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GB/T 15706-2012 PDF in English

GB/T 15706-2012 (GB/T15706-2012, GBT 15706-2012, GBT15706-2012)
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GB/T 15706-2012: PDF in English (GBT 15706-2012)

GB/T 15706-2012
Safety of machinery - General principles for design.Risk assessment and risk reduction
ICS 13.110
National Standards of People's Republic of China
Replace GB/T 15706.1-2007, GB/T 15706.2-2007, GB/T 16856.1-2008
General rules for mechanical safety design
Risk assessment and risk reduction
(ISO 12100.2010, IDT)
Released on.2012-11-05
2013-03-01 implementation
General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People's Republic of China
China National Standardization Administration issued
Foreword III
Introduction IV
1 range 1
2 Normative references 1
3 Terms and Definitions 1
4 Risk assessment and risk reduction strategies 7
5 Risk Assessment 10
5.1 Overview 10
5.2 Risk assessment information 10
5.3 Determination of mechanical restrictions 11
5.3.1 Overview 11
5.3.2 Restrictions on use 11
5.3.3 Space restrictions 11
5.3.4 Time Limit 11
5.3.5 Other restrictions 12
5.4 Hazard Identification 12
5.5 Risk estimates 13
5.5.1 Overview 13
5.5.2 Risk element 13
5.5.3 Aspects to be considered in the risk estimation process 15
5.6 Risk Assessment 16
5.6.1 Overview 16
5.6.2 Adequate risk reduction 17
5.6.3 Risk comparison 17
6 Risk reduction 17
6.1 Overview 17
6.2 Intrinsically safe design measures 18
6.2.1 Overview 18
6.2.2 Considerations of geometric and physical characteristics 18
6.2.3 General technical knowledge considering mechanical design 19
6.2.4 Choice of applicable technology 19
6.2.5 Direct mechanical action principle 19
6.2.6 Stability requirements 20
6.2.7 Maintenanceability regulations 20
6.2.8 Follow ergonomic principles 20
6.2.9 Electrical hazards 21
6.2.10 Pneumatic and hydraulic hazards 21
6.2.11 Applying intrinsically safe design measures to control systems 21
6.2.12 Minimizing the probability of failure of a safety function 25
6.2.13 Exposure to hazards through equipment reliability limits 26
6.2.14 Exposure to hazards by mechanization or automation of loading (loading)/unloading (unloading) operations 26
6.2.15 Place the location of the set and maintenance points outside the danger zone to limit exposure to hazards 26
6.3 Safety protection and supplementary protection measures 26
6.3.1 General requirements 26
6.3.2 Selection and use of guards and guards 26
6.3.3 Design requirements for guards and guards 30
6.3.4 Reducing emissions through safety protection 32
6.3.5 Supplementary protective measures 33
6.4 Usage Information 34
6.4.1 General requirements 34
6.4.2 Location and Attributes of Information Used 35
6.4.3 Signal and warning devices 35
6.4.4 Signs, symbols (pictograms) and written warnings 35
6.4.5 Accompanying documents (especially the user manual) 36
7 Risk assessment and risk reduction documents 38
Appendix A (informative) Graphical representation of the machine 39
Appendix B (Informative) Examples of Hazardous, Hazardous, and Hazardous Events 40
Appendix C (informative) Chinese-English index 50 for specific terms and expressions of this standard
Reference 61
This standard was drafted in accordance with the rules given in GB/T 1.1-2009.
This standard replaces GB/T 15706.1-2007 "Basic Concepts and Design Principles of Mechanical Safety Part 1. Basic Terms and Methods",
GB/T 15706.2-2007 "Basic Concepts and Design of Mechanical Safety - Part 2. Technical Principles" and GB/T 16856.1-2008
Mechanical Safety Risk Assessment Part 1. Principles. This standard integrates GB/T 15706.1-2007, GB/T 15706.2-2007 and
Technical content of GB/T 16856.1-2008, and GB/T 15706.1-2007, GB/T 15706.2-2007 and GB/T 16856.1-
Compared with.2008, the main technical changes except editorial changes are as follows.
--- Change the standard name to "Mechanical Safety Design General Risk Assessment and Risk Reduction";
--- Change the term "maintenance (machine)" to "maintenance" (see 3.3, 3.3 of GB/T 15706.1-2007);
--- Change the term "legacy risk" to "residual risk" (see 3.13, 3.12 of GB/T 15706.1-2007 and GB/T 16856.1-
3.11 of.2008);
--- Change the term "risk assessment" to "risk estimate" (see 3.14, 3.15 of GB/T 15706.1-2007 and GB/T 16856.1-
3.15 of.2008);
--- Change the term "risk assessment" to "risk assessment" (see 3.16, 3.16 of GB/T 15706.1-2007 and GB/T 16856.1-
3.16 of.2008);
--- Change the term "risk assessment" to "risk assessment" (see 3.17, 3.13 of GB/T 15706.1-2007 and GB/T 16856.1-
3.14 of.2008);
--- Replace the term "foreseeable misuse" with "a misunderstanding that can reasonably be foreseen" (see 3.24, 3.23 of GB/T 15706.1-2007 and
3.10) of GB/T 16856.1-2008;
--- Replace the term "actuating device" with "enable device" (see 3.28.2, 3.26.2 of GB/T 15706.1-2007);
--- Change the term "stop-motion control device" to "hold-operate control device" (see 3.28.3, GB/T 15706.1-2007)
--- Change the term "fault" to "failure" (see 3.37, 3.8 of GB/T 16856.1-2008).
This standard uses the translation method equivalent to ISO 12100.2010 "Mechanical Safety Design General Risk Assessment and Risk Reduction" (English)
Text version).
This standard is equivalent to translation ISO 12100.2010. For ease of use, this standard makes the following editorial changes.
--- Revised the expression of the terms in the scope in accordance with the requirements of GB/T 1.1-2009, increasing the scope of application of the standard;
--- Removed the French and German indexes in Appendix C, added Chinese indexes, and reordered according to Chinese Pinyin.
This standard is proposed and managed by the National Machinery Safety Standardization Technical Committee (SAC/TC208).
This standard was drafted. China Machine Productivity Promotion Center, Shenzhen Huajian Testing Technology Co., Ltd., Xuzhou Heavy Machinery Co., Ltd.
Division, Institute of Opto-Electromechanical Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Omron Automation (China) Co., Ltd., Piel Magnetics Industrial Automation (Shanghai) Co., Ltd.
Company, Siemens (China) Co., Ltd. Shanghai Branch, Guangxi Liugong Machinery Co., Ltd., Rockwell Automation (China) Co., Ltd.
Division, Shandong Provincial Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Institute, China United Certification Center, National Machine Tool Quality Supervision and Inspection Center.
The main drafters of this standard. Li Qin, Ju Ronghua, Zhu Ping, Shi Xianxin, Li Liyan, Wang Xuezhi, Lin Jianrong, Zhang Xiaofei, Fu Rui, Liu Zhiyong,
Li Jianyou, Cheng Hongbing, Huang Zhixuan, Hong Liwen, Xu Kai, Yan Weizhong, Luo Guang, Wang Jiyu, Zhao Qinzhi, Xu Zhou, Ma Liqiang, Chen Nengyu, Zhou Jiayan,
Wang Li, Li Zhihong, Sun Huashan, Hua Wei, Huang Min, Zhang Wei, Zhao Maocheng.
The previous versions of the standards replaced by this standard are.
---GB/T 15706.1-1995, GB/T 15706.1-2007;
---GB/T 15706.2-1995, GB/T 15706.2-2007;
---GB/T 16856-1997;
---GB/T 16856.1-2008.
The main purpose of this standard is to provide designers with an overall framework and decision-making guides that enable machinery to be designed at the development stage.
Use a safe machine in the range. This standard also provides a strategy for standard setters to develop consistent and appropriate Class B
Standard and Class C standards.
The concept of mechanical safety takes into account the ability of the machine to perform its intended function during its life cycle after the risk has been sufficiently reduced.
This standard is the basic standard for all standards in the mechanical safety standard system. The structure of the mechanical safety standard system is as follows.
--- Class A standard (Basic Safety Standard), giving basic concepts, design principles and general characteristics applicable to all machines.
---Class B (General Safety Standard), a type of safety device that covers a safety feature of a machine or has a wide range of use;
● Class B1, specific safety features (such as safety distance, surface temperature, noise) standards;
● Class B2, standard for safety devices (such as two-hand control devices, interlock devices, pressure sensitive devices, and protective devices).
--- Class C (Mechanical Safety Standard), a standard that specifies detailed safety requirements for a particular machine or group of machines.
This standard is a Class A standard.
When the content of the C standard is inconsistent with one or more technical provisions of this standard or other Class B standards, the technology of the C standard
The regulations are subject to the rules.
It is recommended that this standard be incorporated into a training course or manual so that the designer can master the basic terminology and general design methodology.
When drafting this standard, we have referred to the contents of GB/T 20000.4 as much as possible.
General rules for mechanical safety design
Risk assessment and risk reduction
1 Scope
This standard specifies the basic terms, principles and methods used to achieve mechanical safety in the mechanical design process, as well as risk assessment and risk reduction.
Small principles to help designers achieve mechanical safety goals. These principles are based on mechanical design, use, events, accidents and winds.
Risk of knowledge and experience. This standard also specifies the process of identifying hazards, estimating and evaluating risks during the relevant phases of the machine life cycle.
Procedures for eliminating hazards or substantially reducing risks, as well as guidelines for documenting and verifying risk assessment and risk reduction procedures.
This standard applies to machinery defined in 3.1.
This standard does not address risks and/or hazards to livestock, property or the environment. This standard can also be used as a Class B or C safety standard.
The basics.
Note 1. Appendix B gives examples of hazards, hazards and hazardous events in separate tables to clarify these concepts and to identify them during hazard identification.
The designer helps.
Note 2. Many methods for each stage of risk assessment in practical applications are given in GB/T 16856.2-2008.
2 Normative references
The following documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only dated versions apply to this article.
Pieces. For undated references, the latest edition (including all amendments) applies to this document.
GB 5226.1-2008 Mechanical electrical safety machinery and electrical equipment - Part 1. General technical conditions (IEC 60204-1.2005,
3 Terms and definitions
The following terms and definitions apply to this document.
Mechanical machinery
Machine machine
a combination of several zero, component connections and having a specific application purpose, wherein at least one of the components is movable, and
Equipped or scheduled with a power system.
Note 1. The term “mechanical” also includes several machines that are arranged and controlled to function as a complete machine for the same application purpose.
Note 2. Appendix A gives a general graphical representation of the machine.
Machine, machine zero, component or equipment performs the specified functions under specified conditions and within the specified time limit without failure
Maintainability maintainability
In the case of taking the necessary measures (maintenance) in accordance with the prescribed practices and using the prescribed methods, the machine can be kept under the intended use conditions.
The ability to achieve the state of its function or to restore it to this state.
Usability usability
Machine functions are easily understood due to characteristics or characteristics, etc., making the machine easy to use.
Injury harm
A physiological injury or hazard to health.
Dangerous hazard
Potential source of harm.
Note 1. The term “danger” may be derived from its origin (eg mechanical and electrical hazards) or its potential harm (eg shock hazard, cutting hazard, poisoning)
Danger and fire hazard are limited.
Note 2. The hazards in this definition include.
--- Dangers that are always present during the intended use of the machine (eg movement of dangerous moving parts, arcing during welding, unfavorable to health)
Kang's posture, noise emission, high temperature);
--- Accidental hazards (eg explosions, crushing hazards caused by accidental starts, jets caused by cracking, falling due to acceleration/deceleration).
Related dangers relevanthazard
The identified machine itself is present or has a machine-related hazard.
Note 1. The relevant hazard is the result of a step in the process described in Chapter 5.
Note 2. This term is the basic term for Class B and Class C standards.
Significant danger
It has been identified as a relevant hazard and requires the designer to use a special method to eliminate or reduce the risk based on the risk assessment.
Note. This term is a basic term for Class B and Class C standards.
Dangerous event hazardousevent
An event that can cause harm.
Note. The occurrence of a dangerous event can be short-term or long-term.
Hazardous state
Refers to personnel exposed to at least one dangerous environment.
Note. This type of exposure may cause harm to personnel immediately or after a certain period of time.
Hazard zone hazardzone
Danger zone dangerzone
Expose personnel to any space inside and/or around the dangerous machinery.
Risk risk
The combination of the probability of injury and the severity of the injury.
Residual risk residualrisk
The risks that still exist after taking protective measures.
Note 1. This standard distinguishes.
--- The residual risk of the designer after taking protective measures;
--- Remaining risks that still exist after all protective measures have been taken.
Note 2. Figure 2 can also be seen.
Risk estimate riskostimation
Determine the severity of the injury and the probability of injury.
Risk analysis riskanalysis
A combination of machine limit determination, hazard identification and risk estimation.
Risk assessment riskvaluation
Based on the risk analysis, determine whether the goal of reducing risk has been achieved.
Risk assessment riskassessment
The whole process including risk analysis and risk assessment.
Full risk reduction adequateriskreduction
At least comply with the requirements of laws and regulations and consider the risk reduction of the state of the art.
Note. The criteria for determining whether the risk is sufficiently reduced are given in 5.6.2.
Protective measure
Measures to achieve risk reduction. These measures are implemented by.
---Designer (intrinsic safety design, safety protection and supplementary protection measures, use information);
---Users (organizational measures. safe work procedures, supervision, work permit system; provision and use of additional security devices; use
Physical protection equipment; training).
Note. See Figure 2.
Intrinsically safe design measures inherentlysafedesignmeasure
Eliminate hazards or reduce hazards by changing machine design or operating characteristics rather than using guards or guards
Risk protection measures.
Note. See 6.2.
Safety guarding
Use safety guards to protect personnel's protective measures that keep people away from dangers that cannot be reasonably eliminated or
The risk that cannot be adequately reduced through intrinsically safe design measures.
Note. See 6.3.
Use information informationforuse
Protection measures consisting of information carriers (such as text, text, marks, signals, symbols, diagrams), which can be used individually or in combination
The user passes the information.
Note. See 6.4.
Scheduled to use intendeduse
Use the machine according to the information provided in the instruction manual.
Reasonably foreseeable misuse reasonablyforeseeablemisuse
The machine is not used in accordance with the method prescribed by the designer but in accordance with the common and foreseeable human habits.
Task task
Specific activities performed by one or more people on or near the machine during the life of the machine.
Safety guard
Protective or protective device.
Guard guard
Designed as an integral part of the machine to provide a physical barrier to protection.
Note 1. The guard can.
---Use alone. For movable guards, it is only effective when it is "closed"; for fixed guards, it is only "fixed"
Bit" is valid.
---Use in conjunction with interlocks with or without protective locking. In this case, protection is provided regardless of the position of the guard
Note 2. Depending on the structure of the guard, it may be referred to as an enclosure, shroud, cover, screen, door and enclosed guard.
Note 3. The terminology of guard type is defined in 3.27.1~3.27.6. The types of guards and their requirements are also found in and GB/T 8196.
Fixed guard fixedguard
Fixed in a certain way (such as with screws, nuts, welding), can only be opened or removed by using tools or breaking the fixing method.
defensive equipment.
Movable guard
A guard that can be opened without the use of a tool.
Adjustable guard
Fixed or movable guards that are either fully or partially adjustable.
Interlocking guard interlockingguard
The guards used in conjunction with the interlocks, together with the machine control system, perform the following functions.
--- The dangerous machine function of "shadowing" cannot be performed before the guard is closed;
---When the dangerous machine function is running, if the guard is turned on, a stop command is issued;
--- Dangerous machine functions that are "shadowed" by the guard can be operated after the guard is closed. The closure of the guard itself will not
Start dangerous machine function.
Note. Detailed provisions are given in GB/T 18831.
Interlocking guard with guard lock interlockingguardwithguardlocking
The protection device combined with the interlocking device and the protective locking device realizes the following functions together with the machine control system.
--- Dangerous machine functions that are "shadowed" before the guard is closed and locked;
--- The guard remains closed and locked until the risk of the dangerous machine function "shielded" by the guard disappears;
--- Dangerous machine functions "masked" by the guard can be operated after the guard is closed and locked. Protective device itself
Closing and locking does not activate dangerous machine functions.
Note. GB/T 18831 gives detailed regulations.
Interlocking guard with interlock function interlockingguardwithastartfunction
Control guard with control
A special interlocking guard that, once it reaches the closed position, issues a command to trigger a dangerous function of the machine without the need for a separate start-up
Note. The detailed provisions on the conditions of use are given in
Protective device protectivedevice
Safety guards other than guards.
Note. Examples of protection devices are given in 3.28.1~3.28.9.
Interlocking device interlockingdevice
Interlocking interlock
Mechanical, electrical or other means of preventing dangerous machine functions under certain conditions (usually as long as the guard is not closed)
Type of device.
Enable device enablingdevice
An additional manual operating device that can be used with the start-up control and that only allows continuous operation of the machine.
Hold-run control device hold-to-runcontroldevice
A control device that triggers and maintains the function of the machine only when the manual controller (actuator) is actuated.
Two-hand control device
A control device that requires at least two hands to operate and activate and maintain dangerous machine functions, thereby providing the operator of the device with
A protective measure.
Note. Detailed provisions are given in GB/T 19671.
Sensitive protection device sensitiveprotectiveequipment
A device used to detect human or human parts and send correct signals to the control system to reduce the risk of the person being detected.
Note. When the human body or human body is outside the predetermined range, such as entering the danger zone---(trigger) or detecting the presence of someone in the predetermined area (presence induction), or
Sensitive protection devices can signal when both of these conditions occur.
Active photoelectric protection device activeopto-electronicprotectivedevice
A device for performing an inductive function by a photo-emitting element and a receiving element can detect the occurrence of an opaque object in a specific area
The interruption of light within the device.
Note. Detailed provisions are given in IEC 61496.
Mechanical suppression device mechanicalrestraintdevice
Devices that mechanically prevent dangerous movements (such as wedges, shafts, struts, pins) by their own strength are introduced into the mechanism.
Limit device
A device that prevents the state of a machine or hazardous machine from exceeding design limits (such as space limits, pressure limits, load torque limits, etc.).
Limited motion control device limitedmovementcontroldevice
Acting in conjunction with the machine control system, such that a single operation allows only limited movement of the machine components.
Blocking device impedingdevice
Physical obstacles (low barriers, railings, etc.). Its setting does not prevent people from entering the danger zone, but can block freedom by setting obstacles.
Access, reduce the probability of entering the danger zone.
Safety function safetyfunction
A machine function that increases the risk immediately after failure.
Unexpectedly start unexpectedstart-up
Abnormal start unintendedstart-up
Any initiation of risk to people due to their unpredictability.
Note 1. The examples of the reasons for this are as follows.
--- Startup command due to internal control failure of the control system or external factors affecting the control system;
--- Startup commands resulting from unsuitable actions on the start control of the machine or other components (such as sensors or power control components);
--- The power source is interrupted and resumed after the start;
--- The start of the machine's components is affected by internal or external influences (gravity, wind, automatic ignition of the internal combustion engine, etc.).
Note 2. Startup in the normal order of the automatic cycle of the machine is not an abnormal start, but it can be regarded as an unexpected start by the operator. In this case, the accident
The precautions are based on safety precautions (see chapter 6.3).
Note 3. Rewritten according to the definition of GB/T 19670-2005 3.2.
Dangerous failure failuretodanger
Any failure caused by machinery or its power source that increases the risk.
Fault fault
The product cannot complete the status of the requested function. Preventive maintenance or other planned activities or in the absence of external resources.
Note 1. The fault is usually caused by the failure of the product itself, but even if the failure does not occur, the fault may exist.
Note 2. In the mechanical field, the term “fault” is usually used equivalently according to the definition given in IEV191-05-01.
Note 3. In practice, the terms “fault” and “failure” are often used synonymously.
Failure failure
Product completion requires an interruption in functional capabilities.
Note 1. After failure, the product is in a fault state.
Note 2. The difference between “failure” and “fault” is that failure is an event and failure is a state.
Note 3. The “failure” defined here does not apply to products consisting only of software.
Common cause failure commoncausefailure
Failure of different products caused by a single event, these failures are not mutually causal.
Note. Common cause failure should not be confused with common mode failure.
Common mode failure commonmodefailure
Products that are characterized by the same failure mode fail.
Note. Since common mode failure may be caused by different reasons, it is not appropriate to confuse common mode failure with common cause failure.
A machine failure that cannot perform the predetermined function.
Note. See b) 2) in 5.4 for an example.
Emergency emergencysituation
A dangerous state that needs to be terminated or avoided immediately.
Note. Emergency status.
--- can occur during normal machine operation (for example due to personnel interaction or external influence);
--- May be due to failure or failure of any part of the machine.
Emergency operation emergencyoperation
All operations and functions used to terminate or avoid an emergency.
Emergency stop emergencystop
Emergency stop function emergencystopfunction
This feature is scheduled to.
--- to prevent the occurrence of or reduce the existing danger to personnel, damage to machinery or work in progress;
--- Triggered by a single action.
Note. The detailed provisions are given in GB 16754.
Emission value
A value obtained by quantifying emissions (such as noise, vibration, harmful substances, and radiation) generated by the machine.
Note 1. The emission value is part of the machine performance information and is the basic data for risk assessment.
Note 2. The term “emission value” cannot be confused with the “exposure value”. Exposure value is the quantification of the extent to which personnel are exposed to emissions during machine use. Exposure
Values can be estimated using emission values.
Note 3. It is recommended to use standard methods (such as comparing with similar machines) to determine emission values and their accompanying uncertainties.
Comparable emissions data comparativeemissiondata
A set of emission value data collected from a similar machine for comparison.
Note. For comparison of noise, see GB/T 22156.
4 Risk assessment and risk reduction strategies
In order to complete the risk assessment and risk reduction, the designer should take the measures in the following order (see Figure 1).
a) determine various limitations of the machine, including intended use and any misunderstanding that is reasonably foreseeable;
b) identify the hazard and its accompanying dangerous state;
c) risk assessment of each identified hazard and hazard state;
d) assess the risk and decide whether it is necessary to reduce the risk;
e) Take protective measures to eliminate the risk or reduce the risk associated with the danger.
Measures a) to d) are related to risk assessment and e) are associated with reduced risk.
a Answer the initial question with the initial risk assessment results.
Figure 1 is an illustration of the iterative three-step method of risk reduction process
Risk assessment is a series of logical steps that analyze and evaluate mechanically related risks in a systematic approach.
When necessary, risk reduction is required after the risk assessment. In order to eliminate danger by taking protective measures as much as possible or to reduce the wind sufficiently
Risk, it is necessary to repeat the process.
If there is a danger on the machine and no protective measures are taken, it will cause damage sooner or later. An example of danger is given in Appendix B.
The protective measure is a combination of the measures taken by the designer and the user according to Figure 2. The measures taken during the design phase are better than the ones used.
The measures taken by the user, and usually more effective.
a Providing appropriate usage information is a step in the designer's design risk reduction, but the relevant protection measures can only be implemented after the user implements
Play a role.
b User input is information that the designer gets from a general or special user group that is scheduled to use the machine.
c The various protection measures adopted by the user are not hierarchical. These protective measures are outside the scope of this standard.
d Such devices are intended for use in machines where special processes are not foreseen, or special installation conditions beyond the designer's control.
Figure 2 The process of reducing risk through design
In order to minimize risk, the following four factors should be considered. ......
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.