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GB 18384-2020 (GB18384-2020)

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GB 18384-2020: PDF in English
GB 18384-2020
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 43.020
T 40
Replacing GB/T 18384.1-2015, GB/T 18384.2-2015, GB/T 18384.3-2015
Electric vehicles safety requirements
ISSUED ON: MAY 12, 2020
IMPLEMENTED ON: JANUARY 01, 2021
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
Introduction ... 5 
1 Scope ... 6 
2 Normative references ... 6 
3 Terms and definitions ... 7 
4 Voltage class ... 7 
5 Safety requirements ... 8 
5.1 Requirements for protection of persons against electric shock ... 8 
5.2 Requirements for functional safety protection ... 14 
5.3 Requirements for traction battery ... 16 
5.4 Requirements for collision protection of vehicles ... 16 
5.5 Requirements for flame-retardant protection of vehicles ... 17 
5.6 Requirements for vehicle charging interface ... 17 
5.7 Requirements for vehicle alarm and prompt ... 17 
5.8 Requirements for vehicle event data recording ... 17 
5.9 Requirements for electromagnetic compatibility ... 17 
6 Test methods ... 17 
6.1 Protection against direct contact ... 17 
6.2 Protection against indirect contact ... 18 
6.3 Waterproof of the whole vehicle ... 25 
6.4 Functional safety protection ... 25 
7 Date of implementation ... 25 
Appendix A (Normative) Method for verifying waterproof performance of class
B voltage components ... 26 
Bibliography ... 28 
Electric vehicles safety requirements
1 Scope
This Standard specifies the safety requirements and test methods for electric
vehicles.
This Standard applies to electric vehicles whose maximum working voltage of
the on-board drive system is class B voltage.
This Standard does not apply to road vehicles, which are continuously
connected to the grid during driving.
2 Normative references
The following documents are indispensable for the application of this document.
For the dated references, only the editions with the dates indicated are
applicable to this document. For the undated references, the latest edition
(including all the amendments) are applicable to this document.
GB/T 4094.2 Electric vehicles - Symbols for controls, indicators and tell-tales
GB 7258-2017 Technical specifications for safety of power-driven vehicles
operating on roads
GB 8410 Flammability of automotive interior materials
GB/T 4208-2017 Degrees of protection provided by enclosure (IP code)
GB 11551 The protection of the occupants in the event of a frontal collision
for motor vehicle
GB 17354 Front and rear protective devices for passenger cars
GB/T 18387 Limits and test method of magnetic and electric field strength
from electric vehicles
GB/T 19596 Terminology of electric vehicles
GB/T 19836 Instrumentation for electric vehicles
GB 20071 The protection of the occupants in the event of a lateral collision
GB/T 20234.1 Connection set for conductive charging of electric vehicles -
b) The high-voltage connector requires at least two different actions to
separate it from the mutual docking ends. The high-voltage connector has
a mechanical locking relationship with some other mechanism. Before the
high-voltage connector is opened, the locking mechanism can only be
opened by using tools; or
c) After the high-voltage connector is separated, the voltage of the live part
of the connector can, within 1 s, be reduced to not more than 30 V (a.c.)
(rms) and not more than 60 V (d.c.).
5.1.3.4 Requirements for high-voltage service disconnect
For vehicles equipped with a high-voltage service disconnect, the high-voltage
service disconnect shall not be opened or pulled out without tools, except for
the following two cases:
a) After the high-voltage service disconnect is opened or pulled out, the live
part of the class B voltage meets the requirements for degree of protection
of IPXXB specified in GB/T 4208-2017; or
b) Within 1 s after separation, the voltage of the live part of the class B
voltage of the high-voltage service disconnect drops to not more than 30
V (a.c.) (rms) and not more than 60 V (d.c.)
5.1.3.5 Requirements for charging socket
When the vehicle charging socket and the vehicle charging plug are
disconnected, the vehicle charging socket shall meet at least one of the
following requirements:
a) Within 1 s after disconnection, the voltage of the live part of the class B
voltage of the charging socket drops to no more than 30 V (a.c.) (rms) and
no more than 60 V (d.c.); or the total energy stored in the circuit is less
than 0.2 J; or
b) When meeting the requirements for degree of protection of IPXXB
specified in GB/T 4208-2017 and within 1 min, the voltage of the live part
of the class B voltage of the charging socket drops to no more than 30 V
(a.c.) (rms) and no more than 60 V (d.c.); or the total energy stored in the
circuit is less than 0.2 J.
5.1.4 Requirements for protection against indirect contact
5.1.4.1 Requirements for insulation resistance
Under the maximum working voltage, the insulation resistance of the d.c. circuit
insulation resistance value is less than the threshold specified by the
manufacturer, the driver shall be reminded by an obvious tell-tale (for example:
acoustic or optical signal). The threshold specified by the manufacturer shall
not be lower than that required by 5.1.4.1.
5.1.4.3 Requirements for potential equalization
Exposed conductive parts for protection against direct contact with class B
voltage circuits, such as conductive enclosures and barriers, shall be
conductively connected to the electric platform; and, meet the following
requirements:
a) The connection impedance between the exposed conductive part and the
electric platform shall not be greater than 0.1 Ω;
b) In the potential equalization path, any two exposed conductive parts which
can be touched by a person at the same time, that is, the resistance
between two conductive parts whose distance is not more than 2.5 m shall
not be greater than 0.2 Ω.
If a soldered connection is used, it is considered to meet the above
requirements.
5.1.4.4 Requirements for capacitive coupling
Capacitive coupling shall meet at least one of the following requirements:
a) In class B voltage circuit, the energy stored in the total capacitance
between any class B voltage live part and the electric platform, at its
maximum working voltage, shall not be greater than 0.2 J. 0.2 J is the
maximum storage energy requirement for the Y capacitor on the positive
side or the Y capacitor on the negative side of the class B voltage circuit.
In addition, if there are class B voltage circuits isolated from each other,
then 0.2 J is a separate requirement for each circuit isolated from each
other. Or
b) Class B voltage circuits have at least two insulation layers, barriers, or
enclosures; or are arranged in the enclosure or behind the barrier. These
enclosures or barriers shall be able to withstand a pressure of not less
than 10 kPa, without obvious plastic deformation.
5.1.4.5 Requirements for charging socket
5.1.4.5.1 Vehicle’s a.c. charging socket
The vehicle’s a.c. charging socket shall have terminals to connect the electric
From the power-off state of the drive system to the "drivable mode", the vehicle
shall go through at least two consciously different actions. At least one action is
to press the brake pedal.
Only one action is required from the "drivable mode" to the power-off state of
the drive system.
The driver shall be continuously or intermittently indicated that the vehicle is
already in the "drivable mode". When the driver leaves the vehicle, if the drive
system is still in the "drivable mode", the driver shall be alerted by an obvious
tell-tale (for example, an acoustic or optical signal).
When the vehicle is stopped, after the drive system is automatically or manually
shut down, it can only re-enter the "drivable mode" through the above
procedure.
5.2.2 Driving
5.2.2.1 Power reduction prompt
If the electric drive system adopts measures to automatically limit and reduce
the driving power of the vehicle, when the limitation and reduction of the driving
power affects the driving of the vehicle, the driver shall be alerted by an obvious
tell-tale (for example, an acoustic or optical signal).
5.2.2.2 REESS low battery prompt
If the low battery of REESS affects the driving of the vehicle, the driver shall be
alerted by an obvious tell-tale (for example, an acoustic or optical signal).
5.2.2.3 REESS thermal event alarm
If REESS is about to have a thermal runaway safety event, the driver shall be
alerted by an obvious tell-tale (for example, an acoustic or optical signal).
5.2.2.4 Brake priority
For the vehicle control system, when the brake signal and the acceleration
signal occur simultaneously, priority is given to the brake signal.
5.2.3 Gear shift
5.2.3.1 Driving gear shift
When the driver directly drives the vehicle, and switches from the non-driving
gear to the driving gear when the vehicle is stationary, the brake pedal shall be
depressed.
5.5 Requirements for flame-retardant protection of vehicles
The flame-retardant properties of interior materials of electric vehicles shall
meet the requirements of GB 8410.
Note: The scope of application of this subclause is consistent with GB 8410.
5.6 Requirements for vehicle charging interface
The charging interface of electric vehicles shall meet the requirements of GB/T
20234.1.
Note: The scope of application of this subclause is consistent with GB/T 20234.1.
5.7 Requirements for vehicle alarm and prompt
Electric vehicle alarms and prompts shall comply with the requirements of GB/T
19836 and GB/T 4094.2.
Note: The scope of application of this subclause is consistent with GB/T 19836 and GB/T
4094.2.
5.8 Requirements for vehicle event data recording
Type M1 electric vehicles shall be equipped with an event data recording system
(EDR) or on-board video driving recording device.
5.9 Requirements for electromagnetic compatibility
The electromagnetic compatibility of electric vehicles shall meet the
requirements of GB 34660 and GB/T 18387.
Note: The scope of application of this subclause is consistent with GB 34660 and GB/T
18387.
6 Test methods
6.1 Protection against direct contact
During the test of protection against direct contact, the vehicle shall be in a
power-off state for the whole vehicle; all barriers and enclosures of the vehicle
shall be intact.
During the test process, without using other tools, in accordance with the test
methods of IPXXD and IPXXB in GB/T 4208-2017, the testing personnel only
use probes or test fingers to perform IP code tests on openings and connectors
outside and inside the vehicle.
6.2.1.3 Measurement method for insulation resistance of class B voltage
load without power supply
The specific measurement steps are as follows:
a) Disconnect all power supplies (including class A voltage power supplies)
of the class B voltage load under test;
b) Conductively connect all class B voltage live parts of the class B voltage
load each other;
c) Conductively connect all exposed conductive parts and class A voltage
parts of class B voltage load to the electric platform;
d) Connect the insulation resistance test equipment between the live part
and the electric platform. The equipment can be a megohmmeter;
e) SET the test voltage of the insulation resistance test equipment to not
lower than the highest working voltage of the class B voltage circuit;
f) READ the insulation resistance value of class B voltage load as Rx.
If there are multiple voltage classes in the conductively-connected circuit in the
system (for example: there is a boost converter in the system), and some
components cannot withstand the maximum working voltage of the entire circuit,
these components can be disconnected. USE their respective maximum
working voltages to individually measure the insulation resistance.
6.2.1.4 Calculation of the insulation resistance of the whole vehicle
For the vehicle with all class B voltage loads working at the same time,
according to the test method of 6.2.1.2, the insulation resistance of the whole
vehicle can be directly measured.
Otherwise, the insulation resistance of the class B voltage load, which cannot
be tested in 6.2.1.2, needs to be measured in accordance with 6.2.1.3. The
measured result Ri in 6.2.1.2 and the insulation resistance Rx of each class B
voltage load measured in 6.2.1.3 are calculated in parallel, which is the
insulation resistance of the whole vehicle.
If the whole vehicle has two or more class B voltage circuits isolated from each
other, by the method of this subclause, the insulation resistance of each class
B voltage circuit can be measured and calculated, respectively. The minimum
value is taken as the insulation resistance of the whole vehicle.
6.2.2 Insulation resistance of charging socket
The measurement steps are as follows:
a) At normal temperature, according to the test method of 6.2.1, measure the
current insulation resistance value of the whole vehicle as Ri; and, record
the high-voltage side of REESS, where the smaller measured voltage U1′
of the test step b) of 6.2.1.2 is located.
b) According to the normal operation process of the vehicle under test, make
the vehicle enter the "drivable mode".
c) In step a), if U1′ is at the positive end of REESS, then, as shown in Figure
7, an adjustable resistor is connected in parallel between the positive end
of REESS and the vehicle electric platform. Conversely, if U1′ is at the
negative end of REESS, an adjustable resistor is connected in parallel
between the negative end of REESS and the vehicle electric platform.
When starting the measurement, the resistance of the adjustable resistor
is set to the maximum value.
d) According to the requirements of 5.1.4.1, if the minimum insulation
resistance is required to be 100 Ω/V, then the resistance of the adjustable
resistor is reduced to the target value Rx. Rx is calculated according to
formula (3):
According to the requirements of 5.1.4.1, if the minimum insulation
resistance is required to be 500 Ω/V, then the resistance of the adjustable
resistor is reduced to the target value Rx. Rx is calculated according to
formula (4):
Where:
UREESS - The current total voltage of the battery pack, in volts (V).
e) Observe whether the vehicle has obvious acoustic or optical alarm.
6.3 Waterproof of the whole vehicle
6.3.1 Simulated cleaning
The scope of this test is the boundary line of the whole vehicle, such as the seal
between two parts, the glass sealing ring, the outer edge of the openable part,
the boundary of the front pillar, and the sealing ring of the lamp.
In this test, the IPX5 hose nozzle in GB/T 4208-2017 is used. USE clean water,
at a flow rate of 12.5 L/min±0.5 L/min, at a speed of 0.10 m/s±0.05 m/s; SPRAY
water to all boundary lines in all possible directions. The distance from the
nozzle to the boundary line is 3.0 m±0.5 m.
6.3.2 Simulated wading
In a pool of 100 mm depth, the vehicle shall be driven at a speed of 20 km/h±2
km/h for at least 500 m, for a time of about 1.5 min. If the pool distance is less
than 500 m, the test shall be repeated, so that the cumulative wading distance
is not less than 500 m. The total test time including the vehicle outside the pool
shall be less than 10 min.
6.4 Functional safety protection
According to the functional protection requirements specified in 5.2, the
manufacturer shall provide specific program descriptions, including the
triggering conditions of protective actions, operation instructions, and alarm
prompt signal instructions, etc. According to the description materials, the
testing agency will test and verify a real vehicle and compare with the
requirements in 5.2, to determine the compliance.
7 Date of implementation
For the vehicle types which newly apply for type approval, this Standard will be
implemented from the date of implementation. For vehicle types which have
received type approval, this Standard will be implemented from the 13th month
from the date of implementation.
Regarding the requirement that type M1 electric vehicles shall be equipped with
an event data recording system or an on-board video driving recording device,
the implementation date shall be in accordance with the requirements of 15.4
in GB 7258-2017.
a) If the height of the lower surface of the component from the ground is less
than 300 mm, the high-voltage component shall meet the requirements of
IPX7 in GB/T 4208-2017;
b) If the height of the lower surface of the component from the ground is not
less than 300 mm, and there is no barrier under the component, the high-
voltage component needs to meet the requirements of IPX5 in GB/T 4208-
2017;
c) If the height of the lower surface of the component from the ground is not
less than 300 mm, and there is barrier under the component, the high-
voltage component needs to meet the requirements of IPX4 in GB/T 4208-
2017.
A.1.3 The manufacturer shall provide the insulation resistance of all class B
voltage components in Table A.1 after completing the tests in A.2; and, perform
a parallel calculation to obtain the insulation resistance of the whole vehicle,
which shall meet the requirements of 5.1.4.1.
A.2 Waterproof test method for class B voltage components
A.2.1 The IPX7, IPX5, and IPX4 tests shall be carried out in accordance with
GB/T 4208-2017.
A.2.2 During the testing of IPX7, IPX5, and IPX4, before checking the internal
water ingress of class B voltage components, by the test method of 6.2.1, the
insulation resistance shall be tested first.
......
(Above excerpt was released on 2020-05-22, modified on 2021-06-07, translated/reviewed by: Wayne Zheng et al.)
Source: https://www.chinesestandard.net/PDF.aspx/GB18384-2020