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GB/T 41010-2021 PDF in English


GB/T 41010-2021 (GB/T41010-2021, GBT 41010-2021, GBT41010-2021)
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GB/T 41010-2021: PDF in English (GBT 41010-2021)

GB/T 41010-2021
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 83.140
CCS G 33
Degradability and Identification Requirements of
Biodegradable Plastics and Products
ISSUED ON: NOVEMBER 26, 2021
IMPLEMENTED ON: JUNE 1, 2022
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 4
2 Normative References ... 4
3 Terms and Definitions ... 6
4 Degradability Requirements ... 8
5 Selection of Inspection Methods for Degradability ... 11
6 Identification ... 14
7 Identification Requirements ... 17
Appendix A (normative) Identification Styles and Specifications of Biodegradable
Plastics and Products ... 20
Appendix B (informative) Existing National or Industry Standards on Biodegradable
Plastics and Products ... 22
Bibliography ... 24
Degradability and Identification Requirements of
Biodegradable Plastics and Products
1 Scope
This document specifies the degradability and identification requirements of biodegradable
plastics and products. The performance of the specific products except the degradability shall
comply with the requirements of the product standard.
This document is applicable to the following types of biodegradable plastics and products:
---natural polymer materials;
---synthetic polymers;
---materials containing additives, such as: plasticizers, pigments or other compounds;
---the mixture of the above materials;
---products processed from various biodegradable materials.
2 Normative References
The contents of the following documents constitute indispensable clauses of this document
through the normative references in the text. In terms of references with a specified date, only
versions with a specified date are applicable to this document. In terms of references without a
specified date, the latest version (including all the modifications) is applicable to this document.
GB/T 1844.2 Plastic - Symbols and Abbreviated - Part 2: Fillers and Reinforcing Materials
GB/T 9345.1-2008 Plastics - Determination of Ash - Part 1: General Methods
GB/T 15337 General Rules for Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Analysis
GB/T 19276.1 Determination of the Ultimate Aerobic Biodegradability of Plastic Materials in
an Aqueous Medium - Method by Measuring the Oxygen Demand in a Closed Respirometer
GB/T 19276.2 Determination of the Ultimate Aerobic Biodegradability of Plastic Materials in
an Aqueous Medium - Method by Analysis of Evolved Carbon Dioxide
GB/T 19277.1 Determination of the Ultimate Aerobic Biodegradability of Plastic Materials
under Controlled Composting Conditions - Method by Analysis of Evolved Carbon Dioxide -
Part 1: General Method
theoretical release of biogas from the material.
3.3 absolute degree of biodegradation
During the biodegradation process, the measured degree of biodegradation of the sample of the
test material.
3.4 relative degree of biodegradation
relative degree of biodegradation
During the biodegradation test, use a thin layer of cellulose as a control reference material in
the biodegradation to test the activity of the degradation medium. The biodegradation process
of the reference material is treated in the same way as the test material. The percentage of the
degree of biodegradation of the sample and that of the reference material is the relative degree
of biodegradation.
3.5 disintegration
During the composting process, the test material and its products will be decomposed by
microorganisms together with the fresh biomass waste, and will change from larger shapes to
extremely fine fragments due to physical or chemical effects.
[source: GB/T 19811, modified]
3.6 disintegration
At the end of the composting process, after the compost is sieved through a 2 mm sieve, the
percentage of the mass of the test material fragment residues larger than 2 mm in the oversize
and the total dry solids of the material before the test.
3.7 soil-degradable
Under soil landfill conditions, a nature of being finally decomposed into simple compounds,
such as: carbon dioxide (CO2) and / or methane (CH4), and water (H2O), and mineralized
inorganic salts and biological dead bodies of elements contained in them.
3.8 composting-degradable
Under composting conditions, a nature of being finally decomposed into simple compounds,
such as: carbon dioxide (CO2) and / or methane (CH4), and water (H2O), and mineralized
inorganic salts and biological dead bodies of elements contained in them.
3.9 industrial composting
Industrial composting is a method of processing that utilizes industrial conditions to generate
compost.
NOTE: compost is an organic soil conditioning agent obtained by biodegrading the mixture. The
mixture consists mainly of plant residues, sometimes containing some organic materials
and some inorganic matters.
3.10 home composting
Home composting is a process of composting disposal of products of privately or domestically
generated organic wastes, such as: food, garden and paper product wastes, etc.
NOTE: generally, the generated compost is used for private purposes without any commercial
transactions.
3.11 marine-degradable
In the marine environment (such as: sediment interface, sediment, other actual field conditions
and its laboratory mesophilic simulation conditions, etc.), a nature of being finally decomposed
into simple compounds, such as: carbon dioxide (CO2) and / or methane (CH4), and water (H2O),
and mineralized inorganic salts and biological dead bodies of elements contained in them.
3.12 freshwater environment-degradable
In the freshwater environment (such as: rivers, lakes and simulated aqueous culture medium,
etc.), a nature of being finally decomposed into simple compounds, such as: carbon dioxide
(CO2) and / or methane (CH4), and water (H2O), and mineralized inorganic salts and biological
dead bodies of elements contained in them.
3.13 slurry anaerobic digestion
In the slurry anaerobic digestion device or simulated anaerobic digestion device, a nature of
being finally decomposed into simple compounds, such as: carbon dioxide (CO2) and / or
methane (CH4), and water (H2O), and mineralized inorganic salts and biological dead bodies of
elements contained in them.
3.14 high-solids anaerobic digestion
In an actual high-solids anaerobic digestion device or simulated high-solids anaerobic digestion
environment, a nature of being finally decomposed into simple compounds, such as: carbon
dioxide (CO2) and / or methane (CH4), and water (H2O), and mineralized inorganic salts and
biological dead bodies of elements contained in them.
4 Degradability Requirements
4.1 Organic Composition (volatile solids content)
The organic composition (volatile solids content) of biodegradable plastics and products shall
be greater than or equal to 51%.
4.2 Chemical Properties
4.2.2 Substances of very high concern
All materials used shall comply with national laws and regulations of products or banned
hazardous substances in certain fields, especially those classified as carcinogenic, mutagenic,
reproductive toxic substances, and allergenic substances, which shall be highly concerned. The
substances of very high concern shall comply with the requirements of GB/T 39498, and the
manufacturer shall provide relevant evidences, for example, self-declaration.
4.3 Degree of Biodegradation
The degree of biodegradation shall comply with the following requirements:
a) The relative degree of biodegradation shall be greater than or equal to 90%, and the
absolute degree of biodegradation of a single organic component with a component
greater than or equal to 1% in the material shall be greater than or equal to 60%;
b) If biodegradable plastics and products are composed of a mixture or a combination of
multiple materials, then, the organic components with a component less than 1% shall
also be biodegradable, but the proof of capacity is not required, and the sum of the
components with a component less than 1% shall be less than 5%.
NOTE: for organic components whose component is greater than or equal to 1%, a certificate of
biodegradability, for example, inspection report, shall be provided; for organic components
whose component is less than 1%, corresponding product inspection reports or self-
declarations by the enterprise can be provided for the biodegradability.
4.4 Disintegration
For biodegradable plastics and products that are claimed to be industrial compostable, high-
solids anaerobic digestible and home compostable, the disintegration shall be greater than or
equal to 90%.
4.5 Eco-toxicity Test of Degradation Products
4.5.1 Phytotoxicity test of degradation products
If required, the emergence rate of degradation products of biodegradable plastics and products
in the phytotoxicity test shall be greater than or equal to 90%, and the percentage of the mass
of grown plants by the sample degradation product after drying at 105 C for 3 h and that of the
blank group of grown plants after drying shall be greater than or equal to 90%.
4.5.2 Degradation product earthworm test pass rate
If required, the earthworm test survival rate of degradation product of biodegradable plastics
and products shall be greater than or equal to 90%, and the ratio of surviving earthworms to the
mass of earthworms at the beginning of the test shall be greater than or equal to 90%.
......
 
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.