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GB 17675-2021 PDF in English


GB 17675-2021 (GB17675-2021) PDF English
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GB 17675-2021: PDF in English

GB 17675-2021
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 43.040.50
T 23
Replacing GB 17675-1999
Steering system of motor vehicles -
Basic requirements
ISSUED ON: FEBRUARY 20, 2021
IMPLEMENTED ON: JANUARY 01, 2022
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
1 Scope ... 7 
2 Normative references ... 7 
3 Terms and definitions ... 8 
3.1 Basic terms ... 8 
3.2 Terms of functional safety ... 15 
4 Technical requirements ... 17 
4.1 Requirements for motor vehicles ... 17 
4.2 Requirements for trailers ... 18 
4.3 Failure provisions ... 20 
4.4 Alarm signals ... 22 
5 Test methods ... 24 
5.1 Test conditions ... 24 
5.2 Tests for motor vehicles ... 24 
5.3 Tests for trailers ... 25 
6 Implementation date ... 26 
Appendix A (Normative) Supplementary regulations for vehicles equipped with
auxiliary steering equipment (ASE) ... 27 
Appendix B (Normative) Functional safety requirements ... 30 
Appendix C (Normative) Requirements for trailers equipped with purely
hydraulic steering transmission equipment ... 37 
Appendix D (Normative) Special requirements for power supply of steering
system of tractor-trailer combination ... 38 
Steering system of motor vehicles -
Basic requirements
1 Scope
This Standard specifies the terms and definitions, technical requirements, and
test methods of the steering system of motor vehicles.
This Standard applies to categories M, N vehicles and category O trailers
specified in GB/T 15089.
This Standard does not apply to:
- Pneumatic transmission steering system;
- Vehicles with autonomous steering system as defined in 3.1.1.5.
2 Normative references
The following documents are indispensable for the application of this document.
For the dated references, only the editions with the dates indicated are
applicable to this document. For the undated references, the latest edition
(including all the amendments) are applicable to this document.
GB/T 3730.1 Motor vehicles and trailers - Types - Terms and definitions
GB/T 3730.2 Road vehicle - Masses - Vocabulary and codes
GB/T 3730.3 Motor vehicles and towed vehicles - Dimensions of vehicles -
Terms and definitions
GB/T 5053.3 Road vehicles - Connectors for the electrical connection of
towing and towed vehicles - Definitions tests and requirements
GB/T 5563 Rubber and plastics hoses and hose assemblies - Hydrostatic
testing
GB/T 7939 Hydraulic fluid power - Hose assemblies - Test methods
GB/T 9574 Rubber and plastics hoses and hose assemblies - Ratios of proof
and burst pressure to maximum working pressure
GB/T 12540 Minimum turning circle diameter, minimum turning clearance
Another additional equipment for adjusting the steering quality of the vehicle,
which can make the steered wheels and/or the wheels (front and/or rear) on
other axles adjust the same or opposite steering angles, in addition to the
steering angle provided by the main steering equipment, on categories M and
N vehicles.
3.1.3.2 Trailers
3.1.3.2.1
Trailers self-tracking steering equipment
The equipment which changes the steering angle of one or more wheels only
when the trailer wheels are subjected to force and/or moment from the ground.
3.1.3.2.2
Articulated steering
The equipment in which the steering movement uses the articulated
mechanism between tractors and trailers, to form a relative angle between the
longitudinal axis of tractors and trailers, and to change the driving direction of
the tractor to generate steering forces, when the vehicle is running.
3.1.3.2.3
Self-steering
The equipment in which the steering movement uses the angle formed by the
longitudinal axis of trailer frame or alternative load and the longitudinal axis of
draw-bar and turntable frame, to change the driving direction of the tractor to
generate steering forces, when the vehicle is running.
3.1.3.2.4
Additional steering equipment
The equipment, independent of the main steering equipment of the tractor,
which selectively adjusts the steering angle of one or more axles of the trailer
according to different control purposes.
3.1.3.2.5
Full-power steering equipment
The equipment in which the steering forces are completely provided by one or
more energy supply components.
3.1.5.4
Hybrid steering transmission
Part of the steering forces are transmitted in one of the above-mentioned ways;
while the other part is transmitted in another way.
Note: However, if the mechanical part used for transmission is only for providing the
driver's sense of road, and the steering forces transmitted by it can be ignored for
the whole system, it shall be regarded as hydraulic or electric steering transmission.
3.1.6
Trailers steering electric control line
The electrical connection part for the steering control function of the trailer.
Note: It includes data communication cables for trailer control, wires and connectors for
power supply.
3.2 Terms of functional safety
3.2.1
Functional safety concept
Functional safety requirements and related information needed to achieve
safety goals.
Note: For example, safety measures implemented to ensure system integrity and safe
operation in fault and non-fault modes.
3.2.2
Unit
The smallest part of a system component which can be identified, analyzed, or
replaced as a single entity.
3.2.3
Electronic control system
The combination of a series of units which coordinate the realization of vehicle
control functions through electronic data processing.
Note: The system is usually controlled by software; composed of independent functional
components such as sensors, controllers and actuators; and connected by
without disassembly. Unless specially designed, any part of the steering
transmission equipment shall not limit the maximum steering angle.
4.1.5 The vehicle electrical control system related to the steering of the motor
vehicle must not affect the steering function due to electromagnetic interference.
And it shall meet the technical requirements in GB 34660.
4.1.6 The adjustable components in the steering transmission system shall be
lockable.
4.1.7 The steered wheels of motor vehicles shall not only be the rear wheels.
4.1.8 The steering system can share the same energy supply with other
systems. However, if any system that shares the same energy with the steering
system fails, the steering system shall still meet the relevant steering functions
in the case of fault in 4.3.
4.1.9 The functional safety requirements of the steering electronic control
system shall be formulated in accordance with GB/T 34590 (all parts); shall
meet the requirements of Appendix B.
4.2 Requirements for trailers
4.2.1 When the tractor-trailer combination goes straight ahead, the trailer shall
be in the same driving direction as the tractor. If the trailer cannot automatically
maintain a straight-line driving, it shall be equipped with corresponding
adjustment devices.
4.2.2 The rear wheels of the semi-trailer may be steered wheels.
4.2.3 The tractor is driving straight on a level road. Within the maximum design
speed range, when the driver has no steering correction behavior, and the
steering system has no abnormal vibration, the trailer shall not affect the
straight-line driving performance of the vehicle due to its steering system.
4.2.4 At a uniform speed of (25±1)km/h and 5 km/h, the tractor-trailer
combination performs steady-state turning along a turning circle with a radius
of 25 m. Measure the radius of the trajectory circle traversed by the rearmost
outer edge of the trailer, respectively. The difference between the trajectory
circle radius at the speed of (25±1)km/h and 5 km/h shall not be more than 0.7
m.
4.2.5 When the tractor-trailer combination leaves a turning circle with a radius
of 25 m at a speed of 25 km/h, the tractor is within 40 m of the tangent line from
the leaving starting point as the tangency point (calculated to the end of the
trailer). The projection of any part of the trailer on the ground must not exceed
4.3.3.2 When the control transmission device fails, except for those
components listed in 4.1.4, for the complete steering system, the vehicle can
still steer according to the performance requirements of 4.1 and 4.2 when the
steering system is intact.
4.3.3.3 If the energy source fails, under the premise that the energy storage
level meets the requirements of 4.3.3.5, the vehicle speed is 10 km/h, and the
turning radius is 20 m, it shall be able to complete at least 24 figure-8 turning
operations. During the period, the steering control force shall meet the
requirements of Table 1 for an intact system.
4.3.3.4 If there is a fault in the energy transmission, except for the components
listed in 4.3.1.1, the steering angle cannot change significantly. For a faulty
system, under the premise that the energy storage level meets the
requirements of 4.3.3.5, as long as the vehicle can drive at a speed of 10 km/h,
it shall perform at least 25 figure-8 turns at this speed. The turning radius each
time is 20 m. During which the steering control force shall still meet the
requirements of Table 2.
4.3.3.5 For the energy storage level at the beginning of the tests described in
4.3.3.3 and 4.3.3.4, it shall be the energy storage state when the driver receives
a warning of insufficient energy storage.
The steering electronic control system needs to meet the functional safety
requirements of Appendix B. This energy storage level shall be the worst case
described in the documentation, submitted by the manufacturer in accordance
with Appendix B. The impact of temperature and aging on battery performance
shall also be considered.
4.4 Alarm signals
4.4.1 General provisions
4.4.1.1 The steering system shall, through the motor vehicle, clearly warn the
driver of any non-mechanical fault that impairs the steering function. Despite
the requirements of 4.1.2, the abnormal vibration of the steering system can be
used as an additional reminder signal of system fault. The sudden increase in
the steering control force of the motor vehicle is also an alarm signal. As for the
trailer, the use of mechanical alarm devices is allowed.
4.4.1.2 The visual alarm signal shall work reliably; shall be visible even in the
daytime. And it shall be easily recognized by the driver. The fault of the alarm
device components shall not affect the performance of the steering system.
4.4.1.3 The audible alarm signal shall be a continuous or intermittent sound
signal or voice message, which is easy for the driver to recognize. If voice
In the process of measuring the steering control force, the steering control force,
whose duration is shorter than 0.2 s, is ignored.
5.2.4 Measurement of steering control force when the steering system of
motor vehicles is intact
5.2.4.1 At a speed of 10 km/h, the motor vehicle enters a steering state from a
straight-line driving. Test the steering control force of the steering wheel on the
nominal radius of steering control. When the motor vehicle's turning radius
reaches the turning circle shown in Table 1, its steering time and the applied
steering control force shall meet the requirements of Table 1. Record input of
the steering control force. The measurement of steering control force shall be
done once on the left and the right, respectively.
5.2.4.2 For categories M3 and N3 vehicles, if the turning circle radius cannot be
less than 12 m, the maximum turning angle of the steered wheels is used. After
the position is locked, perform the test of steering control force.
5.2.5 Measurement of steering control force when the steering system of
motor vehicles fails
5.2.5.1 The maximum steering control force, steering time, and steering radius
when testing the steering process, and the minimum requirements for steering
control force are listed in Table 2. For steering systems with power assist, at
least the measurement of steering control force when the power assist fails
shall be included. For steering systems without power assist, the manufacturer
shall provide steering system failure modes. For the steering system that has
failed, repeat the test process of 5.2.4.
5.2.5.2 For categories M3 and N3 vehicles, the dual-steering axle or multi-
steering axle non-articulated vehicle except for the motor vehicle's self-tracking
steering equipment is 500 N.
5.3 Tests for trailers
5.3.1 Straight-line driving and abnormal vibration test of tractor-trailer
combination: When the tractor is driving in a straight line on a horizontal road
at 80 km/h (according to the maximum speed of product design when the
maximum speed is lower than 80 km/h), the trailer shall not have large
directional deviation (caused by the steering system) or abnormal vibration in
the steering system.
5.3.2 According to the requirements of 4.2.4, the tractor-trailer combination is
subjected to the turning circle test during steady-state steering at different
speeds. The difference of the turning circle shall meet the requirements of 4.2.4.
Appendix A
(Normative)
Supplementary regulations for vehicles equipped with auxiliary steering
equipment (ASE)
A.1 General provisions
In addition to meeting the requirements of the text of this Standard, vehicles
equipped with auxiliary steering equipment shall also comply with the
requirements of this appendix.
A.2 Special regulations
A.2.1 Transmission equipment
A.2.1.1 Purely mechanical steering transmission equipment
The purely mechanical steering transmission equipment shall meet the
requirements of 4.3.1.1.
A.2.1.2 Purely hydraulic steering transmission equipment
The purely hydraulic transmission equipment shall prevent its pressure from
exceeding the maximum allowable pressure.
A.2.1.3 Purely electric steering transmission equipment
The purely electric steering transmission equipment is not allowed to be
overloaded.
A.2.1.4 Hybrid transmission equipment
A hybrid transmission equipment composed of mechanical, hydraulic and
electric, etc. shall meet the requirements of A.2.1.1, A.2.1.2 and A.2.1.3 above
respectively.
A.2.2 Test requirements after fault
A.2.2.1 General requirements
Failure or fault of any component of ASE (except the components that are not
prone to fault as specified in 4.3.1.1) shall not cause sudden and obvious
changes in the driving state of the vehicle. The requirements of 5.2 shall still be
Appendix B
(Normative)
Functional safety requirements
B.1 General
When the vehicle safety-related electronic and electrical systems malfunction,
it will lead to potentially hazardous events (for example, during the normal
driving of the vehicle, unexpected autonomous steering occurs, resulting in a
vehicle collision). GB/T 34590 (all parts) clarifies the functional safety
requirements, which the vehicle safety-related electrical and electronic systems
shall meet during the safety life cycle; to avoid or reduce the risks caused by
system faults.
This appendix specifies the documentation, safety strategy, and verification and
validation requirements of the steering electronic control system in terms of
functional safety.
This appendix is not aimed at the nominal performance of the steering
electronic control system; nor is it used as a specific guide for the functional
safety development of the steering electronic control system. Rather, it
stipulates the methods to be followed during the design process, and the
information that shall be available for system verification and validation; to
prove that, the system can realize the functional concept and functional safety
concept under normal operation and fault conditions; and, meets all applicable
performance requirements specified in this Standard.
B.2 Documentation
B.2.1 Requirements
Corresponding documentation shall be available; to explain the functional
concept of the steering electronic control system, and the functional safety
concept, safety strategy, development process and method formulated to
achieve the safety goal; to prove that the system:
- The design ensures that, in both non-fault and fault conditions, the system
can realize the functional concept and functional safety concept.
- Under non-fault and fault conditions, meet the performance requirements
specified in this Standard.
- Switch to an independent backup system. If the backup system is selected
to achieve the safety goal, the principle of the switching mechanism, the
logic and level of redundancy, and the inspection characteristics of the
backup system shall be explained. The effect of the backup system shall
be defined.
- Enter the safe state by turning off the upper-layer function. If the upper-
layer function is turned off, all corresponding output control signals related
to the function shall be prohibited, to limit the propagation of interference.
- By warning the driver, the risk exposure time is reduced to an acceptable
time interval.
B.2.5.3 It shall explain the architecture overview of the software in the steering
electronic control system, the logic in the design and development process, and
the design methods and tools used.
B.2.5.4 When the safety-related functions of the steering electronic control
system fail, the driver shall be warned by means of warning signals or prompt
messages, etc.
B.2.6 Safety analysis
B.2.6.1 Safety analysis shall be used; to explain on the whole the effective
identification and treatment of the hazards and faults, which affect vehicle
motion control and safety goals; in order to support the above-mentioned
documentation. Safety analysis shall include but not limited to:
a) Safety analysis at the complete-vehicle level confirms the following:
- Interaction with other systems of the vehicle;
- Functional abnormalities;
- Safety risks under non-fault conditions.
b) For system-level safety analysis, potential failure mode and effects
analysis (FMEA), fault tree analysis (FTA), or other similar methods
suitable for system safety analysis can be used.
c) Check the validation plan and validation results. The validation shall be
based on hardware-in-loop (HIL) testing, real-vehicle road testing, or other
appropriate methods.
B.2.6.2 The parameters monitored by the system shall be listed. At the same
time, for each fault situation defined in B.2.6.1, it shall list the warning signals
to the driver, maintenance personnel, and personnel of the testing organization.
Manufacturer name: _________
Vehicle type: _________ VIN: _________
B.4.2.2 Documentation information provided by the manufacturer
Documentation number: _________
Release time of the original version: _________
Release time of the final version: _________
B.4.2.3 Description of steering electronic control system
Overall description: _________
Description of all control functions of the system and operation methods:
_________
Description of associated components and diagrams in the system: _________
B.4.3 Functional safety concept
Description of signal flow, operating data and priority: _________
Manufacturer's declaration (for example: The manufacturer shall ensure that,
the safety strategy, selected to achieve the safety goal, will not affect the safe
operation of the vehicle under fault conditions and non-fault conditions):
_________
Architecture overview of the software and the design methods and tools used:
_________
Design description of the system under fault conditions: _________
Safety analysis documentation of the system for hazards and faults: _________
Description of the measures for environmental conditions: _________
B.4.4 Verification and validation
Results of functional concept verification and validation (see B.3.2 for
requirements): _________
Results of functional safety concept verification and validation (see B.3.3 for
requirements): _________
Test date: _________
Appendix D
(Normative)
Special requirements for power supply of steering system of tractor-
trailer combination
D.1 General provisions
This appendix applies to tractors and trailers for which the tractor in the tractor-
trailer combination provides electrical energy to the steering system of the trailer.
If the trailer steering system uses hydraulic transmission to control the steering,
it shall also meet the requirements of Appendix C.
D.2 Requirements for tractors
D.2.1 Power supply
D.2.1.1 When the tractor is running normally, it shall have the ability to provide
the trailer with the power supply current as defined in D.2.3.2.
D.2.1.2 The driver's operating manual shall state the information of the electrical
energy, which can be provided to the steering system of the trailer. And when
the trailer is marked with its required current exceeding the current available
from the tractor, the electrical interface must not be connected.
D.2.1.3 The electrical energy provided by the connector defined in D.2.3 shall
be used for the power supply of the trailer steering system. However, the
provisions of D.3.1.3 apply at any time.
D.2.2 Electrical system protection
When supplying power to the steering system of the trailer, the electrical system
of the tractor shall be able to prevent the tractor from being overloaded or short-
circuited.
D.2.3 Wiring and connector
D.2.3.1 The cable used to provide trailer electrical energy shall have a
conductor cross-sectional area, which is suitable for meeting the maximum
continuous current defined in D.2.3.2.
D.2.3.2 The connector used by the tractor to connect to the trailer shall meet
the following requirements:
- The pin shall have a current-carrying capacity compatible with the
maximum continuous current;
- The environmental protection function of the connector shall meet the
requirements set out in B.2 Documentation of Appendix B;
- The connector must not be interchanged with the existing electrical
connector currently used on the tractor (i.e. GB/T 20716.1, GB/T 20718,
etc.).
D.3.4 Identification
A trailer, equipped with a connector used to provide electrical energy to the
steering system of the trailer, shall be marked with the following information:
- The trailer shall be marked with the maximum use current requirement of
the trailer steering system defined in D.3.1;
- The functions of the trailer steering system, including the effect on the
mobility of the trailer when the connector is connected and disconnected.
The mark shall be in an indelible form. It shall be ensured that, the mark is
visible after the electrical connector described in D.3.3.2 is connected.
D.3.5 Fault warning
The driver shall be able to be intuitively warned of the electrical control
transmission fault of the steering system.
D.3.6 Simulation and verification of steering system fault
D.3.6.1 The trailer steering system shall meet the relevant performance and
functional requirements in this Standard.
D.3.6.2 The fault mode is generally verified under the following two conditions:
a) Steady-state conditions
If the trailer is connected to a tractor without power supply to the trailer
steering system; or the power supply of the trailer steering system is
interrupted; or the electric control line transmission fails, the trailer steering
control system shall meet all relevant requirements of the intact system in
4.2.
b) Transient conditions
When the steering system has a transmission fault of the electric control
......
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.