal working pressure P with compressed natural gas
or air. The projectile shall completely penetrate at least one side of the hoop-wrapped
cylinder. The projectile shall hit the cylinder wall at an angle of about 45°.
6.2.10 Fire test
6.2.10.1 Placement of the hoop-wrapped cylinder
The hoop-wrapped cylinder shall be placed horizontally. Make the underside of the
cylinder about 100mm above the fire source. Metal baffles shall be used to prevent
direct flame contact with cylinder valves and pressure relief devices. Metal baffles shall
not come into direct contact with pressure relief devices and cylinder valves.
6.2.10.2 Fire source
The length of fire source is 1.65m. The flame is evenly distributed. Within the length
of the fire source, the flame shall be able to touch the outer surface of the lower part
and both sides of the hoop-wrapped cylinder.
6.2.10.3 Temperature and pressure measurement
Use at least 3 thermocouples evenly placed along the underside of the hoop-wrapped
cylinder, so as to monitor the surface temperature. The separation distance is not less
than 0.75m. Use a metal baffle to prevent the flame from directly contacting the
thermocouple. Thermocouples can also be embedded in metal blocks with side lengths
less than 25mm. During the test, every interval is not more than 30s. Record the
temperature of the primary thermocouple and the pressure inside the hoop-wrapped
cylinder.
6.2.10.4 General test requirements
Pressurize the hoop-wrapped cylinder to the nominal working pressure P with natural
gas or air. During the fire test, measures shall be taken to prevent the sudden explosion
of the entangled gas cylinder. After ignition, the flame shall quickly cover a length of
1.65m. Surround it by wrapping the lower part and both sides of the cylinder. Within
5min after ignition, at least one thermocouple shall indicate that the temperature reaches
590°C. This temperature shall not be lowered during subsequent tests.
For the hoop-wrapped cylinder with a length of ≤1.65m, the center shall be placed
above the center of the fire source. For the hoop-wrapped cylinder with a length >
1.65m, place them according to the following requirements:
a) If one end of the hoop-wrapped cylinder is equipped with a pressure relief device,
the source of ignition begins at the other end of the hoop-wrapped gas cylinder;
b) If both ends of the hoop-wrapped cylinder are equipped with pressure relief
devices, the source of ignition shall be located in the center of the pressure relief
devices;
c) If the hoop-wrapped cylinder is additionally protected by thermal insulation, two
fire tests shall be carried out at the working pressure. One is that the center of the
fire source is in the middle of the length of the hoop-wrapped cylinder. The other
is to use another hoop-wrapped cylinder so that the source of ignition starts from
one of the two ends of the hoop-wrapped cylinder.
6.2.11 Crack tolerance test
Two defects are machined along the longitudinal direction of the outer surface of the
wrapping layer of the hoop-wrapped cylinder. The defect size is at least: one size is:
length x depth is 25mm x 1.25mm; the other is: length x depth is 200mm x 0.75mm.
Carry out the pressure cycle test according to GB/T 9252 and meet the following
requirements:
a) The lower limit of cycle pressure shall not be higher than 2MPa. The upper limit
of the cycle pressure shall not be lower than the allowable pressure Pm of the hoop-
wrapped cylinder;
b) The pressure cycle rate shall not exceed 10 times/min;
c) The pressure is cycled until the hoop-wrapped cylinder fails or exceeds 15,000
times.
6.2.12 Acid environment test
Use the sulfuric acid solution with a mass concentration of 30% (density: 1.219g/cm3)
to dip into the outer surface of the wrapping layer of the hoop-wrapped cylinder, of
which the water pressurized pressure is not lower than the allowable pressure Pm of the
hoop-wrapped cylinder, for 100h. The dipping area is in the ϕ150mm diameter range.
Then carry out the hydraulic burst test as specified in 6.2.4.
6.2.13 Leak-before-explosion test
According to the test method specified in GB/T 9252, carry out the pressure cycle test
at normal temperature conditions. The following requirements are met at the same time:
a) The lower limit of cycle pressure shall not be higher than 2MPa. The upper limit
of the cycle pressure shall not be lower than the hydraulic test pressure Ph;
b) The pressure cycle rate shall not exceed 10 times/min;
c) The pressure is cycled until the hoop-wrapped cylinder fails or exceeds 45,000
times.
6.2.14 High temperature creep test
......
 
(Above excerpt was released on 2022-09-20, modified on 2022-09-20, translated/reviewed by: Wayne Zheng et al.)
Source: https://www.chinesestandard.net/PDF.aspx/GBT24160-2022