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HJ 2035-2013

Chinese Standard: 'HJ 2035-2013'
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Standard ID HJ 2035-2013 (HJ2035-2013)
Description (Translated English) Technical guidelines for solid waste treatment and disposition engineering
Sector / Industry Environmental Protection Industry Standard
Classification of Chinese Standard Z13
Classification of International Standard 13.030.40
Word Count Estimation 23,260
Quoted Standard GB 5085.1; GB 5085.2; GB 5085.3; GB 5085.4; GB 5085.5; GB 5085.6; GB 5085.7; GB 5086.1; GB 8172; GB 15562.2; GB 15577; GB 16889; GB 18599; GB 18485; GB 50016; GB 50041; GB 50051; GB 50202; GB 50203; GB 50204; GB 50205; GB 50231; GB 50236; GB 50254; GB 502
Drafting Organization China Environmental Protection Industry Association (Solid Waste Treatment and Utilization Committee)
Administrative Organization Department of Environmental Protection
Regulation (derived from) Department of Environmental Protection Notice No. 60 of 2013
Summary This standard specifies the general technical requirements of solid waste disposal engineering design, construction, commissioning and operation and maintenance. This standard applies except hazardous waste recycling and waste treatment and disposal of so

HJ 2035-2013
Technical guidelines for solid waste treatment
People's Republic of China National Environmental Protection Standards
Solid waste disposal engineering and technical guidelines
Issued on.2013-09-26
2013-12-1 implementation
Issued by the Ministry of Environmental Protection
Table of Contents
Preface ..II
1. Scope .1
2 Normative references .1
3 Terms and definitions 2
4 .3 general requirements
5 plant (field) site selection and general layout ..4
6 solid waste collection, storage and transport .6
7 7 biological treatment of solid waste
8 Solid Waste heat treatment .9
9 solid waste landfill, disposal 19
10 labor safety and occupational health .23
11 construction and acceptance ..24
12 Operation and Maintenance ..26
To implement the "People's Republic of China Environmental Protection Law" and "People's Republic of China Solid Waste Environmental Pollution Prevention Law," Prevention
Environmental pollution, protect the environment and human health, the development of this standard.
This standard general technical requirements for solid waste disposal engineering design, construction, inspection and operation and maintenance.
This standard is a guiding document for stakeholders in solid waste disposal with reference to use.
This standard is the first release.
This standard is developed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection Science, Technology organization.
This standard drafting units. China Environmental Protection Industry Association (Solid Waste Treatment and Utilization Committee), Beijing Central Tsinghua ring
Habitat Engineering Design & Research Institute Co., Ltd., Beijing Science and Technology Co., Ltd. with the Oriental, the Netherlands Shanghai Environmental Protection Co., Tianjin Jianchang environmental protection
This standard MEP September 26, 2013 for approval.
This standard shall be December 1, 2013 implementation.
The standard explanation by the Ministry of Environmental Protection.
Solid waste disposal engineering and technical guidelines
1 Scope
This standard specifies the general technical requirements for solid waste disposal engineering design, construction, inspection and operation and maintenance.
This standard applies in addition to hazardous waste disposal and waste recycling solid waste disposal project.
This standard may post evaluation, design, construction, environmental inspection and built to run as the environmental impact of disposal of solid waste project
Technical basis and management.
For the corresponding process specifications or technical specifications of the key sources of pollution of solid waste disposal project, the implementation of this standard shall be simultaneously
Criteria and corresponding technical specifications.
2 Normative references
The standard content of the following documents cited in the articles. Where undated references, the valid version applies to this standard.
GB 5085 Identification standard for hazardous wastes
GB 5086.1 ~ 2 solid waste leaching toxicity methods
GB 8172 farm towns garbage control standards
GB 15562.2 Environmental Graphics Flag solid waste storage (disposal) field
GB 15577 Safety regulations for dust explosion
GB 16889 landfill pollution control standards
GB 18485 garbage burning pollution control standards
GB 18599 general industrial solid waste storage and disposal site pollution control standards
GB 50016 architectural design code for fire protection
GB 50041 boiler room design specifications
GB 50051 Chimney design specifications
GB 50202 foundation engineering foundation construction quality acceptance
Construction Quality Acceptance GB 50203 masonry structure specification
GB 50204 Construction Quality Acceptance of Concrete Structure Engineering
Steel Engineering Construction Quality Acceptance GB 50205
GB 50231 mechanical equipment installation construction and acceptance
GB 50236 field equipment, industrial pipe welding engineering for construction
GB 50254 ~ GB 50259 electric equipment installation engineering construction and acceptance
GB 50275 fans, compressors, pumps, installation engineering construction and acceptance
GB 50300 Construction Quality Acceptance of uniform standards
GB/T 15555.1 ~ 12 solid waste leaching toxicity determination
GB/T 24602 municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge disposal by incineration alone muddy
GB Z 1 Design of Industrial Enterprises hygiene standards
GB Z 2.1 Workplace Hazardous Occupational Exposure Limits - Part 1. Chemical hazardous agents
GB Z 2.2 Workplace Hazardous Occupational Exposure Limits - Part 2. physical factors
CJ/T 3059 MSW composting plant technical evaluation
CJJ 17 municipal solid waste sanitary landfill Technical Specifications
CJJ/T 52 MSW Technical specification for static aerobic composting
HJ 564 Landfill Leachate Treatment Project Technical Specifications (Trial)
HJ/T 284 for environmental protection product requirements baghouse with electromagnetic pulse valve
HJ/T 324 for environmental protection product requirements baghouse with filter
HJ/T 325 for environmental protection product requirements baghouse filter bag framework
HJ/T 326 for environmental protection product requirements baghouse with a membrane filter media
HJ/T 327 for environmental protection product requirements baghouse filter bag
HJ/T 328 environmental protection product pulse jet bag filter class
NY/T 1220 biogas technical specifications
NY/T 1220.1 biogas technical specification - Part 1. Process Design
NY/T 1220.2 biogas technical specification - Part 2. Design of gas
Jianbiao 124-2009 solid waste sanitary landfill project construction standards
Jianbiao 141-2010 waste composting project construction standards
"Construction Project Environmental Protection Management Regulations" (State Council Decree No. 253)
"Dangerous chemical safety regulations" (People's Republic of China State Council Decree No. 591)
"Acceptance of completed construction projects management approach" (SEPA Order No. 13)
"Construction project environmental protection facilities in the acceptance monitoring technical requirements" (SEPA [2000] No. 38)
"National List of Hazardous Wastes" (People's Republic of China Ministry of Environmental Protection, the National Development and Reform Commission Order No. 1)
3 Terms and Definitions
The following terms and definitions apply to this standard.
3.1 solid waste solid waste
Generated in the production, life and other activities lose their original use value or loss of use value, but has not yet been discarded or abandoned
Solid, semi-solid and placed in containers of gaseous materials, substances as well as legal and administrative regulations were included in solid waste management
Products, substances. This standard does not include solid waste within the meaning of hazardous waste.
3.2 biological treatment biological treatment
By aerobic or anaerobic microorganism, which makes degradable organic matter into stable products processing technology of solid waste.
3.3 areobic composting aerobic composting
In sufficient oxygen supply conditions, using solid waste aerobic microbial decomposition of organic matter in the process.
3.4 Anaerobic digestion anaerobic digestion
In the absence of oxygen or hypoxia, by the action of anaerobic microorganisms makes waste biodegradable organic matter into methane, carbon
CFCs and stable substances biochemical processes.
3.5 heat treatment thermal treatment
High-temperature decomposition of organic matter and deep oxidation and change its physical, chemical or biological characteristics and composition of the processing technology.
3.6 Incineration incineration
A certain amount of excess air and organic waste is processed in the incinerator combustion oxidation reaction, the poisonous waste material
Quality at a high temperature oxidation, pyrolysis, and the destruction of high temperature heat treatment technology.
3.7 Pyrolysis pyrolysis
Solid waste in anaerobic or anoxic conditions, a pyrolysis process gas, fuel oil and other substances.
3.8 Landfill landfill
Geotechnical engineering theory and in accordance with standard solid waste landfill cover and make a stabilized final disposal method.
4 general requirements
4.1 Solid waste disposal should follow the reduction, recycling, sound principles, the generation of solid waste, transport, storage
Storage, treatment and disposal of the entire process control should be implemented.
4.2 conditional region should build a solid waste disposal facilities, to improve economies of scale.
4.3 units of solid waste disposal project construction and operation of the State shall have qualified commitment to meet the project environment Movies
Impact assessment report, the approval documents and requirements of this standard.
4.4 Solid waste disposal process should avoid and reduce secondary pollution. Secondary pollution should implement national and local environmental
The relevant provisions of the protection regulations and standards, discharge after treatment. Secondary pollution control programs should make full use of existing enterprise resources.
4.5 solid waste disposal project should install automatic and continuous monitoring device in accordance with relevant state regulations.
4.6 solid waste disposal project should meet the "Construction Project Environmental Protection Management Regulations" and "acceptance of completed construction projects
Management approach "requirements.
4.7 build solid waste treatment and disposal engineering (structures), electrical system, plumbing, HVAC, and other ancillary works shall comply with the main national
The relevant standards.
5 plant (field) site selection and general layout
5.1 General provisions
5.1.1 Select plant (field) site should be consistent with the overall urban planning, regional planning and environmental protection professional, professional planning and national environmental sanitation
Relevant standards shall comply with local air pollution control, water conservation and nature conservation requirements, and through environmental Movies
Impact assessment.
5.1.2 plant (field) should be considered in site selection of solid waste treatment and disposal plant (field) service area, geographic location, hydrogeology,
Weather conditions, traffic conditions, status of land use, infrastructure, health, transport distance and public opinion and other factors, by at least two
Program to determine the ratio after the election.
5.1.3 from the solid waste treatment and disposal plant (field) and the residential sector, should be based on the nature and sources of local natural, meteorological conditions
Member and other factors, determined by the environmental impact assessment.
5.1.4 Solid waste disposal plant (field) should be based on the general layout of the plant (field) conditions natural site area, combined with production,
Transportation, environmental protection, occupational health and labor safety and lives of the workers, as well as electricity, telecommunications, heating, drainage, flood control and discharge
Floods and other facilities, the program is determined after more comprehensive comparison.
5.2 plant (field) site selection
5.2.1 incineration plant site should have to meet the engineering geological and hydrogeological conditions of construction requirements. Incineration plants should not be built in the flood-tide
Or waterlogging threat, must be built in these areas, there should be a reliable flood control, drainage measures. should be a reliable supply of electricity and water supply sources. should consider disposal and sewage treatment and disposal conditions of incineration slag and fly ash.
5.2.2 Landfill Site landfill site should be in a relatively stable area, and comply with the relevant standards. landfill sites should be located downstream of the region groundwater flows. landfill should be large enough to use volume in order to ensure the completion of the landfill after use of not less than 8 to 10 years.
Elevation landfill sites should be located not less than the return period of 50 years of above flood level.
5.2.3 Composting Site Selection
Consideration should be given service area, combined with established or proposed solid waste treatment facilities, full use of existing infrastructure, reasonable cloth
5.2.4 The anaerobic digestion plant siting should avoid anaerobic digestion plant was built in geologically unstable area and prone to collapse, landslides, mudslides and other natural disasters. anaerobic digestion plant site should be close to the origin of the raw material fermentation and biogas utilization areas. should be better water, electricity and transportation. anaerobic digestion plant site should be combined with established or proposed waste disposal facilities, full use of existing infrastructure, rational distribution,
Conducive to comprehensive treatment. should be easy for sewage sludge treatment, discharge and use.
5.3 general layout
5.3.1 Solid waste disposal plant (field) of entrances and exits of people and goods should comply with the relevant requirements of urban transport, passenger and achieve
Stream is separated, easy access to the waste transporter to minimize intermediate transport links.
5.3.2 solid waste stream entrance and reception, storage, transport, treatment and disposal places should be office and living facilities
Isolation construction, easy to produce polluting facilities should be located in the office area and living area under perennial dominant wind direction.
5.3.3 Solid waste disposal plant (field) should be arranged with major facilities-based, the other processing facilities should be reasonably safe
5.3.4 Solid waste disposal engineering, the ancillary facilities and service facilities and other auxiliary facilities should be based on the principles of social service
Into consideration and avoid duplication.
5.3.5 Solid waste disposal plant (field) should be surrounded by a protective fence or wall isolation facilities to prevent unauthorized personnel and livestock feed
In, and it should be in a landfill, compost border around the field to set anti-dust facilities, security facilities and fire buffer zone.
5.3.6 Solid waste disposal plant (field) vehicle washing facilities should be located in the vicinity of the outlet (field) unloading facilities and treatment and disposal plant,
In order to be cleaned after unloading the vehicle.
6 solid waste collection, storage and transport
6.1 General provisions
6.1.1 Solid waste should be classified collection, storage and transport, in order to facilitate the subsequent treatment and disposal.
6.1.2 industrial solid waste and garbage should be collected separately; recyclable materials and non-recyclable substances should be collected separately;
Hazardous waste and general waste should be separately collected; medical waste and other hazardous wastes should be collected separately.
6.1.3 solid waste collection, storage and transportation process, should comply with national regulations on environmental protection and sanitation management,
Take measures to prevent environmental pollution prevention littered the floor, anti-leakage, etc., should not be allowed to dump, store or discard or discharge solid waste.
6.2 of municipal solid waste collection, storage and transport
6.2.1 MSW and garbage collection facilities should be adapted, before the collection, classification system is not yet perfect,
Set up collection points should be considered for future collection development to adapt.
6.2.2 The type of waste should be clearly marked municipal waste collection containers to collect and separate collection of waste should be classified transport; there
Victims of garbage should be collected separately, shipping and handling, which should be closed and garbage containers having easy identification signs.
6.2.3 Municipal Solid Waste Transfer Station set the number and size of urban areas should be based on characteristics, socio-economic development and service areas, etc.
Determining factor.
6.3 general industrial solid waste collection and storage
6.3.1 industrial solid waste should be recycled in accordance with the economic and technological conditions; to temporarily use or not use
Industrial solid waste should be in accordance with the provisions of the State Council administrative department of environmental protection of the construction of storage facilities, space, safe deposit classification
Put or take sound disposal measures.
6.3.2 storage, construction type disposal sites should be consistent with the categories will be stacked general industrial solid waste.
6.3.3 storage, measures to prevent dust pollution disposal sites should be taken.
6.3.4 storage and disposal site perimeter should be set diversion channel to prevent rainwater runoff into the storage, disposal pit, and increase the amount of leachate avoid
6.3.5 Storage and Disposal Sites should build dikes, dams, retaining walls and other facilities, prevent the loss of general industrial solid waste and leachate.
6.3.6 storage and disposal site leachate collection and drainage facilities should be designed, when necessary design leachate treatment facility for leachate at
6.3.7 Storage sulfur content higher than 1.5% gangue, should take measures to prevent spontaneous combustion.
6.3.8 Storage Class II general industrial solid waste place GB 18599 provisions, when a natural base layer permeability coefficient greater than
1.0 × 10-7 cm/s shall be used natural or artificial materials to build a barrier layer, the thickness of the barrier layer should be equivalent permeability coefficient of 1.0 × 10-7
cm/s and 1.5 m thickness of the barrier properties of clay formations.
7 biological treatment of solid waste
7.1 General provisions
7.1.1 Biological treatment appropriate treatment of organic solid waste, such as manure, sewage sludge and the like. Solid waste treatment should not be mixed with the following
a) toxic industrial products and their residues thrown away;
b) toxic agents and drugs;
c) there is a chemical reaction and produce harmful substances in articles;
d) corrosive or radioactive substances;
e) flammable, explosive and other dangerous goods;
f) Biohazard and medical waste;
g) substances that seriously pollute the environment.
Organic solid wastes 7.1.2 Biological treatment should be used for agricultural fertilizer to meet the requirements of GB 8172.
7.1.3 Biological treatment residue generated in the process should be recycled, non-recyclable should incineration or landfill disposal.
7.1.4 aerobic biological treatment including composting and anaerobic digestion categories.
7.2 aerobic composting
7.2.1 aerobic composting process shown in Figure 1.
Aerobic composting process flow diagram of FIG. 1
7.2.2 Commonly used methods include open-air aerobic composting windrow type composting, forced ventilation static and dynamic type hermetic compost heap
Fertilizer Act. Aerobic composting process can be divided into one-time and fermentation of secondary fermentation (including primary fermentation and secondary fermentation).
7.2.3 The main factors aerobic composting process design should be considered include the particle size, carbon and nitrogen ratio, inoculum size, moisture content, and stirred
Flip, temperature, pathogenic microorganisms control, ventilation rate, pH, and the like.
7.2.4 compost material does not satisfy the requirements Jincang should be used crushing or sorting, crushing and sorting or combined pretreatment processes
7.2.5 After completion of the composting process should be carried out after processing typically comprises crushing, sorting, drying, granulation, compaction and packing
And other processes, the process may select one or a combination of post-treatment process in accordance with the requirements of compost products.
7.2.6 Construction of compost site should leachate drainage system. Compost leachate treatment facility should be set up inside the compost site and after the run
Maintenance management of leachate treatment discharge period.
7.2.7 composting leachate monitoring system should be set up to ensure timely detection in the event of leakage of leachate and take the necessary pollution control
Control measures. To detect leachate, compost leachate detection field should be set well.
7.2.8 When static aerobic composting of municipal solid waste disposal, in line with CJJ/T relevant provisions of 52; other organic solid waste aerobic
Composting may be performed with reference to the relevant provisions of CJJ/T 52 in.
7.2.9 Composting should also meet the CJ/T 3059 and the "waste composting project construction standards," the relevant requirements.
7.3 Anaerobic Digestion
7.3.1 The anaerobic digestion process shown in Figure 2.
Organic solid
Body wastes
Composting fermentation product identification system receives the storage system
Odor odor
Leachate Leachate
Organic solid
Body wastes
Biogas Storage
Utilization system
Anaerobic digestion biogas reactor net
Receiving identification
Storage systems
Biogas slurry residue leachate
Figure 2 anaerobic digestion process flow diagram
7.3.2 Solid waste anaerobic digestion by anaerobic digestion temperature into room temperature digestion, mesophilic digestion and thermophilic digestion. Press digest solid
The concentration of solid waste can be divided into low and high solids anaerobic digestion anaerobic digestion.
7.3.3 Solid waste anaerobic digestion technology, mainly applied to at room temperature to digest manure, sludge and low concentration organic wastewater, etc.
Management, more suitable for higher temperatures in the south; mesophilic digestion and biogas production is mainly for medium and large projects, such as high concentrations of organic wastewater
Processing; thermophilic digestion is mainly applied to high concentration organic wastewater, municipal solid waste, straw and other processing, and feces
Sound processing.
7.3.4 Anaerobic digestion of organic solid waste treatment process, the necessary studies should be tested in order to obtain optimum design parameters.
7.3.5 Sample preparation includes crushing and sorting processes; the use of anaerobic digestion process should first material crushing to a suitable size, to ensure
Card material handling and mixing effect.
7.3.6 Anaerobic digestion reaction should be appropriate regulation of conditions, including adjusting the moisture, nutrients, pH and temperature.
7.3.7 mesophilic digestion reaction temperature should be controlled at 30 ~ 38 ℃ between; thermophilic digestion reaction temperature should be controlled at 55 ~ 60 ℃ between.
7.3.8 solid concentration of low solids anaerobic digestion process should not be higher than 8% (typically 4% to 8%).
7.3.9 The average hydraulic retention time low solids anaerobic digestion process should be 10 to 20 days, or determined in accordance with the results of the pilot study.
7.3.10 low solids anaerobic digestion of biodegradable volatile solids (BVS) loading rate should be 0.6 ~ 1.6 kg/(m3 · d).
7.3.11 gas production low solids anaerobic digestion process is 0.5 ~ 0.75 m3/kgBVS.
7.3.12 solids concentration high solids anaerobic digestion process should be between 20% to 35%.
7.3.13 high solids anaerobic digestion process HRT should be 20 to 30 days, or determined in accordance with the results of the pilot study.
7.3.14 high solids anaerobic digestion of biodegradable volatile solids (BVS) loading rate should be 6 ~ 7 kg/(m3 · d).
7.3.15 high solids anaerobic digestion process gas production is 0.625 ~ 1.0 m3/kgBVS.
7.3.16 biogas storage may be low pressure wet gas cabinets, storage cabinets and low-voltage dry-type high-pressure gas tank.
7.3.17 biogas collection, purification, storage and use of the system should be designed to meet the NY/T 1220, NY/T 1220.1, NY/T 1220.2 of
The relevant provisions.
8 Solid Waste heat treatment
8.1 Incineration
8.1.1 General provisions incineration for handling combustible, more organic ingredients, higher heating value of solid waste, such as municipal solid waste, agricultural and forestry solid
Body waste. incineration project should be mature and reliable technology, processes and equipment, and stable operation, easy maintenance, ECONOMIC COOPERATION
Science, management science, environmental protection, safety and health. incineration system should ensure sufficient supply of auxiliary fuel. incineration plant construction scale should be incinerated according to the amount of solid waste incineration plants within the scope of services, distribution, planning and development
Trends and other factors considered to determine, and shall reasonably determine the number of production lines and single processing power according to the size of the processing, the design
It should consider the balance of incineration capacity. New incineration plant should adopt the same kind of processing power, the same type of incinerator. incineration plants should be used 2 to 4 way line configuration. Waste Incineration emission limits and height of the chimney should comply with the relevant requirements of GB 18485, the chimney design should meet
Of requiring GB 50051 and other solid waste incineration should be consistent with national solid waste pollution control standards.
8.1.2 Process
Incineration process shown in Figure 3.
Incineration process flow diagram of FIG. 3
8.1.3 Solid waste reception, storage and identification system incineration plants should be set into the solid waste plant metering facilities, metering facilities should have weighed, recording, transmission, print and data processing
Features. weighbridge specifications into account, among the largest truck full weight should have a certain amount of surplus. incineration plants should be set up laboratories, and equipped with a conventional index detection and identification of the characteristics of solid waste sewage, smoke and ash, etc., and points
Receiving identification
Storage systems
Pretreatment and
Feed system
Heat recovery
Utilization system
Flue gas purification
Flue gas discharge system
The residue ash leachate
Energy use
Solid Waste
Analysis of equipment.
Solid waste storage plant shall meet the following requirements.
(A) solid waste should be stored in solid waste storage facilities;
(B) solid waste incineration facility storage site should be fortified leakage;
Required (c) the primary air incinerator solid waste storage facilities should be drawn;
(D) storage facilities should be designed appropriate fire safety measures and the necessary proof grade based on characteristics of the waste;
(E) garbage should adopt concrete storage tank, reservoir wall should be taken to seepage, anti-corrosion measures, have the appropriate garbage seepage
Filtrate collection system; reservoir capacity of about 7 days should be able to meet production requirements.
8.1.4 pre-treatment and feed system
Pretreatment shall meet the following requirements.
(A) pre-treatment devices typically include crushing, sorting, mixing equipment, pretreatment equipment selection should consider the special raw materials
Sex, and selected matches of the incinerator furnace into the furnace material requirements;
(B) solid waste into the blast furnace should be based on the feed requirements, as appropriate, crushed and mixed to give mixed waste incinerator in order to facilitate stable
Set, safe and efficient operation;
(C) in the design of mixed waste system, you should consider the nature of the waste incineration, crushing manner, and for mixing the liquid waste material
Pumping and piping system arranged;
(D) the high moisture content of the sludge incineration, waste and other waste, should be dehydrated to reduce energy consumption;
(E) the need for solid waste into the blast furnace in accordance with its composition, calorific value and other parameters, to ensure the stable operation of the incinerator, reduced burning
Burning hot burning residue reduction rate. feed system shall meet the following requirements.
(A) shall be automatic feed system shall be equipped with inlet means for maintaining airtightness of incinerator burning ensure stable working conditions;
(B) feed system should be in a vacuum state, to prevent the escape of harmful gases;
(C) transporting the liquid waste should be considered waste and corrosive waste solid particles clogging the nozzle problems;
(D) feeding equipment shall be of sufficient waste storage capacity, and to avoid bridging phenomenon;
(E) feed equipment should provide a sufficient amount of waste to the incinerator adjustable according to the processing capacity of the incinerator;
(F) processing capability to fully consider the selection of material fluctuations, equipment production time and other factors, sufficient margin.
8.1.5 incineration system incinerator should drive device, the combustion chamber and the auxiliary facilities. Solid waste incinerator should ensure that the rated processing capacity, and can adapt to changes within the design range of materials requirements. Solid Waste Incineration controlled conditions by category should meet the GB 18485, GB/T 24602 and other related standards. incineration furnace operation should ensure that the system is in a state of negative pressure to prevent the escape of harmful gases. export incinerator flue gas oxygen content should be 6% to 10% (volume percent). Waste incineration furnace should be based on the type and feature selection, selection requirements are as follows.
(A) applies to grate incinerator garbage incineration, not to deal with high moisture content sludge;
(B) fluidized bed incinerator on the physical and chemical properties of materials have higher requirements for processing sludge, garbage pretreated
And general industrial solid wastes;
(C) rotary kiln incinerator is suitable for processing complex composition and high calorific value of general industrial solid wastes;
(D) other types of fixed-bed incinerator is suitable for smaller-scale processing of solid waste treatment works. incinerator should be designed to meet the following requirements.
(A) incinerator grate area of the combustion chamber volume should meet the kind of cross-section of the furnace heat load, the mechanical and thermal load thermal load volume
Load needs;
(B) secondary combustion chamber volume should meet the gas residence time at maximum load;
Flue gas flow (c) incinerators are downstream, counter, communicative, for higher heating value of solid waste should be used downstream formula,
Of the low calorific value of solid waste should adopt countercurrent type of medium calorific value of solid wastes should adopt communicative;
(D) continuous incinerators should incineration, and ensure the stable operation of the incinerator;
(E) incinerator driving device should meet the maximum power and maximum load under unforeseen circumstances conveyed;
(F) incinerator driving means having a frequency adjustment function should be to meet the needs of various adjustment under load;
(G) incinerators are in contact with the flue gas of a metal material, heat-resistant corrosion-resistant materials should be used to ensure that key components make incinerator
With life;
(H) technical performance refractory incinerator used to be able to meet the requirements of the incinerator combustion atmosphere, able to withstand the incinerator workers
For the state of alternating thermal stress, for parts in contact with the material should also have a corresponding wear;
(I) the incinerator should be set explosion-proof doors or other facilities;
(J) Depending on the incineration furnace, in different parts of the incinerator should be set to the corresponding primary air, secondary air within the chamber to maintain close
Ventilation supply reasonable;
(K) ability combustion air system should be able to meet the complete combustion of furnace combustion air distribution requirements, and is selected according to the calorific value of the waste
No use of air heating apparatus; fan the number of units should be set in accordance with the requirements of the incinerator to determine the maximum amount of wind turbines should calculate the maximum amount of wind
115% to 130% air volume control should be used in a continuous manner-conversion;
(L) the auxiliary fuel burners should have good combustion efficiency, the auxiliary fuel should be based on local fuel sources, as far as possible
Cheap and clean fuel, a large incinerator burners should have a larger capacity stepless adjustment range.
8.1.6 heat recycling system heat generated by the incineration plant should be recycled in an appropriate form. heat utilization system includes a waste heat boiler, auxiliary equipment, pipelines and other facilities. heat utilization system equipment and technical conditions shall comply with the provisions of GB 50041. Solid waste incineration energy utilization in a manner that depending on the size, type and characteristics of the waste incineration plant with hot conditions, heat exchanger efficiency
Comprehensive determined rate and economic comparison. and medium-sized incinerator should adopt the way of energy utilization of waste heat boiler, the lower calorific value of the waste should adopt the air preheater heated air
Gas heat utilization mode. flue gas heat recovery heat exchanger system should take appropriate measures to prevent the cleaning and arrangement of the fly ash coke, should be designed
Heat exchanger temperature to avoid heat recovery boiler and heat exchanger high temperature corrosion and low temperature corrosion; heat recovery equipment should be selected appropriate corrosion
material. use of waste heat boiler burning heat, should give full consideration to the boiler heating surface dust coking problem, design a suitable heating surface arrangement
Way to select a proper cleaning methods; more than 700 ℃ interval should adopt radiation heat transfer method. Thermal insulation measures should be taken to use the device, it should also ensure that the equipment, pipe wall temperature not higher than 50 ℃.
8.1.7 flue gas purification system flue gas purification system outlet pollutants should meet the relevant national standards. flue gas purification technology selection should take full account of the characteristics of waste incineration and volume changes and physical contaminants, chemical properties
Influence, and should pay attention combined with each matching process goes on. flue gas purification system shall include acidic gases, dust, heavy metals, dioxins and other pollutants control and removal equipment, and lead
Fan, chimney and other related equipment. flue gas cleaning systems should be considered for the maximum contaminant concentration, the maximum amount of flue gas adaptation. flue gas cleaning systems should be a reliable anti-corrosion, anti-wear and measures to prevent fly ash blocked; fan blades should lead resistant
Corrosion, wear-resistant materials, the housing wall should adopt anti-corrosion treatment. deacidification system is mainly to remove the hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride and sulfur oxides and other acidic substances, it should be used as a suitable basic substance in
And agents, can be semi-dry, wet or dry treatment process. deacidification when using semi-dry process, shall meet the following requirements.
(A) Counter-off gas residence time of the acid inside the device should not be less than 10s, Downstream off gas residence time within the apparatus should not be acid
Less than 20s;
(B) deacidification equipment exports should ensure that the flue gas temperature in the subsequent flue gas piping and equipment in non-condensing;
Atomization fineness (c) nebulizer should ensure that the reactor neutralizer water completely evaporated;
(D) should be equipped with reliable neutralizer slurry preparation and supply systems, powder particle size and purity of the pulp used shall meet the design requirements,
The slurry concentration shall be determined by the acidic flue gas concentration and reaction efficiency. When deacidification dry process shall meet the following requirements.
Upstream (a) shall be set neutralizer spray inlet flue gas cooling facilities;
(B) a neutralizing agent should adopt the calcium oxide, the quality and amount shall meet the requirements of safe and stable operation of the system;
(C) should be accurate neutralizer feed metering device;
(D) a neutralizer spray nozzle design and determine the entry position, should ensure adequate mixing of the flue gas neutralizer. When deacidification wet process, shall meet the following requirements.
(A) deacidification equipment and dust removal equipment should match;
(B) deacidification equipment should be designed so that smoke and lye have sufficient contact area with the contact time;
(C) deacidification equipment should have anti-corrosion and anti-wear properties;
(D) Measures should be taken to avoid condensation in the flue gas after-treatment follow-up piping and equipment;
(E) shall be equipped with a reliable wastewater treatment facilities.
Arch breaker capacity deacidification neutralizer tank should be 4 to 7 days according to the amount of design, the tank should be located neutralizing agent, dust close
Collection devices, level detection and measurement devices. deacidification neutralizer slurry transport facilities including pumps, valves and pipelines, etc., shall meet the following set
(A) a neutralizer slurry pump should be easy to disassemble and clean the pump, the pump inlet side should set the filter device and the device should not impede the pipeline
Normal operation of the system;
(B) a slurry transport pipe valves should choose straight ball valves, diaphragm valves, should select gate valve;
(C) piping should slope laying, pipe section should appear similar to the trap; neutralizer slurry pipeline flow rate not less than 1.0m/s;
Neutralizer slurry pipeline should be set up to facilitate regular cleaning of pipes and equipment rinse mouth; often easy disassembly blocked pipe section should be used method
Lan connection; easy to block, easy to wear devices, components should bypass. flue dust shall meet the following requirements.
(A) flue gas dust removal equipment bag filter should be used;
(B) the bag filter selection should be based on the following factors.
- Smoke characteristics. temperature, flow rate and particle size distribution of fly ash;
- Scope and classification precipitator efficiency;
- Effect of other purification equipment dust synergy or reverse acting;
- Maintaining the temperature of the flue gas dust collector is higher than the dew point of 20 ~ 30 ℃.
(C) bag filter pulse cleaning mode should be used, and should set up a dedicated compressed air supply system;
(D) flue gas properties shall baghouse filter selection;
(E) Integrated filtration velocity is determined by the performance of the filter dust collector, the flue gas characteristics, cleaning methods;
(F) shall comply with baghouse HJ/T 328's;
(G) bag filter components, filter should be consistent with HJ/T 284, HJ/T 324, HJ/T 325, HJ/T 326, HJ/T 327 of Regulation
set. flue gas to remove heavy metals and dioxins should meet the following requirements.
(A) reasonable matching material, control the amount of chlorine into the furnace materials;
(B) should complete combustion of solid waste, and strictly control the combustion flue gas temperature, residence time and air turbulence conditions;
(C) should be reduced from 200 to 400 in the flue gas temperature and residence time zone ℃;
(D) in the bag filter equipment and deacidification should be set between the sorbent is injected into the device, injected into the activated carbon or other porous adsorption
Agents, may also be provided as activated carbon or other porous adsorbent absorber (bed) in the baghouse or catalytic reaction tower;
(E) the sorbent injection system design should be the main factor in the flue gas turbulence properties of the adsorbent and other considerations;
Feeding quantity should (f) sorbent can be adjusted based on sampling results of heavy metals;
(G) The use of activated carbon as an adsorbent powder, activated carbon powder should be configured to transport, metering, and injected into the anti-clogging device. nitrogen oxide removal shall meet the following requirements.
(A) should give priority to the use of low NOx combustion technology to reduce the amount of nitrogen oxides;
(B) flue gas denitrification can be selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) or Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR).
8.1.8 ash handling system ash handling system should include slag and fly ash handling systems handling systems, mainly in screw conveyors, pneumatic conveyors,
Seal scraper slag machine, water-cooled screw conveyor and other equipment. incinerator slag and fly ash should be separately collected, stored and transported. Among them, the solid waste incineration fly ash are hazardous waste,
Safe disposal of hazardous waste shall be; straw and other agricultural and forestry waste incineration fly ash and the Guidelines referred to in conformity with the general solid waste incineration slag
Solid waste disposal. ash conveying system should ensure its own seal and double-sealed doors and other measures taken to ensure that the material of the seal. ash conveying system designed for a maximum transmission capacity should be fully considered material fluctuations, unstable slag, flue gas purification maximum load
And other factors. Select slag processing unit shall meet the following requirements.
(A) the incinerator convergence Cleaner should be a reliable mechanical performance and guarantee measures to seal the furnace;
(B) medium-sized incinerator should adopt the slag seal machine, and so easy to produce high-temperature fluidized bed for small particles of residue of equipment should be equipped with water
Cold screw conveyor;
(C) the use of confidential seal Cleaner set up automatic replenishment device, Cleaner and water seal height should be level fluctuation, the emergency chimney positive opening
Factors match start pressure;
(D) water-cooled screw conveyor section should contact material with high temperature materials. ash discharge and collection should meet the following requirements.
(A) waste heat boiler ash should adopt the slat conveyors, slat conveyors conveying capacity should meet the intermittent operation time;
(B) the flue gas purification system uses a dry or semi-dry process, fly ash handling system should take mechanical or pneumatic ash handling mode,
Pneumatic ash handling system should be taken to prevent air from entering and measures to prevent ash agglomeration; when wet process should take effective measures to dehydration
(C) the use of fly ash collection should be avoided sealed container ash scattered. Fly ash collected by the ash storage tank rated capacity should be produced by fly ash
Amount determination; ash storage tank shall be provided with material level instructions, to prevent dust and ash compaction amenities and facilities should be set in the vicinity of the humidifier discharge of gray;
(D) collecting dust fly ash should be discharged continuously to ensure that dust does not exist ash.
8.2 Pyrolysis
8.2.1 General provisions pyrolysis process for organic solid waste has a calorific value. pyrolysis main factors to consider are the pyrolysis of waste components, particle size and uniformity, moisture, temperature and the reaction was heated
Rate, etc. pyrolysis temperature should be above 1000 ℃, the main gas pyrolysis products should be. The warm solution temperature should be between 600 ~ 700 ℃, the main pyrolysis products should be heavy oil substances. low temperature pyrolysis temperature should be below 600 ℃, the main pyrolysis products should be black. pyrolysis system according to the operational requirements of continuous or intermittent operation. pyrolysis products obtained by fractionation purified oil, gas and other products.
8.2.2 Process
Pyrolysis process shown in Figure 4.
Pyrolysis process flow diagram of FIG. 4
8.2.3 Solid waste reception, storage and identification system
Measurement and control should enter the amount of raw materials and the pyrolysis treatment plant; identification of suitable raw materials pyrolysis treatment should be temporarily stockpiling and duly
Good handling.
8.2.4 pre-treatment and feed system
Pretreatment shall meet the following requirements.
(A) shall be required for solid waste pre-treatment system based on pyrolysis;
(B) the disposal of waste should be set larger particles broken equipment, the material is crushed to a particle size small and uniform;
Solid waste component (c) pyrolysis process is complex, it should be equipped with magnetic separation equipment for material sorting;
(D) into the furnace heat value should remain relatively stable material. feed system shall meet the following requirements.
(A) feeding equipment should include grab cranes, screw conveyors and belt conveyor;
(B) shall be according to the form of waste, feeding the uniformity of feature selection feed system for a pyrolysis system requires a continuous-feed should be adopted
Carbon black
Receiving identification
Storage systems
Pretreatment and
Feed system pyrolysis system
Pyrolysis gas production
Material purification system
Leachate residues
Solid Waste
Condensate separation
With a belt conveyor, for pyrolysis system form complex materials should adopt grab crane;
(C) feed system should have the function for automatic adjustment of the materials;
(D) feed system should be airtight double-sealed doors and other measures to ensure the system.
8.2.5 Pyrolysis System
Pyrolysis reactor should meet the following requirements.
(A) the pyrolysis reactor should use a rotary kiln, fluidized bed, fixed bed, shaft kiln and other equipment;
(B) should be used in the pyrolysis reactor according to the technical requirements and material properties;
(C) the pyrolysis reactor should be considered to accommodate to fluctuations in processing load, the design should be equipped with a large adjustment margin;
Refractories (d) the pyrolysis reactor should be able to meet the ambient atmosphere and temperature fluctuations, the rotary kiln and the material in contact,
Fluidized bed pyrolysis reactor should also consider the wear resistance.
8.2.6 ash conveying system
Ash conveying system should meet the following requirements.
(A) ash conveying system should use screw conveyors, pneumatic conveyors, scraper slag seal machine, water-cooled screw conveyor
(B) purifying exhaust gas fly ash should adopt the screw conveyor, buried scraper conveyor or pneumatic conveyor; conveying the larger particles should residue
Seal with scraper slag machine; transporting small particles should residue with a water-cooled screw conveyor;
(C) equipment design should consider the material properties, seal scraper slag machine with wear-resistant wall should be measures to meet water-cooled screw conveyor
Material should contact portion of high temperature materials;
(D) the residue should be considered closed conveying system equipment, in addition to the device itself should be confined outside the double door seals and other measures to protect
Permit the discharge of tightness;
(E) ash conveying system designed for a maximum transmission capacity should be considered material fluctuations, unstable slag, gas purification maximum load, etc.
Factors, mucking machine maximum transmission capacity should be 5 to 10 times the average.
8.2.7 pyrolysis product gas purification system
Pyrolysis gas purification products shall meet the following requirements.
(A) the product of the pyrolysis gas purification treatment should include cooling, dust removal, deacidification and other sectors;
(B) the use of heat energy needed to cool the pyrolysis gas product can be a way to take heat recovery or direct spray cooling side respectively
(C) the use of waste heat recovery and utilization of the gas cooling heat exchanger system should take the necessary measures to prevent cleaning and arrangement of fly ash coke;
It should be designed to avoid the heat temperature heat recovery boiler and heat exchanger high temperature corrosion and low temperature corrosion; heat recovery equipment should be selected
Suitable anti-corrosion materials;
(D) direct spray cooling of the pyrolysis gas cooling tower should be reliable, Sprinklers should have good corrosion resistance
Related standard: HJ 2017-2012    HJ 950-2018
Related PDF sample: HJ 662-2013    HJ/T 298-2007