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GB/T 4357-2022 (GB/T4357-2022)

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GB/T 4357-2022English410 Add to Cart 0-9 seconds. Auto-delivery. Cold-drawn unalloyed steel wire for springs Valid

GB/T 4357-2022: PDF in English (GBT 4357-2022)

GB/T 4357-2022
ICS 77.140.56
CCS H 49
Replacing GB/T 4357-2009
Cold-drawn unalloyed steel wire for springs
(ISO 8458-2:2002, Steel wire for mechanical springs - Part 2: Patented cold-drawn
non-alloy steel wire, MOD)
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 4 
1 Scope ... 6 
2 Normative references ... 6 
3 Terms and definitions... 7 
4 Classification and marking ... 9 
4.1 Classification ... 9 
4.2 Marking ... 9 
5 Order contents ... 10 
6 Dimensions and shape requirements ... 10 
6.1 Dimensions and allowable deviation ... 10 
6.2 Out-of-roundness ... 12 
6.3 Cast of steel wire ... 13 
6.4 Straightness of straight wire ... 13 
7 Technical requirements ... 14 
7.1 Materials ... 14 
7.2 Surface state and requirements ... 14 
7.3 Surface quality ... 16 
7.4 Mechanical properties ... 16 
7.5 Process performance ... 16 
7.6 Welding ... 17 
8 Test methods ... 22 
8.1 Dimensions and appearance ... 22 
8.2 Plating ... 22 
8.3 Surface quality ... 23 
8.4 Mechanical properties ... 23 
8.5 Process performance ... 23 
8.6 Other test methods ... 23 
9 Inspection rules ... 24 
9.1 Inspection and acceptance ... 24 
9.2 Group-batching rules ... 24 
9.3 Spot check and sampling ... 24 
9.4 Re-inspection ... 24 
9.5 Numerical rounding and determination ... 24 
10 Packaging, transportation, storage, marking, quality certificate ... 26 
10.1 Packaging, transportation, storage ... 26 
10.2 Markings and quality certificates ... 26 
Appendix A (Informative) Comparison of structure numbers between this document
and ISO 8458-2:2002 ... 27 
Appendix B (Informative) Technical differences between this document and ISO 8458-
2:2002 and their reasons ... 28 
Appendix C (Informative) Suggestions for the use of steel wires ... 30 
References ... 33 
Cold-drawn unalloyed steel wire for springs
1 Scope
This document specifies the classification and marking, order content, size and shape
requirements, technical requirements, test methods, inspection rules, packaging,
transportation, storage, marking, quality certificates for the manufacture of cold-drawn
non-alloy steel wire for springs.
This document applies to cold-drawn non-alloy steel wire for spring (hereinafter
referred to as steel wire) of circular cross-section, for the manufacture of mechanical
springs for static and dynamic load applications. The standard tensile strength of
special-shaped (such as square) spring steel wire can adopt the value, which is
corresponding to the specification of the equivalent cross-sectional area, in this
This document does not apply to steel wire for the manufacture of springs, which have
high fatigue strength (e.g., valve springs).
2 Normative references
The provisions in following documents become the provisions of this Standard through
reference in this Standard. For the dated documents, only the versions with the dates
indicated are applicable to this document; for the undated documents, only the latest
version (including all the amendments) is applicable to this standard.
GB/T 222 Permissible tolerances for chemical composition of steel products
GB/T 224 Determination of the depth of decarburization of steels (GB/T 224-2019,
ISO 3887:2017, MOD)
GB/T 228.1 Metallic materials - Tensile testing - Part 1: Method of test at room
temperature (GB/T 228.1-2010, ISO 6892-1: 2009, MOD)
GB/T 239.1 Metallic materials - Wire - Part 1: Simple torsion test (GB/T 239.1-
2012, ISO 7800: 2003, MOD)
GB/T 341 Steel wire - Classification and terminology
GB/T 342-2017 Dimension, shape, mass and tolerance of cold-drawn round square
and hexagonal steel wires (ISO 22034-2:2016, NEQ)
GB/T 1839 Test method for gravimetric determination of the mass per unit area of
galvanized coatings on steel products (GB/T 1839-2008, ISO 1460:1992, MOD)
GB/T 2103 General requirements for acceptance, packing, marking and quality
certification of steel wire
GB/T 2976 Metallic materials - Wire - Wrapping test (GB/T 2976-2020, ISO
7802:2013, MOD)
GB/T 18253-2018 Steel and steel products - Types of inspection documents (ISO
10474-2013, IDT)
GB/T 24242.1 Non-alloy steel wire rod for conversion to wire - Part 1: General
requirements (GB/T 24242.1-2020, ISO 16120-1: 2017, MOD)
GB/T 24242.2 Non-alloy steel wire rod for conversion to wire - Part 2: Specific
requirements for general purpose wire rod (GB/T 24242.2-2020, ISO 16120-2:2017,
GB/T 24242.4 Non-alloy steel wire rod for conversion to wire - Part 4: Specific
requirements for special purpose wire rod (GB/T 24242.4-2020, ISO 16120-4:2017,
GB/T 40342 Method for determination of aluminum content in hot dipped zinc-
aluminum alloy coating on steel wire
YB/T 081 Rule for rounding off of numerical values and judgement of testing values
for technical standards of metallurgy
3 Terms and definitions
The terms and definitions, which are defined in GB/T 341, as well as the following
terms and definitions, apply to this document.
A heat treatment method, which places the medium carbon steel or high carbon steel,
that was heated for austenitizing, in a hot bath of appropriate temperature (such as
lead bath, salt bath, water bath, etc.) OR in a forced air flow (such as controlled air
cooling after rolling in a steel mill), for cooling purposes, to obtain sorbite or sorbite-
based metallography.
[Source: 5.50 of GB/T 7232-2012, and 3.3.14 of GB/T 341-2008, with modifications]
The 4.50 mm galvanized steel wire, which has high tensile strength grade AND is suitable for
statically loaded springs, is marked as:
4.50-SH-ZN-GB/T 4357-2022
5 Order contents
The order contracts under this document shall contain the following requirements:
a) This document number;
b) Nominal diameter of steel wire;
c) Quantity;
d) Classification code (Table 1);
e) Surface state (7.2);
f) Delivery form (10.1) and unit weight (if there are specific requirements);
g) Other requirements.
6 Dimensions and shape requirements
6.1 Dimensions and allowable deviation
6.1.1 The allowable deviation of the diameter of the coiled steel wire shall meet the
requirements of Table 2. The allowable deviation of the diameter of the straight steel
wire shall meet the requirements of Table 3.
6.1.2 For the length deviation of the straight steel wire, it shall select an appropriate
level, according to GB/T 342-2017. If there is no requirement, it is defaulted to level
7.3 Surface quality
7.3.1 The surface of the steel wire shall be smooth; there shall be no surface defects,
such as pull marks, tears, rust, burrs, etc., which have obvious adverse effects on the
application of the steel wire.
7.3.2 The steel wires (DM and DH), for dynamic load springs, shall be subjected to
surface inspection. The radial depth of cracks or other surface defects shall comply with
the requirements in Table 6. By mutual agreement, eddy current testing can be carried
7.3.3 For the steel wire for dynamic load spring (DM and DH), the full decarburization
layer shall not appear on the cross section, whilst the radial depth of the partial
decarburization shall not be greater than the value, which is specified in Table 6.
7.4 Mechanical properties
7.4.1 The tensile strength and reduction in area of the steel wire shall meet the
requirements of Table 6.
7.4.2 The fluctuation range of the tensile strength of the same coil of steel wire shall
meet the requirements in Table 7. Table 7 is not applicable to steel wire, which is
galvanized or plated with zinc-aluminum alloy. If there is requirement, it shall be
negotiated separately.
7.5 Process performance
7.5.1 Winding test
When requested by the purchaser, the steel wire, which has a nominal diameter of less
than 3.00 mm, may adopt winding test; it shall not have any cracks.
7.5.2 Torsion test The torsion test shall be carried out, for the steel wire which has a nominal
diameter in the range of 0.70 mm < d ≤ 6.00 mm. For the steel wire, which has a nominal
diameter in the range of 6.00 mm < d ≤ 10.00 mm, the torsion test shall be determined,
by both parties through negotiation. The steel wire shall not break, when twisted to the
numbers, which are specified in Table 6, according to the requirements of GB/T 239.1;
there shall be no torsional cracks or delamination, on the surface. The test shall be carried out until fracture. The initial fracture surface shall be
perpendicular to the axis of the steel wire AND the surface shall not be torn. When the
steel wire is twisted back, the possible second fracture shall be ignored.
8.3 Surface quality
8.3.1 Visual inspection shall be adopted, for the appearance and surface quality.
8.3.2 Depth of surface defect: It is measured on the cross-section of the steel wire, by
metallographic method. Acid leaching can be used for steel wires, which have a nominal
diameter of not less than 2 mm; there shall be no surface defects after acid leaching. In
case of dispute, it shall use the metallographic inspection. The acid leaching test method
is as follows: Before the test, the specimen can be subjected to stress relief treatment;
then the normal temperature specimen is immersed in a solution, which has a
temperature of 75 °C and a volume ratio of hydrochloric acid to water of 1:1. The acid
leaching is terminated, after the diameter is reduced by about 1%. Visually check
whether there is surface defect.
8.4 Mechanical properties
The tensile strength shall be calculated, from the measured diameter.
When measuring the size required for calculating the reduction of cross-section, the
measurement error shall not be greater than ±1%.
8.5 Process performance
8.5.1 Winding test: The steel wire is tightly wound at least four turns, on a mandrel,
which has a diameter equal to its own diameter. Then the surface is visually inspected.
8.5.2 Method of bending test: Bend the steel wire 180° around a mandrel into a U shape;
then visually inspect the surface. For steel wires, which have a nominal diameter greater
than 3.00 mm but not greater than 6.50 mm, the diameter of the mandrel is twice the
nominal diameter of the steel wire. For steel wires, which have a nominal diameter
greater than 6.5 mm, the diameter of the mandrel is three times the nominal diameter
of the steel wire.
8.5.3 Coil spring test method: Take a specimen, which is about 500 mm long. The steel
wire is tightly wound, by a relatively uniform slight tension. The diameter of the
mandrel is 3 ~ 3.5 times the nominal diameter of the steel wire, which is not less than
1.00 mm. Then pull open the steel wire ring next to each other, so that the static length
after unloading is about 3 times the original length.
8.6 Other test methods
Other test methods shall comply with the provisions of Table 8.
9 Inspection rules
9.1 Inspection and acceptance
Unless there is a special agreement between the supplier and the buyer, all tests shall
be carried out at the supplier's premises.
9.2 Group-batching rules
Unless there is an agreement between the supplier and the buyer, the steel wire shall be
accepted in batches.
A production batch consists of steel wires of the same designation, the same heat
number (or the same production batch number), the same shape, the same dimension,
the same delivery state.
9.3 Spot check and sampling
The sampling location is any end of a piece of steel wire; take one sample from each
Sampling ratio requirements shall be in accordance with Table 8. When taking 10% of
the number of steel wire pieces, in each production batch, take a maximum of 10 pieces;
but for a batch of 20 pieces or less, take at least 2 pieces.
9.4 Re-inspection
The re-inspection and judgment rules of steel wire shall be carried out, in accordance
with the provisions of GB/T 2103.
9.5 Numerical rounding and determination
If it is not specified in the test method, the rounding of the test results of the steel wire
and the judgment of the test value shall be carried out, according to YB/T 081.
(Above excerpt was released on 2022-08-21, modified on 2022-08-21, translated/reviewed by: Wayne Zheng et al.)
Source: https://www.chinesestandard.net/PDF.aspx/GBT4357-2022