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HJ 2034-2013

Chinese Standard: 'HJ 2034-2013'
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Standard ID HJ 2034-2013 (HJ2034-2013)
Description (Translated English) Technical guidelines for environmental noise and vibration control engineering
Sector / Industry Environmental Protection Industry Standard
Classification of Chinese Standard Z32
Classification of International Standard 13.140
Word Count Estimation 22,295
Quoted Standard GB 10070; GB/T 10071; GB 50202; GB 50203; GB 50204; GB 50205; GB 50231; GB 50236; GB 50254; GB 50255; GB 50256; GB 50257; GB 50575; GB 50617; GB 50275; GB 50300; GB 50463; GB 50868; GB/T 3947; GB/T 13441.1; GB/T 13441.2; GB/T 16731; GB/T 17249.1; GB/T 186
Drafting Organization China Environmental Protection Industry Association
Administrative Organization Department of Environmental Protection
Regulation (derived from) Department of Environmental Protection Notice No. 60 of 2013
Summary This standard specifies the general technical requirements of environmental noise and vibration control engineering for the design, construction, commissioning and operation and maintenance. This standard applies to environmental noise and vibration contr

HJ 2034-2013
Technical guidelines for environmental noise and vibration control engineering
People's Republic of China National Environmental Protection Standards
Issued on.2013-09-26
2013-12-1 implementation
Issued by the Ministry of Environmental Protection
Environmental Noise and Vibration Control Engineering Technical Guidelines
Table of Contents
Preface ..I
1. Scope .1
2 Normative references .1
3 Terms and definitions 3
4 Elements and pollution intensity .4
5 general requirements .5
6 .6 Process Design
7 Common engineering measures ..7
8 .17 construction and acceptance
9 Operation and Maintenance .20
Appendix A (informative) Common sources of noise pollution and its strong .22
To implement the "People's Republic of China Environmental Protection Law" and "People's Republic of China Environmental Noise Pollution Prevention Law," Regulation
Fan noise and vibration control project construction and operation management, prevention and control of environmental pollution, protect the environment and human health, the development of this standard
This standard specifies the general technical requirements for noise and vibration control engineering.
This standard is the guiding document.
This standard is the first release.
This standard is developed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection Science, Technology organization.
This standard drafting units. China Environmental Protection Industry Association, Beijing Institute of Labour Protection, National Environmental
Protect the city noise and vibration control engineering technology center, Shenzhen Ya Electrical and Mechanical Industry Co., Ltd., Beijing Green Year Acoustic Engineering Unit
Parts Ltd., Sichuan is or Acoustic Technology Co., Ltd. Shanghai Environmental Protection Engineering Co., Xinhua net.
This standard is approved by the Ministry of Environmental Protection September 26, 2013.
This standard shall be December 1, 2013 implementation.
The standard explanation by the Ministry of Environmental Protection.
Environmental Noise and Vibration Control Engineering Technical Guidelines
1 Scope
This standard specifies the general technical requirements for environmental noise and vibration control engineering design, construction, inspection and operation and maintenance.
This standard applies to environmental noise and vibration control engineering. For the corresponding process specifications or technical specifications of the work focus on pollution
Cheng, should the implementation of this standard and the corresponding technology specifications or specifications for key pollution sources simultaneously.
This standard can be used as noise and vibration control engineering, environmental impact assessment, design, construction, operation and management and final acceptance of the technology by
according to.
2 Normative references
The standard content of the following documents cited in the articles. Who does not note date reference documents, the effective version applies to this standard.
GB 10070 standard of environmental vibration of urban area
GB 10071 Urban Environmental Vibration Measurement
GB 50202 foundation engineering foundation construction quality acceptance
Construction Quality Acceptance GB 50203 masonry structure specification
GB 50204 Construction Quality Acceptance of Concrete Structure Engineering
Steel Engineering Construction Quality Acceptance GB 50205
GB 50231 mechanical equipment installation construction and acceptance of universal norms
GB 50236 field equipment, industrial pipe welding engineering for construction
GB 50254 electrical low-voltage electrical equipment installation engineering construction and acceptance
GB 50255 electric equipment installation engineering power converter equipment for construction and acceptance
GB 50256 electrical equipment installation engineering construction and acceptance of electric device
GB 50257 electrical equipment installation engineering explosion and fire hazard electrical equipment installation and acceptance
GB 50258 works of electrical installations and under 1KV wiring construction and acceptance
GB 50259 works of electrical installations electrical lighting equipment for construction and acceptance
GB 50275 fans, compressors, pumps, installation engineering construction and acceptance
GB 50300 Construction Quality Acceptance of uniform standards
Isolation design specification GB 50463
GB 50868 standard building works and vibration tolerance
GB/T 3947 Acoustics Terminology
GB/T 13441.1 Mechanical vibration and impact evaluation of human exposure to whole body vibration - Part 1. General requirements
Part of GB/T 13441.2 Mechanical vibration and impact evaluation of human exposure to whole body vibration 2. Vibration in buildings
GB/T 16731 building acoustic absorption properties of the product classification
GB/T 17249.1 Acoustics Design Guide low-noise workplaces - Noise control strategies
GB/T 18696.1 acoustic impedance tube sound absorption coefficient and impedance measurements Part I. standing wave ratio method
18696.2 acoustical impedance tube and the second part of GB/T sound absorption coefficient and impedance measurements. Transfer Function Method
GB/T 18699.1 Acoustics sound insulation performance of enclosures - Determination - Part 1. Measurements under laboratory conditions (marked with)
GB/T 18699.2 Acoustics sound insulation performance of enclosures - Determination Part 2. Measurements in situ (for acceptance and verification purposes)
GB/T 19512 acoustic muffler field measurements
GB/T 19513 requirements under laboratory conditions Acoustics Measurement of sound attenuation barriers Office
GB/T 19885 Acoustics sound insulation performance between the assay laboratory and field measurements
GB/T 19887 Acoustics sound attenuation movable barrier field measurements
GB/T 19889.3 Acoustics Measurement of sound insulation buildings and building elements - Part 3. building elements Laboratory measurements of airborne sound insulation
GB/T 19889.4 Acoustics Measurement of sound insulation buildings and building elements - Part 4. Field measurements of airborne sound insulation between rooms
GB/T 19889.5 Acoustics Measurement of sound insulation buildings and building elements - Part 5. Exterior elements and facades of airborne sound insulation site
GB/T 19889.8 Acoustics Measurement of sound insulation buildings and building elements - Part 8. Heavy standard floor coverings percussion amount of improvement
Laboratory measurements
GB/T 19889.14 buildings and building elements Acoustics Measurement of sound insulation - Part 14. Guidelines for special field measurements
GB/T 20247 acoustic reverberation chamber sound absorption measurements
GB/T 25516 Acoustics Laboratory measurement pipe muffler duct end unit insertion loss, air flow noise and total
Pressure loss
GB/T 50452 Ancient Architecture Industrial anti-vibration technology specification
GB J87-85 Industrial Enterprise Noise Control Design Specification
HJ 453 Technical Guidelines for Environmental Impact Assessment of Urban Rail Transit
HJ 552 completed construction projects Acceptance of Highway
HJ 2016 environmental engineering terminology
HJ/T 90 sound barrier design and measurement specifications
HJ/T 403 Construction Project Environmental Protection acceptance for Urban Rail Transit
JGJ/T 170 urban rail transit and secondary radiation caused by building vibration noise limits and methods of measurement standards
JJF1034 acoustic measurement terminology and definitions
CJJ/T 191 floating slab track specifications
JT/T 646 highway sound barrier material technical requirements and test methods
JTJ/T 006 highway design of environmental protection
TB/T 3122 railway sound barriers acoustic member technical requirements and test methods
09MR603 "Urban Road - sound barrier" National Building Standard Design Atlas
"Construction Project Environmental Protection design requirements" (State Planning Commission, Environmental Protection Commission of the State Council [1987] No. 002)
"Architectural engineering design to compile the documents" (Housing and Urban Ministry of Construction Quality [2008] No. 216)
"Project (Project) final acceptance approach" (State Planning Committee Building [1990] No. 215)
"Construction project completion and acceptance of environmental protection management approach" (SEPA Order No. 13)
3 Terms and Definitions
The following terms and definitions and related content HJ 2016 listed apply to this standard.
3.1 ambient noise environmental noise
It refers to the sound of industrial production, construction, transportation and social life arising from interference around the living environment. Sometimes by
Generating a plurality of different positions of the combined effect of the sound source.
3.2 traffic noise traffic noise
Tack motor vehicles, locomotives, rail transit, motor vessels, aircraft and other means of transport generated at runtime
Voice scrambling around the living environment.
3.3 industrial noise industrial noise
It refers to the use of fixed equipment in industrial production activities and other interference of ambient sound living environment.
3.4 building construction noise construction noise
It refers to the sound produced in the course of construction of the living environment of the surrounding interference.
3.5 social life noise community noise
It refers to the sound business culture and entertainment and business activities generated interference around the living environment.
3.6 Environmental Vibration environmental vibration
It refers to the combined effects of all relevant environmental vibration due to vibration source artificially generated.
3.7 Noise source intensity noise source intensity
That intensity noise sources - reflected radiation intensity acoustic noise sources and characteristics of indicators, usually radiated noise sound power level or OK
Under ambient conditions, determine the sound pressure level (inclusive of the spectrum) and directivity characteristics distances to represent.
3.8 vibration source and strong vibration source intensity
That is the strength of vibration sources - reflect the acceleration, velocity or displacement characteristics such as vibration source strength index, usually perpendicular to the reference point
Z direction of the ground vibration level representation.
3.9 Z vibration level VLZ Z-weighted vibration level
Vibration acceleration level refers to the whole-body vibration Z weighting factor correction direction perpendicular to the ground according to GB/T 13441 stipulated obtained after referred to as
3.10 steady noise steady noise
Refers to the measuring time, the sound source measured sound level fluctuation is not greater than 3dB noise.
3.11 non-stationary noise non-steady noise
Refers to the measuring time, the measured sound level fluctuation is greater than 3dB sound source of the noise.
3.12 Soundbridge sound bridge
Refers to a solid rigid linker between two or more layers of insulation member may be formed directly conducting structure of solid sound, make noise decreased.
3.13 floating floor floating floor
In light finger pads or elastic damping plate insulation layer over the rigid floor, and then paving the floor, making it rigid and completely out of the main building
connection. It can effectively reduce the vibration of the floor itself and percussion, with a good solid sound isolation effect.
4 Elements and pollution intensity
4.1 Noise and Vibration Control Pollution Project involves elements of environmental noise and vibration environment, typical of physical contamination.
4.2 The main sources of environmental noise as shown in Table 1.
Table 1 Typical ambient noise pollution
The classification of typical characteristics of Sound Source
Road traffic noise
All kinds of noise from the motor vehicle, tire and road noise and aerodynamic
Noise constitute force. In the transportation routes and highways, etc. more
With traffic, vehicle, load,
Speed vary widely, showing the
Prominent characteristics of low-frequency broadband
Rail (including urban rail
Road and rail) transportation noise
Locomotives noise, wheel-rail noise, pantograph and aerodynamic vehicles
Power noise, as well as bridges and subsidiary structure for vibration excitation radiation
Construction noise
Low frequency was even more prominent
Continued spectrum, broadband and typical
Line source properties
Aviation noise generated by various types of aircraft taking off, landing and cruising noise generated. Airport noise is one of the typical
And models, landing close distance
Correlation spectrum vary widely
For Marine shipping noise noise, siren noise, fluid turbine noise high-frequency noise more prominent
Aerodynamic noise all kinds of fans, air compressors, jet noise produced by the engine, boilers and other pressure gas venting noise, combustion noise and the sound of high power transmission range far
Machinery and equipment noise
Metallurgy, textile, printing, building materials, electricity, chemical and other industries and
Class production and processing equipment, motors, ball mill, crusher, red
Noise presses, saws, pumps, electro-pneumatic tools produced
Noise Mechanism of different frequency
Spectrum, time domain complex
Electromagnetic noise
Substations, converter stations, industrial production and daily life in common
The various types of transformers, converters, inverters, reactors, large
Noise capacitors, exciter, ballasts, and other produce
Frequency electromagnetic noise clocked
100Hz; DC inverter, for
High-frequency component rich stream station
Facilities noise
Plumbing, HVAC, sanitation facilities and other ancillary equipment (such as empty
Transfer units, cooling towers, fans, pumps, refrigeration units, heat exchangers
Noise stations, elevators, gas turbines, generators, etc.) generated
Broadband, some containing specific
Or beat frequency spectrum characteristics, subjective
Fret high
Construction machinery and transport vehicles noise phase noise earthmoving excavators, shield, bulldozers, loaders, etc., blasting noise
Foundation construction phase noise
Hammers, drills, picks, drills, tamping machine, concrete mix
Mixing machine, pump, casting machinery, portable air compressors, power generation
Noise generated by machines and other construction equipment
Construction stage sounding noise kinds of transport vehicles, construction equipment and construction materials and other components in the transport, cutting, installation of noise generated
Sound source species diversity (more than having
Movement), a large work surface,
Affecting a wide range; frequency noise
Spectrum, time domain complex
Noise wideband noise Operational places of cultural entertainment and commercial business activities used in sound reinforcement equipment, recreational facilities generated
Live broadcast public places noise, wideband audio and other noise
Other common acoustic noise decoration construction, kitchen equipment, life activities wideband noise, random features
4.3 Noise and Vibration Control should investigate the source of strong engineering process design before the project is already running should be the appropriate standard noise and vibration
Status survey and analysis of dynamic sources; the proposed project should be based on the existing sources of noise and vibration through the database information or similar unit noise
Sound and Vibration analogy tests to determine the appropriate source of noise and vibration intensity.
4.4 Source strong investigation should have the parameters in Table 2.
Table 2 sources of noise and vibration characteristics and parameters
The main characteristic parameters characterizing sources
Noise Source Intensity
It should sound power level (to 1 × 10-12w reference sound power), and contains (or 1/3 octave
Octave) and three-dimensional spectral characteristics of directivity. When the limited conditions do not provide or measured sound power level
And directivity, it is desirable to give a specific environment (must be marked with the sound field characteristic) specific distance from the center of the sound source
SPL and necessary from the spectrum, while the geometric description of the size and shape characteristics of the sound source
Strong vibration source using vibration acceleration, velocity, displacement or plumb bob to Z weighted vibration level (referred to as the Z vibration level)
Noise and vibration frequency domain characteristics
Octave band or 1/3 octave sound power level or sound pressure level spectrum band, as well as the existence of pure tone component, etc.
(When not equipped by A-weighted sound pressure level and C-weighted sound pressure level difference between simple determination)
Time-domain characteristics of stationary noise and noise and vibration to identify non-stationary noise, whether the presence of impulse noise and burst noise, etc.
Note 1. For aerodynamic noise source, to learn as much as possible speed, the fan impeller diameter, number of blades, spindle speed, fluid flow rate and temperature, pressure and other noise
Sound source characteristic parameters;
Note 2. The proposed vibration isolation device, as much as possible to grasp its natural frequency (spindle speed), operating weight, mass and center of gravity position of the vibration and other vibration sources Laid
Sign parameters.
4.5 Common sources of environmental noise source intensity can be found in Appendix A.
5 general requirements
5.1 Noise and Vibration Control Engineering should follow people-oriented, source intensity control, comprehensive management, discharge standards and the principles of the "three simultaneous" system,
We should take into account economic, social and environmental benefits to correctly handle the relationship between recent and long-term, sustainable development and austerity, do
To technologically advanced, economical, safe and reliable, energy saving; priority starting with the construction plan, a good plan strict environmental impact assessment;
Site selection, line selection, facility layout, building layout design process, according to the relevant EIA guidelines demanding the implementation of distance control and other environmental factors.
5.2 Noise and Vibration Control Engineering Design Unit shall have the respective national design qualification, design depth should follow the "construction design
Compile the documents "requirements, and to meet the environmental impact report (table), the approval documents and related requirements of this standard; its design,
Construction, inspection, operation, in addition to compliance with this standard, it must also abide by the existing laws, regulations, standards and industry standards compliance
Set, meet the design specifications, regulations and mandatory standards relating to quality, safety, health, fire and so on.
5.3 Noise and Vibration noise and vibration control engineering should take full account of interactions and transformations, a distinction airborne sound and solid sound generation
Differences mechanism, environmental impacts and governance measures be taken to prevent solid conduction noise radiated by the vibration actuator formed.
5.4 Noise and Vibration Control Engineering should make full use of terrain, and point to the overall layout and other measures to improve the noise reduction effect of the sound source, and with the week
Wai landscape in harmony; its general layout should refer to the "construction project environmental protection design requirements", GB/T 17249.1, GB J87 and other standards
related requirements.
5.5 Noise and Vibration Control Engineering used the product should comply with the relevant national standards, the environment and prevent secondary pollution.
5.6 Noise and Vibration Control Engineering for the selection of materials and structures should seek stable performance, affordable, convenient construction and installation, and no secondary pollution
Transfection and harmless to humans and animals, and should meet the fire, water, mold, moisture, decay, corrosion, salt spray, dust, UV
Require the use of different places, but also taking into account ventilation, lighting, lighting and surface decoration requirements should be beautiful and durable.
6 Process Design
6.1 General provisions
6.1.1 shall be in accordance with the environmental impact assessment documents and approval requirements for source strength survey to determine the source of the main sources of noise and vibration is strong,
Control objectives and control program, the control program may include overall program and local programs.
6.1.2 The design process should be based on the control program in noise, vibration calculation results of the sub-measures, the final effect of the overall program will be fully
- Analysis. If the predictions reach the control objectives and requirements, itemized response measures to adjust until the meet the control objectives.
6.2 noise source and vibration source impact analysis
6.2.1 should first be differentiated according to the noise source and the spectral characteristics of their body mass point source, line source and surface source classification, combined with the sound power level (or
SPL) as well as its strong point and other characteristics of a certain distance from the source of analysis, forecasting its actual impact on the sensitive points; not sufficiently strong in the source data or
In other cases necessary, precedence is determined based on the measured analogy.
6.2.2 The main noise sources should give priority to the use of more stringent noise control indicators; non-primary sound source, you should pay attention to multiple sound sources of energy superposition
6.2.3 Effect of vibration source to sensitive points of analysis should pay attention to the selection of strong vibration source and determine predictive parameters; according to the intensity of the vibration source, a plane
Height distribution in the form of vibration and propagation attenuation law (including the impact of different body waves and surface waves) were analyzed. Adjacent vibration source environment
Sensitive targets should be solid acoustic conducting impact analysis of the secondary structure of the indoor noise. If necessary, should be adopted to determine the actual analogy.
6.2.4 Rail traffic vibration prediction models should be considered, the train axle load and speed, track structure and curvature of the wheel-rail conditions, track bed, subgrade,
Correction factor structure of bridges and tunnels, the line distance and angle, type of building and its foundation depth.
6.3 Control Design
6.3.1 The basic principles of noise and vibration control is a priority source intensity control; Secondly, we should take as close as possible sources of pollution control technology transfer pathways
Measures; consider sensitive points protective measures if necessary.
6.3.2 source intensity control. it should be based on a variety of equipment noise and vibration generating mechanism, using a variety of targeted and reasonable noise damping technology as possible
You can use low-noise equipment and vibration damping material to reduce or suppress the generation of noise and vibration.
6.3.3 transmission path control. If the high intensity noise and vibration generated after the equipment has been installed to run the sound source noise severely limitations not even real
Shi's case, should take effective technical means of sound insulation, sound absorption, noise, vibration isolation, damping treatment and comprehensive management measures on transmission
Applied to inhibit the proliferation of noise and vibration.
6.3.4 sensitive point guard. at the source of the noise or transmission noise and vibration control are difficult to adopt effective measures, to deal with the sensitive points
For protection.
7 Common engineering measures
7.1 Noise
7.1.1 General provisions should be based on the nature of the sources, forms of communication and their positional relationship with the environment sensitive points, with different acoustic treatment program. fixed sound source acoustic treatment, the source of noise insulation measures should be set as close as possible, a variety of devices such as acoustic enclosures, fan compartment
Sound boxes, as well as air compressors and diesel generator room acoustic insulation and other building structures. Sound insulation facilities should be fully closed, to avoid making holes in the gap
Drain into the sound (especially low frequency sound leakage); the inner wall should be a sufficient amount of acoustic treatment. When the noise sensitive points to take protective measures should be adopted between the insulation (chamber) in the form of structures, such as duty insulation, sound insulation was observed
Windows, etc; residential buildings on the street can be installed soundproof windows soundproof window or ventilation. noise propagation pathway acoustic processing, can be used with a certain degree of noise barriers or noise barriers (such as the use of cutting soil
Embankment, housing construction, etc.); when necessary, while using the above combination of several structural forms.
By the sound of the noise source and point Indoor mostly by reverberation reflections, sound design should pay attention to distinguish the free field (direct sound) and reverb
Field (reflections) of different roles.
7.1.2 insulation member Environmental Noise Control Engineering is often the choice of quality (density) control insulation member district, their density or thickness for each doubling,
Theoretically noise increased 6dB; but the actual density or thickness of the project doubled the amount of noise increased by about 4.5dB. Evaluation of sound insulation performance shall be weighted sound reduction Rw C or Rw Ctr prevail. Typically traffic arteries on both sides of the residential sound insulation window insulation
Index Rw Ctr not less than 30dB. When using hollow composite insulation member homogeneous multilayer sheet composed, shall meet the following requirements.
a) avoid coincident effect and impact sound member bridge;
b) the use of two or more single-layer composite made of composite siding simple structure, attention should be staggered joint laminated between layers of veneer, which separated
Characteristics and sound properties equivalent homogeneous single wall thickness is substantially the same;
c) Sandwich Panel insulation structure, the core material of rock wool insulation board is better than the core material is polystyrene board or honeycomb paper; and shall note
Meaning the actual thickness of the steel sheet negative impact of poor. engineering practice should be used to inhibit acoustic damping structure trough sheet member due to low frequency acoustic resonance and consistent effect formed, and mining
With constrained damping layer structure suppressed better. For two or more layers of hollow acoustic structure, should be in the middle of the two plates filled with a certain thickness of the sound-absorbing material to reduce the acoustic energy in the cavity
Density, in order to improve the sound insulation performance of the hollow structure. soundproof windows frame transmission and sound leakage gap greater impact on the overall sound insulation performance, especially for the low frequency band. It should be noted border and
Matching door (window) fan body sound insulation materials, as well as the border between the sealed gap. To improve the sound insulation sound insulation door, you can take the following measures.
a) When using a different surface density of leaf material multi-layer composite structure, it should use the critical frequency above 3150Hz sheet material,
Damping material may also be painted on the plate to suppress the vibration plate and structural noise radiation;
b) filled with sound absorbing material in the cavity of the door;
c) improving the door seals, the use of (autistic) vertical door hinge or self-floor lift. When using dual channel noise gate, can increase the space between the double doors, made of door body styles to form a sound gate, while each door pocket
Do the inner surface acoustic treatment to generate additional sound insulation. To improve the sound insulation of windows, you can take the following measures.
a) the use of special construction or double glass windows as well as multi-layer structure instead of a single layer window glazing to improve sound insulation;
b) the use of two or three layers of different thickness made of laminated glass sound insulation windows, instead of using the same thickness of a single layer of insulation glass windows;
c) the use of laminated glass soundproof windows (also known as laminated glass), and its acoustic insulation performance than single-glazed windows and different thickness of glass
Composite made of soundproof window;
d) Conventional hollow glass windows enhance the sound insulation performance is limited, if designed properly can also cause coupling resonance, standing waves and resonance effects anastomosis
Acoustics and other defects, should use caution;
e) the amount of push-pull doors and sound insulation is generally low, when you need a higher sound insulation, sound insulation should be used in flat open windows and doors. large cooling towers and air-cooled outdoor unit should be adapted to local conditions with different insulation or insulation and ventilation muffler structure composite structure, reduce
Environmental noise. Its sound insulation requirements are as follows.
a) When the outdoor large cooling towers and air-cooled outdoor unit with respect to the sensitive points in a higher position and contralateral no large reflective surface, can
Using relatively simple sound barrier insulation program, but when necessary, in the corresponding unit inlet position, open flow area sufficient ventilation Consumers
b) when the outdoor large cooling towers and air-cooled outdoor unit with respect to the sensitive points in a lower position or contralateral large reflective surface, it should be taken
With fully enclosed or semi-enclosed acoustic enclosure with sufficient flow area of the air intake, exhaust muffler fully enclosed sound insulation, noise reduction measures in combination. control rail traffic noise can be a reasonable selection of closed, semi-closed or single, bilateral and other forms of noise barriers,
But pay attention to prevent noise affect the secondary structure of the track vibration. sound barrier design should comply with the relevant provisions of HJ/T 90, HJ 453, TB/T 3122, JTJ/T 006, JT/T 646,09MR603 of
And the following requirements.
a) noise barrier height body design should take full account of the infrastructure and wind barrier main structure loads, snow loads and seismic etc.
Security check;
b) For bi-directional line rail barrier, its acoustic design should take full account of the impact of side lanes of traffic and noise protection;
c) it should be reasonably designed to optimize sound barrier height and the length of the extension ends, to ensure that they formed acoustic attenuation and acoustic barrier segments provided
Total amount of noise reduction to match;
d) for the use of the whole track bed rail sound barrier, sound barrier should pay particular attention to slabs and slab-column binding site of isolation
(Decoupling) design, or adopt the necessary measures to track vibration isolation, as a barrier to inhibit the body stimulated emission of noise by the secondary structure;
e) When two-way multi-lane highway sound barrier height limited settings, while the construction of the center should be as sound isolation in the median strip of the screen
Barrier (preferably with bilateral acoustic form) in order to effectively reduce the impact of side lanes of traffic noise;
f) when the traffic noise exceeding or more sensitive points of high-rise buildings, etc., can be semi-enclosed or fully enclosed sound barrier (but total length
Exceeding the safety standard fully enclosed sound barrier should be added to the ventilation exhaust muffler channel security and emergency evacuation systems).
7.2 absorption
7.2.1 General provisions Environmental Noise Control Engineering acoustic reflection technology is mainly used to reduce noise, including.
a) in a number of large public buildings, such as the airport terminal, the station waiting room, waiting room marina, exhibition halls, dance halls,
Restaurant, lobby and other places, in the ceiling or side wall sound-absorbing material arranged environment can become comfortable and quiet;
b) For echo, acoustic focus, flutter echo acoustic defects of the room, the use of acoustic treatment (or a reasonable set of diffuser) cancellative
In addition to acoustic defects;
c) for large-scale industrial production plants high noise and high noise power station building, such as air compressor room, fan room, freezing room, water pump
Room, boiler room, pump room and so on, install sound-absorbing material or sound absorbing structure in the ceiling or side wall, can reduce the indoor reverberation noise energy density,
While reducing the impact of the external environment;
d) For thin sheet wall insulation member filled with sound-absorbing material in their dissection, can significantly improve the acoustic effects;
e) For all types of machinery and equipment acoustic enclosures, soundproof room, control room, duty room, noise barriers, etc., can be installed in the inner wall of sound-absorbing material
Improve the noise reduction. absorption technique is mainly suitable for reducing reverberation noise generated due to indoor surface reflection, which generally does not exceed the amount of noise 10dB; it
In the vicinity of the sound source, in order to reduce the direct sound of noise control engineering based not only using the method of acoustic treatment. should be used for sound absorption considering the original room acoustic conditions. If the original without making room acoustic treatment, more serious reflection reverberation, which
Sound absorption effect is obvious; otherwise poor. For conventional factory workshop, sound absorption effect is 3dB ~ 5dB; reverberation serious car
Between factories, sound absorption effect of 6dB ~ 9dB; for special geometry (sound focusing, flutter echo sound defects), reverb extremely strict
Heavy factory workshop, acoustic noise reduction effect may reach 10dB ~ 12dB. acoustic noise reduction with no increase in acoustic treatment area increases linearly, acoustic noise design should be based on the amount of demand, optimizing co-determination
Acoustic treatment area and reasonable arrangement. spectral characteristics of the noise source should be directed to the choice of sound-absorbing material and sound absorbing structure. Sound absorption properties of sound-absorbing material and sound absorbing structure should noise
Frequency characteristic corresponding to the sound source.
7.2.2 sound-absorbing materials and structures Press physical properties and acoustic manner broadly divided into resistive resistance and sound-absorbing material absorbing structure into two categories, but some have special impedance compound
Sex. sound absorbing material comprises resistive material resistance and sound-absorbing materials sound absorbing structure. The former refers to the interior from the surface there are many small, open
Porous material and the opening track of dense fibrous tissue of a variety of organic or inorganic fiber products; the latter generally comprises a film-like material and a plate-like material
And other materials.
Sound absorption properties of sound-absorbing material should using octave 125Hz, 250Hz, 500Hz, 1000Hz, 2000Hz, 4000Hz frequency six
The arithmetic average of the rate of absorption coefficient under, or noise reduction coefficient NRC to represent. common sound-absorbing material should be chosen with the appropriate pore size and porosity and the pores open communication with each other in order to achieve an appropriate porosity and flow resistance
Fiber sound-absorbing material, comprising.
a) inorganic fiber materials categories. for example, centrifugal glass wool, rock wool, slag wool and products made of these materials;
b) foam categories. for example, polyurethane foam, urea foam and urethane foam, etc;
c) an organic fibrous material categories. such as cotton, linen, wood, plant fiber, seaweed, brown silk, non-woven fabric and its products;
(Above materials must be processed and meet the relevant requirements by an effective fire retardant)
d) absorption supplies categories. such as foam glass, expanded perlite, sound-absorbing clay bricks, aerated concrete blocks, etc;
e) metal sound-absorbing materials categories. for example, aluminum fibers, aluminum foam, stainless steel wire, powder metallurgy sintered body, a metal plate.
Sound Absorption porous sound-absorbing material by the material thickness, density, flow resistance, porosity, structure factor, material behind
Affected layer, the surface of the decorative material handling, installation and use of premises and the arrangement of temperature, humidity and other external conditions, the choice should be
Tradeoff, and consider the following factors.
a) high-frequency sound absorption effect is obvious, low-frequency sound absorption is poor;
b) With the increase of the material thickness or density increases, the optimal absorption frequency shifts to low frequency,
c) the thickness of the doubled frequency of maximum absorption of about one octave to move to lower frequency;
d) the best material thickness is a quarter wavelength absorption frequency. Resistance to commonly used sound absorbing structure option.
a) sheet (film) resonance absorption structure;
b) perforated panel absorber;
c) micro-perforated panel absorber structure (containing new structure ultrafine hole, micro slit, etc.);
d) bundle type sound absorbing structure;
e) types of composite sound absorbing structure, space absorber and the like. In addition to the choice of a suitable sound absorbing structure outside, should also consider ways hanging sound absorbing structure.
7.3 Muffler
7.3.1 General provisions muffler design or selection should meet the following requirements.
a) should be based on the characteristics of the noise source within the desired frequency range of the muffler is large enough muffler;
b) loss of additional resistance muffler must be controlled within the allowable range of equipment operation;
c) Good muffler structure should be scientifically designed, small and efficient, handsome in appearance, durable, easy maintenance, long service life;
d) requirements for higher noise pipeline system, should adopt the reasonable control of pipes and muffler section size and media flow rate, the fluid again
Students noise reasonable control. muffler design or selection process is as follows.
a) investigation to determine the aerodynamic noise source intensity, can be measured, methods to estimate or determination to find information;
b) determining compliance limits (for each octave band sound pressure level and sound pressure level allowed), or by the relevant regulatory standards to determine the user's requirements;
c) by the known conditions calculate the required A sound level and each frequency band (such as center frequency of 63Hz ~ 8kHz eight octave bands) extinction
Sound level (insertion loss);
d) based on the frequency characteristics of the noise source and the desired amount of noise reduction, aerodynamic performance and the presence of moisture, temperature and other special requirements,
Determine the type of muffler; silencers for ventilation and air conditioning system design, in addition to considering the noise source and the amount of muffler muffler, we must also calculate
Pressure loss and flow noise generated by various components of the piping system; when the resistance loss is too large or regeneration airflow noise impact on the environment than
Noise limits should be combined with the overall layout of ventilation and air conditioning systems, optimization and adjustment of air velocity and muffler structure;
e) according to the characteristics of the noise source, the best way to layout position muffler noise and radiation propagating chosen should give full attention to the scene
Space restrictions on the dimensions of the muffler; in the field of aerodynamics and space permit conditions, the general should make the first section of the muffler device as possible
You can approach the noise source; end muffler exit point to avoid noise-sensitive orientation or next larger obstacles.
f) In the muffler to minimize costs, it should also ensure that the strength of the muffler, and internal and external quality of life.
7.3.2 Resistive muffler Resistive muffler structure type selection, should take into account factors such as the failure to prevent the high frequency. straight tube muffler pipe diameter of not more than 300mm. When the pipe diameter is greater than 300mm, should use chip muffler; chip muffler spacing should take 100mm ~ 200mm,
Slice thickness should take 50mm ~ 150mm. When you need to get higher than the straight-frequency chip muffler muffler, optional folded plate muffler; folded plate muffler channel
It should be designed to block the line of sight principle, but for the control of pressure loss and flow noise, knuckle should not exceed 20 °. When the time required to obtain a large amount of noise reduction and a smaller pressure loss, should use the new array muffler or silencer channels is sinusoidal
Streamlined or diamond like acoustic streaming muffler. In ventilation duct systems should use box upstream chamber design labyrinth muffler (silencer or plenum chamber); labyrinth muffler
The flow rate should be within not more than 5m/s; muffler within the porous sound-absorbing material should be filled evenly, the packing density should be selected based on the frequency characteristics of the muffler; when the focus off
Note the high-frequency characteristics, it can be filled with a density of centrifugal glass wool 24kg/m3 ~ 32kg/m3; when you want to emphasize low-frequency performance muffler, centrifugal glass
Glass wool packing density should be more than equal to 48kg/m3;
When When using glass cloth and perforated plate composite structure as a protective surface sound-absorbing material, make sure there is enough perforated plate perforation rate.
7.3.3 muffler When the noise was when not to use resistive sound-absorbing materials within evident in the low-frequency characteristics or gas flow passages (such as air compressor intake and exhaust ports,
Engine exhaust pipes, etc.), should use the muffler. Common muffler includes a muffler expansion chamber resonance muffler and micro-wear
Plate muffler. expansion chamber muffler design and selection should meet the following requirements.
a) the amount of expansion anechoic chamber muffler should and expansion ratio (ratio of cross section of the expansion chamber and the passage section) is proportional; its anechoic frequency characteristics
By changing the length of the expansion chamber is adjusted;
b) for the expansion muffler effective bandwidth can be several different proportions, the length of the expansion chamber used in tandem;
c) To eliminate periodic by acoustic frequency should be equal to the inner cannula lengths chamber length 1/2 and 1/4;
d) In order to maintain the good aerodynamic performance, it should take over the inner perforated rate of not less than 30% of the perforated pipe connected;
e) internal diameter expansion chamber muffler should not be too large, when the diameter is greater than 400mm, can be multi-tube type. When the noise was low-IF characteristics, especially when noise with a peak at certain frequencies, the resonance can be muffler. Resonant Consumers
The sound design and selection should meet the following requirements.
a) single-channel resonance muffler which channel diameter of not more than 250mm. Large capacity system can be multi-channel, each channel
Preferably the width of 100mm ~ 200mm;
b) each part of the resonator dimensions (length, width, height) should be less than 1/3 of the wavelength of the resonance frequency; perforated section should focus on the resonant cavity
Section, and evenly distributed; perforation range of not more than 1/12 of the wavelength of the resonance frequency;
c) In order to obtain a higher amount of noise reduction over a wide frequency range, can be used by the resistive impedance compound muffler and muffler consisting of
Muffler, and expansion chamber includes a resistive composite muffler, resistive and resonant sound absorber, resistive and expansion chamber plus complex resonance formula
Combined muffler.
7.3.4 Micro-perforated plate muffler Micro-perforated plate muffler is micro-perforated panel absorber structure based on impedance compound muffler resonator. Micro-perforated plate muffler surface friction loss is small, low flow noise, noise, wide bandwidth, it can withstand high temperatures and less
The impact of high velocity air stream, preferably waterproof, moisture, dust, mold, fire-retardant, anti-aging properties, especially for clean and high-speed system,
Hot muffler system. Micro-perforated plate muffler should adopt a double structure to the plate silencer band widening.
The presence of local resistance and appearance of larger issues ordinary micro-perforated plate muffler can be used ultramicropore especially micro slit and other new
Improvements to optimize the structure, can get a higher volume of energy efficiency and silencing effect.
7.3.5 Exhaust Muffler Exhaust Muffler can effectively reduce high velocity gas (including, but not limited to, high temperature, high pressure, flammable and explosive gas, etc.) air emission
The jet noise. for the boiler exhaust gas, blast furnace leaked chemical process gas emission, exhaust noise characteristics of different and various pneumatic tools and air compressor
Process requirements, can choose to install an exhaust vent reasonable having diffusion or deceleration frequency function Muffler. high temperature, high pressure steam emissions, should give priority to the use of throttling and holes injection composite muffler exhaust vent and full consideration
Strong discharge port noise directivity to improve noise reduction. high temperature, high pressure vent exhaust muffler design and manufacturing should take full account of the structure of the pressure and explosion safety, anti-corrosion and anti-clogging, hydrophobic
And rain, avoid diffusing jet for personal injury and other design elements; when the rain cap must be attached, should pay attention to its strength and diversion muffler treatment,
Prevent flow noise, construction noise and secondary reflections.
7.4 Isolation
7.4.1 General provisions Isolation design applies to both, the harmful effects of protective equipment vibration or shock to the operator or other equipment surroundings, also suitable
For preventing the interference of external vibration sensitive targets. When the vibration generated by machinery and equipment can cause sound conduction and solid structure caused by noise,
Noise isolation should also be treated. If conditions permit, the layout should be made for isolation of sensitive points or higher precision equipment as far away from strong vibration equipment
Vibration or other sources (such as railways, highways). vibration device and the support structure type, it should be based on the type of machinery and equipment, vibration strength, disturbance frequency, and other forms of installation and maintenance
Characteristics, as well as construction, environment and operator requirements for noise and vibration and other factors to determine overall.
7.4.2 Design of Vibration Isolation Isolation design shall be GB 50463, GB 10070, GB/T 50452 and JGJ/T 170 executed. isolation design should also follow these steps.
a) determining a desired vibration transfer ratio (or isolation efficiency) as well as the approximate center of gravity and load distribution;
b) to determine the layout of the form element isolation, load, type, size and number;
c) determine the static compression, frequency ratio and natural frequency vibration isolation system;
d) Checking isolation parameters, estimation noise reduction effect of vibration isolation design. determine the natural frequency of vibration isolation required for the design should be based on actual or estimated vibration levels obtained for an isolation device or location, machine
Disturbance frequency device, the device model specifications, working conditions (equipment stability and ease of operation) as well a...
Related standard: HJ 906-2017    HJ 907-2017
Related PDF sample: GB 1495-2002    GB/T 14365-1993