Powered by Google-Search & Google-Books Chinese Standards Shop Database: 169760 (Aug 1, 2020)
HOME  COVID-19   Quotation   Tax   Examples Standard-List   Contact-Us   View-Cart
  

GB/T 5169.26-2018

Chinese Standard: 'GB/T 5169.26-2018'
Standard IDContents [version]USDSTEP2[PDF] delivered inStandard Title (Description)StatusRelated Standard
GB/T 5169.26-2018English449 Add to Cart Days<=3 Fire hazard testing for electric and electronic products -- Part 26: Smoke obscuration -- Summary and relevance of test methods Valid GB/T 5169.26-2018
GB/T 5169.26-2018Chinese23 Add to Cart <=1-day [PDF from Chinese Authority, or Standard Committee, or Publishing House]  

   

BASIC DATA
Standard ID GB/T 5169.26-2018 (GB/T5169.26-2018)
Description (Translated English) Fire hazard testing for electric and electronic products - Part 26: Smoke obscuration - Summary and relevance of test methods
Sector / Industry National Standard (Recommended)
Classification of Chinese Standard K04
Classification of International Standard 13.220.99; 29.020
Word Count Estimation 30,33
Date of Issue 2018-09-17
Date of Implementation 2019-04-01
Older Standard (superseded by this standard) GB/T 5169.26-2008
Drafting Organization China Electric Apparatus Research Institute Co., Ltd.
Administrative Organization National Standardization Technical Committee for Fire and Hazard Testing of Electrical and Electronic Products (SAC/TC 300)
Proposing organization China Electrical Equipment Industry Association
Issuing agency(ies) State Administration of Markets and China National Standardization Administration

GB/T 5169.26-2018
Fire hazard testing for electric and electronic products - Part 26. Smoke obscuration - Summary and relevance of test methods
ICS 13.220.99; 29.020
K04
National Standards of People's Republic of China
Replace GB/T 5169.26-2008
Electrical and electronic products fire hazard test
Part 26. Smoke blur
Summary and relevance of test methods
Part 26.Smookeobscuration-Summaryandrelevanceoftestmethods
(IEC 60695-6-2.2011, Firehazardtesting-Part 6-2. Smoke
obscuration-Summaryandrelevanceoftestmethods, IDT)
2018-09-17 released.2019-04-01 implementation
State market supervision and administration
China National Standardization Administration issued
Content
Foreword III
Introduction V
1 range 1
2 Normative references 1
3 Terms and Definitions 1
4 test method type 4
4.1 Summary 4
4.2 Physical Fire Model 4
4.3 Static test method 5
4.4 Dynamic test method 5
5 sample type 6
6 Published static test methods 6
6.1 Summary 6
6.2 Measuring the opacity of smoke in a 0.51m3 box 6
6.3 Measurement of smoke density in the “27m3” smoke test chamber 9
6.4 Determination of specific optical density by two-box test method
7 Published Dynamic Test Methods 11
7.1 Summary 11
7.2 Determination of smoke density from cables installed on horizontal ladders 11
7.3 Determination of smoke from cables installed on vertical ladders 12
7.4 Determination of smoke by cone calorimeter 13
8 Summary of test methods and data correlations 15
Appendix A (informative appendix) Repetitive and reproducible data---NBS cigarette test chamber---based
Interlaboratory tests for NFC20-902-1 and NFC20-902-2 16
Appendix B (informative) Repeatability and reproducibility data---ISO 5659-2 17
Appendix C (informative appendix) Reproducibility and reproducibility data---"Three-meter cubic" smoke test chamber---according to IEC 61034-1
French cycle comparison test 19
Appendix D (Informative) Repeatability and Reproducibility Data---NFPA262 20
Appendix E (informative) ISO 5660-2 accuracy data for smoke measurement 21
Reference 22
Table 1 Characteristics of the type of ignition (from ISO 19706.2007) 5
Table 2 Summary of smoke test methods 15
Table A.1 Determination of Dm 16
Table B.1 Measurement of Ds10 17
Table B.2 Results of polycarbonate 17
Table B.3 Test results of PVC flooring 18
Table C.1 Measurement of light transmittance 19
Table D.1 Peak optical density 20
Table D.2 Average optical density 20
Table E.1 Upholstered furniture material compound 21
Table E.2 Repeatability and reproducibility of the specific extinction area (m2·kg-1) 21
Foreword
GB/T 5169 "Electrical and Electronic Products Fire Hazard Test" is divided into the following parts.
--- Part 1. Terminology for ignition test;
--- Part 2. General guidelines for the assessment of fire hazard;
---Part 5. Test flame test method, test method and guide;
--- Part 9. General rules for pre-selection test procedures for fire hazard assessment guidelines;
--- Part 10. Glow wire/hot wire basic test method Glow wire device and general test method;
--- Part 11. Glow wire/hot wire basic test method Glow wire flammability test method (GWEPT);
--- Part 12. Glow wire/hot wire basic test method Glow wire flammability index (GWFI) test method;
--- Part 13. Glow wire/hot wire basic test method Glow wire light-off temperature (GWIT) test method for materials;
---Part 14. Test flame 1kW nominal premixed flame device, validation test method and guidelines;
---Part 15. Test flame 500W flame device and confirmation test method;
--- Part 16. Test flame 50W horizontal and vertical flame test method;
---Part 17. Test flame 500W flame test method;
---Part 18. General principles of toxicity of combustion streams;
---Part 19. Unnormal thermal compression stress release deformation test;
--- Part 20. Summary and correlation of test methods for flame surface spread;
--- Part 21. abnormal heat ball pressure test;
--- Part 22. Test flame 50W flame device and confirmation test method;
--- Part 23. Test flame tube-shaped polymeric material 500W vertical flame test method;
--- Part 24. Fire hazard assessment guidelines for insulating liquids;
--- Part 25. General rules for smoke blur;
--- Part 26. Summary and correlation of smoke fuzzing test methods;
---Part 29. General rules for heat release;
--- Part 30. Summary and correlation of heat release test methods;
--- Part 31. General rules for the spread of flame surfaces;
--- Part 32. Heat release of heat release insulating liquids;
--- Part 33. Fire hazard assessment guidelines for general ignitability;
--- Part 34. Fire hazard assessment guidelines Summary and correlation of ignitability test methods;
--- Part 35. General rules for corrosion hazards of combustion streams;
--- Part 36. Summary and correlation of test methods for corrosion hazards of combustion flows;
--- Part 38. Summary and correlation of toxicity test methods for combustion streams;
--- Part 39. Use and description of the toxicity test results of the combustion stream;
--- Part 40. Toxic toxicological assessment devices and test methods for combustion streams;
--- Part 41. Calculation and description of test results for toxic toxicity assessment of combustion streams;
--- Part 42. Test flame confirmation test guidelines;
--- Part 44. Fire hazard assessment guidelines for fire hazard assessment.
This part is part 26 of GB/T 5169.
This part is drafted in accordance with the rules given in GB/T 1.1-2009.
This part replaces GB/T 5169.26-2008 "Electrical and electronic products - Fire hazard testing - Part 26.
The main technical changes compared with GB/T 5169.26-2008 are as follows.
--- Updated the chapter on normative references (see Chapter 2, Chapter 2 of the.2008 edition);
--- Updated some terms and definitions (see 3.1,.2008 edition 3.1);
--- Added the chapter content of the "prEN50399" test (see 7.3.2).
This part uses the translation method equivalent to IEC 60695-6-2.2011 "Fire hazard test Part 6-2. Smoke fuzzing test method
Summary and relevance.
The documents of our country that have a consistent correspondence with the international documents referenced in this part are as follows.
--- GB/T 5169.25-2018 Electrical and electronic products - Fire hazard testing - Part 25. General rules for smoke haze (IEC 60695-
6-1.2010, IDT);
---GB/T 16499-2017 Preparation of electrical and electronic security publications and basic security publications and multi-disciplinary shared security publications
Guidelines for the application of substances (IEC Guide 104..2010, NEQ).
This section also made the following editorial changes.
--- In line with the existing standard series, change the name of this part to "Electrical and Electronic Products Fire Hazard Test Part 26. Smoke Blur
Summary and Correlation of Test Methods.
--- Change the second line of 6.3.4 "=2.303V/L" to "=2.303AmV/L", and modify the editors existing in the international standard.
Sexual error.
This part was proposed by China Electrical Equipment Industry Association.
This part is under the jurisdiction of the National Standardization Technical Committee for Fire and Hazard Testing of Electrical and Electronic Products (SAC/TC300).
This section is responsible for drafting unit. China Electric Apparatus Research Institute Co., Ltd.
Participated in the drafting of this section. Weikai Testing Technology Co., Ltd., Fujian Xinneng Offshore Wind Power R&D Center Co., Ltd., Guangdong Access
Inspection and Quarantine Technology Center of the Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Inspection and Quarantine Comprehensive Technology Center of Dongguan Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Beijing Tairuite Detection Technology
Service Co., Ltd., Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Fifth Institute of Electronics, Shenzhen Institute of Metrology and Quality Inspection, Zhejiang Yuehua Telecommunications Co., Ltd.
Company, Wuxi Sunan Test Equipment Co., Ltd., Shandong Province Product Quality Inspection Institute.
The main drafters of this section. Huang Kaiyun, Liu Yan, Jiang Guangqi, Wu Qian, Wu Zheng, Zheng Shaofeng, Gao Lingsong, Zhang Yuanqin, Wang Tong, Wang Chaosheng,
Ni Yunan, Zhao Yi, Han Xiangjiang.
The previous versions of the standards replaced by this section are.
---GB/T 5169.26-2008.
introduction
Any circuit needs to take into account the danger of fire. Component design, circuit design, equipment design, and material selection are intended to reduce
The possibility of less fire, even in the case of foreseeable abnormal use, failure and failure.
Electrical and electronic products that were originally victims of fires may contribute to the fire. One of the increased fire hazards is the release of smoke, making it visible
Feel reduced and/or lost direction and cannot escape from the building or affect fire fighting.
This section describes general smoke test methods for assessing the release of smoke from electrical and electronic products or materials used.
Electrical and electronic products - Fire hazard testing - Part 26.
Summary and correlation of smoke fuzzing test methods
1 Scope
This part of GB/T 5169 gives an overview of the test methods used to assess smoke haze, briefly summarizing international standards, national standards or
Static and dynamic test methods common in industry standards, including electrical and electronic products and their materials, and special observations on the correlation of fire,
Suggestions for use are given.
This section is intended to prepare standards for the Product Standards Committee in accordance with the principles set forth in IEC Guide 104 and ISO /IEC Guide 51.
One of the tasks of the Product Standards Committee is to use this section where applicable when writing standards. Unless specifically mentioned in the relevant standards
Or listed, otherwise the requirements, test methods or test conditions of this section will not apply.
2 Normative references
The following documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only dated versions apply to this article.
Pieces. For undated references, the latest edition (including all amendments) applies to this document.
GB/T 6379.2-2004 Accuracy of measurement methods and results (accuracy and precision) Part 2. Determination of standard measurement
Basic method of repeatability and reproducibility (ISO 5725-2.1994, IDT)
ISO 13943.2008 Fire Safety Typo (Firesafety-Vocabulary)
ISO 19706.20071) Guidelines for the assessment of fire threats to humans (Guidelinesforassessingthefirethreattopeo-
Ple)
1) ISO 9122-1.1989 "Toxic test for combustion streams Part 1. General principles" has been revoked and replaced by ISO 19706.2007.
IEC 60695-6-1.2005 Fire hazard test Part 6-1. General rules for smoke haze (FireHazard Testing-Part 6-1.
Smokeobscuration-GeneralGuidance)
IEC Guide 104 Preparation of safety publications and application guidelines for basic safety publications and multi-disciplinary shared safety publications (The
Preparationofsafetypublicationsandtheuseofbasicsafetypublicationsandgroupsafetypublica-
Tions)
3 Terms and definitions
The following terms and definitions defined in ISO 13943.2008 apply to this document and are listed below for ease of use.
Some terms and definitions of ISO 13943.2008.
3.1
Combustion combustion
An exothermic reaction of a substance with an oxidant.
Note. Combustion usually emits a stream of combustion accompanied by flames and/or heat.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.46]
3.2
Extinctionareaofsmoke
The product of the volume of the smoke and the extinction coefficient of the smoke.
Note. This is a measure of the amount of smoke, and its representative unit is square meters (m2).
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.92]
3.3
Extinction coefficient
The natural logarithm of the ratio of incident light flux to transmitted light flux per unit optical path.
Note. The representative unit is meters per meter (m-1).
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.93]
3.4
Fire fire
(usually) a combustion process characterized by exhaust heat and combustion streams, often accompanied by smoke and/or flame and/or heat.
Note. In English, “fire” is used to denote three concepts, of which fire (3.5) and fire (3.6) are specific types of self-supporting combustion in different ways.
Types, which are two different terms in French and German.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.96]
3.5
Fire fire
(controlled) Self-ignition intended to provide useful effects, the degree of combustion being controlled in time and space.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.97]
3.6
Fire fire
(Uncontrolled) is not intended to provide a useful effect of spontaneous combustion, the degree of combustion is not controlled in time and space.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.98]
3.7
Combustion flow fireeffluent
All gases and aerosols produced by combustion or pyrolysis, including suspended particles, in the event of a fire.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.105]
3.8
Fire danger firehazard
An undesired potential substance or condition caused by a fire.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.112]
3.9
Fire model firemodel
Fire simulation
Describe a system or process calculation method related to the development of fire, including the effects of fire and fire.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.116]
3.10
Fire firescenario
By identifying the key things in the characteristics of the fire used in the study and its differences with other possible fires,
A qualitative description of the process of time.
Note. It typically defines the development of light-off and fire, the complete fire phase, the phase of the fire recession, and the environment and system that affects the fire process.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.129]
3.11
Heat flux heatflux
The amount of heat released, delivered, or received per unit area.
Note. The representative unit is watts per square meter (W·m-2).
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.173]
3.12
Ignition ignition
Continuous burning (not recommended).
(usually) the beginning of combustion.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.187]
3.13
Ignition ignition
Long-lasting light-off (not recommended).
(flame burning) continues the beginning of the flame.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.188]
3.14
Mass optical density massopticaldensityofsmoke
The product of the optical density of the smoke of the burning sample and the factor V/(L × Δm), V is the volume of the test chamber, L is the optical path, and Δm is the sample
Quality loss.
Note. The representative unit is square meter per gram (m2·g-1).
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.225]
3.15
Smoke blur obscurationbysmoke
Light passes through the smoke path to weaken the luminous flux.
Reference. the matte area of the smoke (3.2) and the specific extinction area of the smoke (3.23).
Note 1. In fact, smoke blur is usually measured as transmittance, expressed as a percentage.
Note 2. Smoke blur will reduce visibility.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.242]
3.16
The optical density of smoke opticaldensityofsmoke
The measure of the attenuation of the beam through the flue is expressed in terms of the common logarithm of the visibility of the smoke.
Reference. specific optical density of smoke (3.24).
Note. The optical density of smoke is dimensionless.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.244]
3.17
Physical fire model physicalfiremodel
A laboratory process that includes instruments, the environment, and a fire test procedure used to indicate a stage of a fire.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.251]
3.18
Actual scale fire test real-scalefiretest
Fire tests that simulate specific application conditions based on the actual size of the product, the actual installation and use of the product, and the surrounding environment.
Note. This type of ignition test usually assumes that the product is used in accordance with the conditions and/or conventions specified in the instructions.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.273]
3.19
Small-scale fire test smal-scalefiretest
A fire test conducted on a small size specimen.
Note. Ignition tests performed on specimens up to a maximum of 1 m are often referred to as small-scale ignition tests.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.292]
3.20
Smoke smoke
The visible part of the combustion stream.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.293]
3.21
Smoke production rate smokeproductionrate
The amount of smoke produced per unit of time in a fire or fire test.
Note 1. Calculated by multiplying the volume flow of the smoke by the extinction coefficient of the measurement point.
Note 2. The representative unit is square meters per second (m2·s-1).
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.295]
3.22
Smoke release rate smokereleaserate
See. smoke generation rate (3.21).
3.23
Specific extinction area of smoke
The matte area of the smoke produced by the sample is divided by the mass lost during a given period of time.
Note. The representative unit is square meter per gram (m2·g-1).
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.301]
3.24
Specific optical density of tobacco
The optical density of the smoke is multiplied by a geometric factor.
Note 1. The geometric factor is equal to V/(A · L), where. V is the volume of the test chamber, A is the exposed surface area of the sample, and L is the optical path.
Note 2. The term “ratio” does not mean “unit mass” here, but refers to the amount associated with the specific test equipment and the exposed surface area of the sample.
Note 3. The specific optical density of smoke is dimensionless.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.303]
3.25
Visibility visibility
The maximum distance that an object of size, brightness, and contrast can be seen and recognized.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.350]
4 test method type
4.1 Overview
Test methods are classified as static or dynamic and/or type of sample.
4.2 Physical ignition model
The amount of smoke released and the rate of release in a given material or product are not inherent properties of a given material or product, depending on the
The conditions under which these materials or products are burned. Decomposition temperature, ventilation and fuel composition are the main variables affecting the composition of the combustion flow, which in turn affects the smoke.
Release and release rate.
The test conditions specified by the standardized test method (fire model) need to be associated with the actual ignition phase and replicate the actual ignition phase.
The classification of the general ignition phase is given in ISO 19706.2007, as shown in Table 1. An important factor affecting the production of smoke is the concentration of oxygen.
And irradiance (or temperature).
Table 1 Characteristics of the type of ignition (from ISO 19706.2007)
Type of fire
Fuel surface
Heat flux
kW/m2
Maximum temperature
fuel
surface
upper layer
Oxygen volume
Access consumption
Fuel/air
Equivalent ratio
(Plum)
[CO]/[CO2]
Volume ratio
(100×[CO2])/
([CO2] [CO])
%effectiveness
1 flameless combustion
a) Self-support (smoke) Not applicable 450~80025~85d 20 20 - 0.1~1 50~90
b) originated from external radiation
Aerobic pyrolysis
300~
600a
b 20 20 <1 cc
c) originated from external radiation
Anaerobic pyrolysis
- 100~
b 0 0 ≥1 cc
2 well ventilated flame
Burning d
0~60
350~
50~500 ≈20 ≈20 <1 <0.05e >95
3 insufficient ventilation and flame burning f
a) small range, partial
Fire, usually in poor ventilation
Within the space
0~30
300~
600a
50~500 15~20 5~10 >1 0.2~0.4 70~80
b) Fire after the blasting 50~150
350~
650g
>600 <15 <5 >1h 0.1~0.4i 70~90
a The specified upper limit for combustibles is lower than for good ventilation and flaming combustion.
b The temperature of the upper layer of the ignition space is mainly determined by the external source of radiation and spatial geometry.
c There is almost no data, but for pyrolysis, the ratio is determined by material chemistry, local ventilation and heat source conditions, and is expected to be very large.
Changes within the perimeter.
d Relative to the entire space or inflow, this type of ignition has little oxygen consumption, and the flame tip is below the upper layer of hot gas or the CO production amount is not significantly increased.
In the upper layer, the flame is not intercepted when it contacts other objects, and the burning rate is controlled by the effectiveness of the fuel.
e This ratio may be an order of magnitude larger than the value of the refractory material. When the equivalence ratio is 50.75, the ratio does not increase significantly; when the equivalence ratio is 0.75~1, the
The ratio may increase.
f The oxygen demand for this type of ignition is limited by the vent; and the flame expands into the upper space.
g is assumed to be similar to flaming combustion with good ventilation.
h The plume equivalent ratio is not determined; the total equivalent ratio is not suitable.
i Measured instances of lower ratios. Typically, these results are secondary combustion from outside the room vents.
4.3 Static test method
The static test method allows the generated smoke to accumulate in the test chamber. Recycling and secondary combustion of some smoke particles may occur. Smoke mold
Paste may be affected by deposition, agglomeration, agitation, and gradual consumption of oxygen.
4.4 Dynamic test method
The dynamic test method is that the combustion stream continues to flow through the measuring device without recirculation. During the test, the generated smoke particles are not allowed to accumulate and are worn.
Controlled airflow dissipation of the test instrument. There may be attenuation of smoke in the dynamic test and the particles may condense and/or deposit upon cooling.
5 sample type
The sample may be a finished product, a part of a product, a simulated product (representing a part of the finished product), a base material (solid or liquid) or a composite
Materials.
6 Published static test methods
6.1 Summary
The static test methods described in this chapter are selected from published international and foreign standards and are now widely used in the field of electrical and electronic technology. This
Not all test methods are included.
Note. These summaries are a brief overview of the test methods and do not completely replace these published standards.
6.2 Measuring the opacity of smoke in a 0.51m3 box
6.2.1 Standards for the use of vertical guide specimens
6.2.1.1 Standard
Two international standards and four other national standards were carried out in a test chamber with a single volume of 0.51 m3 in a vertically oriented specimen.
test.
Note. This test chamber was developed by the National Bureau of Standards (now. National Institute of Standards and Technology) and is often referred to as the “NBS Box”.
They are. IEC /T R60695-6-30 [1] and IEC 60695-6-31 [2]; ASTME662 [3], BS6401 [4], NFC20-902-1 [5]
And NFC20-902-2 [6].
6.2.1.2 Purpose and principle
This small scale test method is used to assess the opacity of smoke. The smoke is in a closed test chamber with a volume of 0.51 m3.
Produced under direct exposure to the specified heat flux (with or without a pilot flame). The luminous flux through the smoke is continuously recorded.
6.2.1.3 Sample
The sample size was 76.2 mm x 76.2 mm and the maximum thickness was 25.4 mm.
6.2.1.4 Method
The method uses an electrical radiant energy source that produces a heat flux of 25 kW/m2 for a vertically mounted sample. Generally use two tests
mode.
a) flameless, using only radiant energy;
b) Flame, in addition to radiant energy, a small burner that produces a row of pilot flames along the lower edge of the specimen.
Can ignite any burnt product.
A composite white light photometric system with a vertical path length is used to measure changes in light transmission during the test.
The results are expressed in terms of specific optical density Ds, and the calculation formula is as follows.
Ds=
AL
÷log10
In the formula.
V --- the volume of the smoke (that is, the volume of the test chamber);
A---the exposed surface area of the sample;
L---the optical path used for measurement;
I --- incident luminous flux;
T---transmitted luminous flux.
The Ds in this formula is related to the extinction area (S) of the smoke.
Ds=
A×ln10( )[ ]
which is.
Ds=
2.303×A[ ]
In the formula.
S---The matte area of the smoke.
Note. In NFC20-902-1 and NFC20-902-2, Dm is used instead of Ds.
6.2.1.5 Repeatability and reproducibility
Repeatability and reproducibility have been determined in a number of interlaboratory tests according to the French standards NFC20-902-1 and NFC20-902-2.
See Appendix A for the test results presented in GB/T 6379.2-2004.
6.2.1.6 Correlation between test data and special observations
Since 1970, test methods based on NBS smoke test chambers have been used worldwide, mainly for material evaluation. however,
These methods are now superseded by ISO 5659-2 (see 6.2.2) in many cases, overcoming the following significant limitations of the NBS approach.
a) that the heat flux is relatively low and the air source is limited, meaning that the method can only replicate the ignition phase 1b) of ISO 19706.2007 and
It is possible to reproduce the conditions of the fire phase 2 (see Table 1).
b) This test method is suitable for small specimens that are straight and vertically mounted, not for liquids and some thermoplastics. sample
There is also a problem with expansion towards the electric furnace. When the front end of the sample is subjected to the heat flux of the emission, it will increase significantly, and the ignition flame may be extinguished.
Off, causing the test to fail.
c) The limitations of low heat flux and sample geometry mean that it is difficult.
Related standard:   GB/T 5169.24-2018  GB/T 5169.45-2019
Related PDF sample:   GB/T 2423.5-1995  GB/T 35967-2018
   
 
Privacy   ···   Product Quality   ···   About Us   ···   Refund Policy   ···   Fair Trading   ···   Quick Response
Field Test Asia Limited | Taxed in Singapore: 201302277C | Copyright 2012-2020