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GB/T 5169.25-2018

Chinese Standard: 'GB/T 5169.25-2018'
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GB/T 5169.25-2018English449 Add to Cart Days<=3 Fire hazard testing for electric and electronic products - Part 25: Smoke obscuration - General guidance Valid GB/T 5169.25-2018
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Detail Information of GB/T 5169.25-2018; GB/T5169.25-2018
Description (Translated English): Fire hazard testing for electric and electronic products - Part 25: Smoke obscuration - General guidance
Sector / Industry: National Standard (Recommended)
Classification of Chinese Standard: K04
Classification of International Standard: 13.220.99; 29.020
Word Count Estimation: 30,345
Date of Issue: 2018-09-17
Date of Implementation: 2019-04-01
Older Standard (superseded by this standard): GB/T 5169.25-2008
Drafting Organization: China Electric Apparatus Research Institute Co., Ltd., Guangdong Shengyi Technology Co., Ltd., Ningbo Ouzhi Electrical Technology Co., Ltd., Guangdong Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau Inspection and Quarantine Technology Center, Weikai Testing Technology Co., Ltd., Ministry of Industry and Information Technology Institute, Beijing Tairuite Testing Technology Service Co., Ltd., Dongguan Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau Inspection and Quarantine Comprehensive Technology Center, Zhejiang Yuehua Telecommunications Co., Ltd., Wuxi Sunan Test Equipment Co., Ltd., Shenzhen Institute of Metrology and Quality Inspection, Shandong Provincial Product Quality Inspection Institute
Administrative Organization: National Standardization Technical Committee for Fire and Hazard Testing of Electrical and Electronic Products (SAC/TC 300)
Proposing organization: China Electrical Equipment Industry Association
Issuing agency(ies): State Administration of Markets and China National Standardization Administration


GB/T 5169.25-2018
Fire hazard testing for electric and electronic products - Part 25. Smoke obscuration - General guidance
ICS 13.220.99; 29.020
K04
National Standards of People's Republic of China
Replace GB/T 5169.25-2008
Electrical and electronic products fire hazard test
Part 25. General rules for smoke haze
Firehazardtestingforelectricandelectronicproducts-
Part 25. Smokeobscuration-Generalguidance
(IEC 60695-6-1.2010, Firehazardtesting-Part 6-1.
Smokeobscuration-Generalguidance, IDT)
Published on.2018-09-17
Implementation of.2019-04-01
State market supervision and administration
China National Standardization Administration issued
Content
Foreword I
Introduction III
1 range 1
2 Normative references 1
3 terms and definitions, symbol 2
3.1 Terms and Definitions 2
3.2 Symbol 5
4 Smoke test method overview 6
4.1 Fire and Fire Model 6
4.2 Factors affecting the production of smoke 8
5 Smoke measurement principle 9
5.1 Bouguer's Law 9
5.2 Extinction area 10
5.3 Log10 10
5.4 Light source 11
5.5 than the extinction area 11
5.6 Mass Optical Density 11
5.7 Visibility 12
6 static methods and dynamic methods 12
6.1 Static Method 12
6.2 Dynamic Method 13
7 Test method 15
7.1 Consideration of test methods 15
7.2 Selection of specimens 15
8 data representation 15
9 Risk Assessment Related Information 16
Appendix A (informative) Visibility calculation 18
Appendix B (informative) Ds and IEC 60695-6-30.1996 and IEC 60695-6-31.1999
Relationship between other smoke parameters 20
Appendix C (informative) The relationship between light transmittance and extinction area measured in a “three-meter cubic” enclosed cigarette case 22
Reference 24
Foreword
GB/T 5169 "Electrical and Electronic Products Fire Hazard Test" is divided into the following parts.
--- Part 1. Terminology for ignition test;
--- Part 2. General guidelines for the assessment of fire hazard;
---Part 5. Test flame test method, test method and guide;
--- Part 9. General rules for pre-selection test procedures for fire hazard assessment guidelines;
--- Part 10. Glow wire/hot wire basic test method Glow wire device and general test method;
--- Part 11. Glow wire/hot wire basic test method Glow wire flammability test method (GWEPT);
--- Part 12. Glow wire/hot wire basic test method Glow wire flammability index (GWFI) test method;
--- Part 13. Glow wire/hot wire basic test method Glow wire light-off temperature (GWIT) test method for materials;
---Part 14. Test flame 1kW nominal premixed flame device, validation test method and guidelines;
---Part 15. Test flame 500W flame device and confirmation test method;
--- Part 16. Test flame 50W horizontal and vertical flame test method;
---Part 17. Test flame 500W flame test method;
---Part 18. General principles of toxicity of combustion streams;
---Part 19. Unnormal thermal compression stress release deformation test;
--- Part 20. Summary and correlation of test methods for flame surface spread;
--- Part 21. abnormal heat ball pressure test;
--- Part 22. Test flame 50W flame device and confirmation test method;
--- Part 23. Test flame tube-shaped polymeric material 500W vertical flame test method;
--- Part 24. Fire hazard assessment guidelines for insulating liquids;
--- Part 25. General rules for smoke blur;
--- Part 26. Summary and correlation of smoke fuzzing test methods;
---Part 29. General rules for heat release;
--- Part 30. Summary and correlation of heat release test methods;
--- Part 31. General rules for the spread of flame surfaces;
--- Part 32. Heat release of heat release insulating liquids;
--- Part 33. Fire hazard assessment guidelines for general ignitability;
--- Part 34. Fire hazard assessment guidelines Summary and correlation of ignitability test methods;
--- Part 35. General rules for corrosion hazards of combustion streams;
--- Part 36. Summary and correlation of test methods for corrosion hazards of combustion flows;
--- Part 38. Summary and correlation of toxicity test methods for combustion streams;
--- Part 39. Use and description of the toxicity test results of the combustion stream;
--- Part 40. Toxic toxicological assessment devices and test methods for combustion streams;
--- Part 41. Calculation and description of test results for toxic toxicity assessment of combustion streams;
--- Part 42. Test flame confirmation test guidelines;
--- Part 44. Fire hazard assessment guidelines for fire hazard assessment.
This part is the 25th part of GB/T 5169.
This part is drafted in accordance with the rules given in GB/T 1.1-2009.
This part replaces GB/T 5169.25-2008 "Electrical and Electronic Products Fire Hazard Test Part 25. General Rules for Smoke Fuzzy", and
The main technical changes compared with GB/T 5169.25-2008 are as follows.
--- Updated the chapter on normative references (see Chapter 2, Chapter 2 of the.2008 edition);
--- Updated some terms and definitions (see 3.1,.2008 edition 3.1);
--- Adjusted the layout of the "Static Methods and Dynamic Methods" chapter (see Chapter 6, Chapter 6 of the.2008 edition);
--- Added the chapter content of the "SMOGRA Index" (see 6.2.4).
This section uses the translation method equivalent to the IEC 60695-6-1.2010 "Fire hazard test Part 6-1. Smoke Fuzzy General Rules".
The documents of our country that have a consistent correspondence with the international documents referenced in this part are as follows.
--- GB/T 5169.1-2015 Electrical and electronic products - Fire hazard testing - Part 1 . Fire test term (IEC 60695-4.
2012, IDT)
GB/T 5169.2-2013 Fire hazard testing for electric and electronic products - Part 2. General guide to fire hazard assessment
(IEC 60695-1-10..2009, IDT)
--- GB/T 5169.26-2018 Electrical and electronic products - Fire hazard testing - Part 26
Relevance (IEC 60695-6-2.2011, IDT)
--- GB/T 5169.44-2013 Electrical and electronic products - Fire hazard testing - Part 44. Fire hazard assessment guide
Risk assessment (IEC 60695-1-11.2010, IDT)
---GB/T 16499-2017 Preparation of electrical and electronic security publications and basic security publications and multi-disciplinary shared security publications
Application guidelines for substances (IEC Guide 104..2010, NEQ)
---GB/T 20002.4-2015 Standardization Work Guide Part 4. Contents related to safety in the standard (ISO /IEC Guide
51.2014, MOD)
This section also made the following editorial changes.
--- In line with the existing standard series, change the name of this part to "Electrical and Electronic Products Fire Hazard Test Part 25. Smoke Blur
General.
--- Modify the editorial error of the transmittance data of Figure C.1, from "0" to "100".
This part was proposed by China Electrical Equipment Industry Association.
This part is under the jurisdiction of the National Standardization Technical Committee for Fire and Hazard Testing of Electrical and Electronic Products (SAC/TC300).
This section was drafted by. China Electric Apparatus Research Institute Co., Ltd., Guangdong Shengyi Technology Co., Ltd., Ningbo Ouzhi Electric Technology
Co., Ltd., Guangdong Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau Inspection and Quarantine Technology Center, Weikai Testing Technology Co., Ltd., Ministry of Industry and Information Technology
Five Research Institute, Beijing Tairuite Testing Technology Service Co., Ltd., Dongguan Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau Inspection and Quarantine Comprehensive Technology Center, Zhejiang
Jiang Yuehua Telecommunications Co., Ltd., Wuxi Sunan Test Equipment Co., Ltd., Shenzhen Metrology Quality Inspection Institute, Shandong Province Product Quality Inspection
Research Institute.
The main drafters of this section. Huang Kaiyun, Guan Jian, Ke Cilong, Wu Qian, Wu Zheng, Liu Yan, Zhang Yuanqin, Gao Lingsong, Zheng Shaofeng, Wang Chaosheng,
Ni Yunan, Wang Tong, Jungle.
The previous versions of the standards replaced by this section are.
---GB/T 5169.25-2008.
introduction
Any circuit needs to take into account the danger of fire. The purpose of component design, circuit design, equipment design, and material selection is to reduce
The possibility of less fire, even in the case of foreseeable abnormal use, failure and failure.
Electrical and electronic products that were originally victims of fires may contribute to the fire. One of the increased fire hazards is the release of smoke, making it visible
Feel reduced and/or lost direction and cannot escape from the building or affect fire fighting.
Visibility is reduced due to the light absorption and light scattering effects of the smoke particles, making it difficult to find exit signs, doors and windows. Visibility usually
It refers to the distance from which the target cannot be seen. Visibility depends on many factors, but it has been determined that there is a measure between the extinction coefficient and the smoke.
Close relationship (see Appendix A).
The generation of smoke and the optical properties of smoke can be measured like other ignition characteristics, such as heat release, flame spread, toxicity and decay.
The generation of corrosive gases. This section gives guidance documents on smoke blur.
Electrical and electronic products fire hazard test
Part 25. General rules for smoke haze
1 Scope
The guidelines given in this part of GB/T 5169 cover the following aspects.
a) optical measurement of smoke blur;
b) an overview of the optical smoke test method;
c) issues to consider when selecting test methods;
d) expression of smoke test data;
e) Correlation between optical smoke data and risk assessment.
One of the tasks of the Product Standards Committee is to use these basic safety publications wherever they are written.
2 Normative references
The following documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only dated versions apply to this article.
Pieces. For undated references, the latest edition (including all amendments) applies to this document.
GB/T 8323.2-2008 Plastics -- Part 2. Test method for determination of smoke density by single chamber method (ISO 5659-2.2006,
IDT)
ISO 5660-2.2002 Reaction to fire test - Heat release, smoke production and mass loss rate - Part 2
Quantity) (Reaction-to-firetests-Heatrelease, smokeproductionandmasslossrate-Part 2.Smokeproduc-
Tionrate(dynamicmeasurement))
ISO 13943.2008 Fire Safety Typo (Firesafety-Vocabulary)
ISO 19706.20071) Guidelines for the assessment of fire threats to humans (Guidelinesforassessingthefirethreattopeople)
1) ISO 9122-1.1989 "Toxic test for combustion streams Part 1. General principles" has been revoked and replaced by ISO 19706.2007.
IEC 60695-1-10 Fire hazard testing - Part 1-10. General guidelines for fire hazard assessment of electric products (Firehazard
testing-Part 1-10.Guidanceforassessingthefirehazardofelectrotechnicalproducts-Generalguide-
Lines)
Fire hazard testing - Part 1-11. Fire hazard assessment guidelines for electrical products - Fire hazard assessment (Fire
hazardtesting-Part 1-11.Guidanceforassessingthefirehazardofelectrotechnicalproducts-Fire
Hazardassessment)
IEC 60695-4.2005 Fire hazard test - Part 4. Terminology for ignition test (Terminologyconcerningfiretests
Forelectrotechnicalproducts)
IEC 60695-6-2 Fire hazard testing - Part 6-2. Overview and correlation of smoke-blending test methods (Firehazardtes-
ting-Part 6-2. Smokeobscuration-Summaryandrelevanceoftestmethods)
IEC 60695-6-30.1996 Fire hazard test - Part 6. Smoke from s
Guideline and test methods for hazard of visual field - Part 30. Small-scale static test method
hazardtesting-Part 6.Guidanceandtestmethodsontheassessmentofobscurationhazardofvision
causedbysmokeopacityfromelectrotechnicalproductsinvolvedinfires-Section30.Smal-scale
staticmethod-Determinationofsmokeopacity-Descriptionoftheapparatus)
IEC 60695-6-31.1999 Fire hazard test Part 6-31. Smoke fuzzy small-scale static test method materials (Fire
hazardtesting-Part 6-31.Smokeobscuration-Smal-scalestatictest-Materials)
ISO /IEC Guide 51.1999 Safety Aspects Guide for Safety Aspects (Safetyaspects-Guidelinesfor
InclusioninstandardsISO /IEC )
IEC Guide 104.1997 Preparation of Safety Publications and Application Guidelines for Basic Safety Publications and Multi-Professional Public Safety Publications
(Thepreparationofsafetypublicationsandtheuseofbasicsafetypublicationsandgroupsafetypubli-
Cations)
ASTME1354.2008 Method for determining material exotherm and smoke release rate using an aerobic calorimeter (StandardTestMethod
forHeatandVisibleSmokeReleaseRatesforMaterialsandProductsUsinganOxygenConsumption
Calorimeter)
EN13823.2002 Reaction test of building products to fires Tests for building products without floor coverings (Reaction)
Tofiretestsforbuildingproducts-Buildingproducts,excludingfloorings,exposedtothermalattack
Byasingleburningitem)
3 terms and definitions, symbols
3.1 Terms and definitions
The following terms and definitions are defined in ISO 13943.2008 and are applicable to this document. For ease of use, the ISO is repeated below.
13943. Some terms and definitions in.2008.
3.1.1
Combustion combustion
An exothermic reaction of a substance with an oxidant.
Note. Combustion usually emits a stream of combustion accompanied by flames and/or heat.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.46]
3.1.2
Extinctionareaofsmoke
The product of the volume of the smoke and the extinction coefficient of the smoke.
Note. This is a measure of the amount of smoke, and its representative unit is square meters (m2).
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.92]
3.1.3
Extinction coefficient
The natural logarithm of the ratio of incident light flux to transmitted light flux per unit optical path.
Note. The representative unit is meters per meter (m-1).
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.93]
3.1.4
Fire fire
A combustion process characterized by exhaust heat and combustion streams, often accompanied by smoke and/or flame and/or heat.
Note. In English, “fire” is used to indicate three concepts, among which the fire (3.1.5) and the fire (3.1.6) are two different types of self-supporting combustion.
Types, which are two different terms in French and German.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.96]
3.1.5
Fire fire
is self-igniting that is intended to provide a useful effect, and its degree of combustion is controlled in time and space.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.97]
3.1.6
Fire fire
is not intended to provide a useful effect of autoignition, and its degree of combustion is not controlled in time and space.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.98]
3.1.7
Combustion flow fireeffluent
All gases and aerosols produced by combustion or pyrolysis, including suspended particles, in the event of a fire.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.105]
3.1.8
Fire danger firehazard
An undesired potential substance or condition caused by a fire.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.112]
3.1.9
Fire model firemodel
Fire simulation
Describe a system or process calculation method related to the development of fire, including the effects of fire and fire.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.116]
3.1.10
Fire firescenario
By identifying the key things in the characteristics of the fire used in the study and its differences with other possible fires,
A qualitative description of the process of time.
Note. It typically defines the development of light-off and fire, the complete fire phase, the phase of the fire recession, and the environment and system that affects the fire process.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.129]
3.1.11
Flashover flashover
Within a certain range, the entire surface of the combustible material suddenly turns into a fire state.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.156]
3.1.12
Heat flux heatflux
The amount of heat released, delivered, or received per unit area.
Note. The representative unit is watts per square meter (W·m-2).
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.173]
3.1.13
Ignition ignition
Continuous burning (not recommended).
The beginning of burning.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.187]
3.1.14
Ignition ignition
Long-lasting light-off (not recommended)
continues the beginning of the flame.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.188]
3.1.15
Large-scale fire test large-scalefiretest
Ignition tests performed on large-size specimens that cannot be performed in a typical test chamber.
Note. Ignition tests performed on specimens with a maximum dimension of more than 3 m are often referred to as large-scale ignition tests.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.205]
3.1.16
Mass optical density massopticaldensityofsmoke
The product of the optical density of the smoke of the burning sample and the factor V/(L × Δm), V is the volume of the test chamber, L is the optical path, and Δm is the sample
Quality loss.
Note. The representative unit is square meter per gram (m2·g-1).
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.225]
3.1.17
Smoke blur obscurationbysmoke
Light passes through the smoke path to weaken the luminous flux.
Reference. the matte area of the smoke (3.1.2) and the specific extinction area of the smoke (3.1.26).
Note 1. In fact, smoke blur is usually measured as transmittance, expressed in %.
Note 2. Smoke blur will reduce visibility.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.242]
3.1.18
Smoke opacity opacityofsmoke
The ratio of the incident luminous flux to the transmitted luminous flux through the smoke under certain conditions.
Note 1. The opacity of smoke is the reciprocal of light transmittance.
Note 2. The opacity of smoke is dimensionless.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.243]
3.1.19
The optical density of smoke opticaldensityofsmoke
The measure of the attenuation of the beam through the flue is expressed in terms of the common logarithm of the opacity of the smoke.
Reference. specific optical density of smoke (3.1.27).
Note. The optical density of smoke is dimensionless.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.244]
3.1.20
Actual scale fire test real-scalefiretest
Fire tests that simulate specific application conditions based on the actual size of the product, the actual installation and use of the product, and the surrounding environment.
Note. This type of ignition test usually assumes that the product is used in accordance with the conditions and/or conventions specified in the instructions.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.273]
3.1.21
Small-scale fire test smal-scalefiretest
A fire test conducted on a small size specimen.
Note. Ignition tests performed on specimens up to a maximum of 1 m are often referred to as small-scale ignition tests.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.292]
3.1.22
SMOGRASMOGRA
The growth rate parameter of the smoke is the ratio of the amount of smoke produced to the time of smoke generation.
Note. 6.2.4 has a more detailed explanation.
3.1.23
SMOGRA index SMOGRAingex
The maximum value of SMOGRA within a specified test period.
Note. 6.2.4 has a more detailed explanation.
3.1.24
Smoke smoke
The visible part of the combustion stream.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.293]
3.1.25
Smoke production rate smokeproductionrate
The amount of smoke produced per unit of time in a fire or fire test.
Note 1. Calculated by multiplying the volume flow of the smoke by the extinction coefficient of the measurement point.
Note 2. The representative unit is square meters per second (m2·s-1).
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.295]
3.1.26
Specific extinction area of smoke
The matte area of the smoke produced by the sample is divided by the mass lost during a given period of time.
Note. The representative unit is square meter per gram (m2·g-1).
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.301]
3.1.27
Specific optical density of tobacco
The optical density of the smoke is multiplied by a geometric factor.
Note 1. The geometric factor is equal to V/(A · L), where. V is the volume of the test chamber, A is the exposed area of the sample, and L is the optical path.
Note 2. The term “ratio” does not mean “unit mass” here, but refers to the amount associated with the specific test equipment and the exposed area of the sample.
Note 3. The specific optical density of smoke is dimensionless.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.303]
3.1.28
Visibility visibility
The maximum distance that an object of size, brightness, and contrast can be seen and recognized.
[ISO 13943.2008, definition 4.350]
3.2 symbol
The following symbols apply to this document.
Symbolic unit
A sample exposed area m2
D linear decimal absorption coefficient (usually called optical density per meter) m-1
D' optical density dimensionless
Dmass mass optical density m2·kg-1
Ds is less dimension than optical density
Dmax(Dm) maximum specific optical density dimensionless
I incident light flux W
I/T ratio of incident light flux to transmitted light flux is dimensionless
k Linear Napierian absorption coefficient (also commonly referred to as extinction coefficient) m-1
L through the optical path of the smoke m
Δm sample mass loss kg
· Mass loss rate kg·s-1
S Matte matte area (ie total smoke production) m2
· Smoke generation rate (extinction area change rate) m2·s-1
t time s
Δt sampling interval s
T transmitted light flux W
V cigarette case volume m3
· Volume flow of smoke m3·s-1
Σf is smaller than the extinction area m2·kg-1
Proportional constant of γ visibility and extinction coefficient is dimensionless
ω visibility m
Note 1. The common logarithms of these quantities (eg D, D', Dmax, Dmass, Ds) have similar symbols but they are different quantities and the units are different.
Note 2. The term "ratio" in terms of optical density (Ds) does not mean "per unit mass".
4 Overview of smoke test methods
4.1 Fire and ignition model
In recent years, significant progress has been made in the analysis of combustion products. It is well known that the composition of the mixture produced by combustion mainly depends on
The nature of the burning substance, the temperature of the main body and the ventilation conditions, especially the supply of oxygen on the fire. Table 1 shows the change with the air
The situation of the flame at different stages. In order to match the actual scale of the fire as much as possible, the conditions for laboratory testing (small or large scale)
Can be derived from Table 1.
The fire is accompanied by a series of complex chemical and physical phenomena. Therefore, it is difficult to simulate the real fire in a small device.
surface. The validity of the ignition model may be one of the most complex technical issues for all ignition tests.
IEC 60695-1-10 gives general guidelines for the ignition risk assessment of electrical and electronic products.
After ignition, environmental conditions and the arrangement of flammable materials may cause the fire to develop in different ways. However, indoors can
Determine the general pattern of fire development, that is, there are three ignition phases and one decay phase on the temperature-time curve (see Figure 1).
Stage 1 is to maintain the onset of ignition before combustion, and the combustion chamber temperature is hardly increased. The main hazard at this stage is the lightening
And the production of smoke. Stage 2 (the burning in development) starts from the fire.
   
 
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