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GB/T 40662-2021 (GB/T40662-2021)

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GB/T 40662-2021: PDF in English (GBT 40662-2021)
GB/T 40662-2021
ICS 13.030.30
CCS Z 05
Technical Specification for
Recycling and Treatment of Waste Lead Batteries
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
Introduction ... 4
1 Scope ... 5
2 Normative References ... 5
3 Terms and Definitions ... 7
4 Requirements for Recycling and Treatment ... 9
5 Pollution Control Requirements ... 15
6 Comprehensive Energy Consumption ... 16
7 Safety Production and Occupational Health Management ... 17
8 Emergency Plan and Personal Protection Management ... 18
Appendix A (Informative) Schematic Diagram of the Dismantling and Sorting Process
of Waste Lead Battery ... 19
Bibliography ... 20
Technical Specification for Recycling and Treatment of
Waste Lead Batteries
1 Scope
This Document specifies the recycling and treatment requirements, pollution control
requirements, comprehensive energy consumption, safety production and occupational health
management, as well as emergency plans and individual protection management, etc. for the
waste lead battery.
This Document is applicable to the recycling and treatment of waste lead-acid batteries and
lead-containing waste generated in the production process of lead-acid batteries; and the
recycling and treatment of waste lead-carbon batteries can be implemented by reference.
2 Normative References
The provisions in following documents become the essential provisions of this Document
through reference in this Document. For the dated documents, only the versions with the dates
indicated are applicable to this Document; for the undated documents, only the latest version
(including all the amendments) is applicable to this Document.
GB/T 469 Lead Ingots
GB/T 534 Sulphuric Acid for Industrial Use
GB/T 625 Chemical Reagent – Sulfuric Acid
GB/T 2900.41 Electrotechnical Terminology - Primary and Secondary Cells and Batteries
GB/T 3637 Liquid Sulphur Dioxide
GB/T 4103 (all parts) Methods for Chemical Analysis of Lead and Lead Alloys
GB/T 6284 Chemical Products for Industrial Use - General Method for Determination of
Water Content - The Loss of Mass on Drying Method
GB/T 8170 Rules of Rounding off for Numerical Values & Expression and Judgement of
Limiting Values
GB/T 9345.1 Plastics - Determination of Ash - Part 1: General Methods
3.8 Waste plate group
The plate group that is scrapped due to quality reasons during the production and manufacturing
process of lead batteries.
3.9 Waste grids
Electrode grids that are sorted during the dismantling of waste lead batteries.
3.10 Waste lead paste
Powdery or paste-like lead-containing materials that are sorted during the dismantling process
of waste lead batteries; and powdery or paste-like lead-containing materials that are scrapped
during battery production.
3.11 Recycling and treatment
The resource utilization process that uses technology and process equipment to carry out
activities such as decontamination, dismantling, material sorting, and smelting of waste lead
batteries, and aims to recover valuable elements thereof.
3.12 Disposal
The activities that use incineration, landfill or other methods to change the physical, chemical,
or biological properties of waste to reduce or eliminate its hazard; or the activities that place
waste in locations or facilities that meet the requirements of environmental protection
3.13 Disassemble
The activities that disassemble and decompose waste lead batteries by mechanical means to
facilitate disposal.
3.14 Pretreatment
The treatment processes of dismantling, crushing, sorting and the like before the recycling of
the waste lead battery and waste contained lead.
3.15 Pyrometallurgy
The technical process that extracts metal from raw materials in a molten state by means of high
3.16 Hydrometallurgy
The technical process that extracts metals or metal compounds from raw materials through
chemical reactions in solution by chemical solvents.
3.17 Direct recovery rate
In the production process, the percentage of the actual product yield obtained by inputting a
unit amount of raw materials and the theoretically calculated product yield.
3.18 Composite recovery
The percentage that is obtained by the mass of valuable elements recovered divided by the mass
of the corresponding element in the raw material during production.
3.19 Secondary lead
Crude lead that is produced by re-smelting waste lead (mainly waste lead battery) as raw
[SOURCE: GB 31574-2015, 3.4, with modifications]
3.20 Lead recycling company
The enterprises that use waste lead batteries and waste containing lead as raw materials, hold a
hazardous waste license, have the qualification for secondary lead smelting, and specialize in
the harmless reuse of waste lead batteries.
[SOURCE: GB/T 37281-2019, 3.12, with modifications]
3.21 Water granulated slag
The glassy lead-containing smelting slag that is produced by the smelting tailings in the
pyrometallurgical process of the waste containing lead at high temperature, and after being
quenched with water as a quenching agent.
4 Requirements for Recycling and Treatment
4.1 General requirements
4.1.1 See HJ 519 for site selection requirements for lead recycling company.
4.1.2 The lead recycling company shall obtain a hazardous waste license.
4.1.3 The lead recycling company shall obtain a pollutant discharge permit, see HJ 863.4 for
the requirements. Organize production in accordance with the requirements of the Evaluation
Index System for Clean Production in the Lead Recycling Industry.
4.1.4 The lead recycling company shall be equipped with pollution control systems such as
waste electrolyte, production wastewater, production waste gas, waste slag and the like, as well
as online monitoring systems, alarm systems and emergency treatment devices.
subsequent processes. The dismantled waste plastic casing, waste grid, waste lead paste, waste
separator, etc. can be separated by screening, hydraulic sorting, and filtering, etc. Waste
electrolytes shall be collected and disposed of and shall not be discharged into the sewer or the
environment. The waste electrolyte should be comprehensively utilized by treatment
technologies such as ion exchange or ion membrane reverse osmosis. See HJ 519 for the
disposal requirements of waste separators. The plastics after crushing and sorting waste lead
batteries shall be cleaned and reused after meeting the requirements of recycling. See Appendix
A for the dismantling and sorting process flow.
4.2.4 Technical indicators
The technical indicators of pretreatment include but are not limited to:
a) The direct recovery rate of plastic shall be at or above 99%.
b) After the waste electrolyte is treated by the purification process, the total concentration
of impurity ions such as lead, copper, cadmium, tin, aluminum, arsenic, bismuth,
antimony, iron and others in the solution shall not exceed 0.002%; and the impurity
content shall meet the relevant requirements of GB/T 625. Determination of lead, copper,
arsenic, iron is according to the method of GB/T 625, while determination of cadmium,
tin, aluminum, bismuth, antimony is according to the method of HJ 776.
c) After the waste electrolyte is concentrated, the impurity content shall meet the
requirements of GB/T 534.
4.3 Smelting
4.3.1 Process requirements Pyrometallurgy
When pyrometallurgy is used, lead-containing materials such as waste lead paste, waste grids,
waste plastics, waste separators, waste electrolytes, etc., which are crushed and sorted from
waste lead batteries, shall be collected and treated by classification. Metal lead materials such
as waste grids and waste terminal posts are directly smelted and refined at low temperature to
produce pyrotechnic lead or electrolytic lead, or alloy lead is produced by adjusting the
The pyrometallurgy of waste lead paste, waste plate, waste plate group and lead-containing
waste generally includes two methods: one method is that the waste lead paste is subjected to
pre-desulfurization treatment and then enters the reduction furnace to be smelted to produce
crude lead (i.e., secondary lead); the other method is to directly smelt and produce secondary
lead, and at the same time carry out the sulfur recovery process.
Pyrometallurgy shall carry out the production by the process proposed in Guidelines for
Feasible Technology for Pollution Prevention and Control of Secondary Lead Smelting. The
secondary lead that is produced by the smelting enters the refining system to produce pyro-
refined lead or electrolytic lead. Smelting flue gas containing sulfur dioxide shall be used as a
resource. Hydrometallurgy
Hydrometallurgy includes two processes. One process uses waste lead paste, waste grids and
waste plates as raw materials to prepare lead oxides, and the products can be directly reused for
the production of lead battery; the other process is producing lead by leaching-electrolysis,
including reduction-electrolysis process, solid-phase electrolysis process using electrolytes
such as NaOH, etc.
4.3.2 Equipment requirements
The pyrometallurgy equipment shall be equipped with a negative pressure device, a flue gas
collection system such as SO2, etc., and a tail gas purification system. The sulfur-containing
flue gas should adopt an acid-making process, or other suitable desulfurization technologies
and equipment for sulfur resource recovery and utilization. The collected gas shall be
discharged after purification and meeting the relevant standards. Related facilities and
equipment such as waste acid treatment system and waste water treatment system shall be
The pyrometallurgy process shall adopt closed smelting equipment that conforms to the
Guidelines for the Prevention and Control of Pollution from Secondary Lead Smelting and
should adopt the closed smelting equipment proposed in the Catalogue for Guiding Industry
Restructuring (2019 Version). In the process of pyrometallurgy, direct coal-fired or coal-
injected reverberatory furnaces shall not be used to smelt lead-containing materials.
When using the hydrometallurgy process to recycle and treat waste lead batteries, its equipment
shall meet the requirements of safety, environmental protection and clean production. The
process shall be carried out in a closed device; and shall be equipped with waste acid treatment
system and wastewater treatment system.
4.3.3 Technical indicators
The technical indicators of the smelting process include but are not limited to:
a) The comprehensive recovery rate of lead shall be greater than 98%;
b) The smelting tailings shall be glassy water granulated slag; and the lead content shall be
less than 2%. See GB 5085.3 for requirements on the leaching concentration of heavy
metals in the water granulated slag.
4.4 Varieties and requirements for main product
4.4.1 Varieties of main product
Each bundle of lead ingots shall be marked with a conspicuous and non-falling off mark,
indicating the name of the manufacturer, product name, designation, batch number and net mass,
Each batch of lead ingots shall be accompanied by a quality certificate, which shall indicate:
the supplier's name and trademark, address, telephone or fax, product name and designation,
batch number, net mass and number of pieces, analysis and inspection results and the imprint
of the quality supervision department, No. of implementation standard, and exit-factory date. Storage conditions of lead ingots
The storage facilities for lead ingots shall meet the following requirements:
a) The geological structure is stable, the storage point shall be protected from rain, and shall
be kept away from other water and heat sources;
b) Lead ingots shall be stored in a dry and ventilated warehouse without corrosive substances;
and placed flat on a flat surface; do not trample or hit;
c) Appropriate fire protection device shall be provided. Packaging and transportation of lead ingots
The lead ingot transportation vehicle shall be clean, water-free, oil-free and dust-free; and the
packaged packs during transportation shall be covered with tarpaulin or plastic film.
4.4.3 Lead oxide powder
The hydrometallurgy process of preparing lead oxide with waste lead paste and waste grid as
raw materials, the quality of the output lead oxide powder can be determined through
negotiation between the supplier and the purchaser, and meets the relevant product quality
4.5 Varieties and indicator requirements for by-product
4.5.1 Waste plastics
The content of heavy metals such as lead and cadmium in waste plastics shall meet the limit
requirements in GB/T 38295. The recycling of lead battery plastic casing shall meet the
requirements of GB/T 37281 and HJ/T 364.
See Table 2 for the indicator requirements and testing methods of waste PP and waste ABS
plastics. Waste plastics should be reused in the production of lead battery casings.
5.2 Solid waste
5.2.1 Waste slag
Waste gas purification slag and wastewater treatment sludge that are generated by the lead
recycling company shall be managed as hazardous waste; and can be reused in the smelting
system or disposed according to the management provisions of hazardous waste.
The smelting tailings shall be glassy water granulated slag.
5.2.2 Lead-containing solid waste
Waste activated carbon, waste separators, lead-containing waste labor protection supplies
(waste masks, gloves, work clothes, etc.) and packaging with lead dust, as well as
hydrometallurgical waste fluorine-containing acid, etc., shall be treated as lead-containing solid
5.3 Dust and exhaust air
5.3.1 Dust
The dust generated by all processes of the lead recycling company shall be collected and
returned to the smelting system or discharged directly. See GB 31574 for discharge
5.3.2 Exhaust gas
The production processes and devices of the lead recycling company that generate air pollutants
should set up local or overall gas collection systems and centralized purification and treatment
devices. The height of all exhaust pipes in the production process shall be determined according
to the requirements of environmental impact assessment, and shall be no lower than 15m.
The treatment of waste gas from the lead recycling company shall meet the requirements of
YS/T 1170; see GB 31574 for waste gas emission requirements.
5.4 Soil
The lead recycling company shall establish a soil pollution hidden danger investigation system
according to law, see GB 36600 for relevant requirements.
6 Comprehensive Energy Consumption
6.1 The lead recycling company shall establish and improve the energy management system
according to the requirements of GB/T 23331.
6.2 See GB 17167 for energy meter requirements.
6.3 See GB 25323 for the energy consumption limit requirements per unit product of lead
recycling company.
6.4 The comprehensive energy consumption of waste lead batteries in the pretreatment process
shall be lower than 5kgce/t; the energy consumption per unit product of the smelting process of
the pretreatment-smelting enterprise shall be lower than 125kgce/t; and the energy consumption
per unit product of the refining process shall be lower than 22kgce/t.
7 Safety Production and Occupational Health Management
7.1 In the dismantling workshop, the occupational exposure limit of sulfuric acid and sulfur
trioxide in the air shall meet the requirements of GBZ 2.1.
7.2 In the smelting workshop, the occupational exposure limits of chemically harmful factors
such as lead fume, lead dust and powder in the air shall meet the requirements of GBZ 2.1.
7.3 A safety production management system shall be established. In accordance with the
requirements of GB/T 33000, establish the prevention mechanisms such as emergency accident
pool and fault emergency stop, etc.
7.4 The occupational health and safety management system shall be established and improved.
According to the requirements of GB/T 45001, establish and improve occupational health
management systems such as occupational disease hazard detection and evaluation,
occupational health monitoring, occupational disease hazard warning and notification, training,
and inspection, etc.
7.5 Before the recycling and treatment process of waste lead battery, the management personnel
and key post personnel in key production links, environmental protection equipment operation,
special equipment operation, safety and health environment management, hazardous waste
management and other management personnel shall be trained on safety and occupational skills;
and only after passing the exam, can they work with a certificate and undergo regular retraining.
7.6 A bulletin board shall be set up at the conspicuous position of the workplace to announce
the relevant occupational disease prevention and control system, operating procedures and the
detection results of occupational disease hazard factors.
7.7 Strengthen occupational safety and health training for employees. The lead recycling
company shall issue qualified personal protective equipment to employees; conduct pre-job, in-
job and off-job occupational health inspections; and establish occupational health practitioner
archives. The work clothes of the employees in the workshop shall be collected regularly,
washed uniformly; and the washing wastewater shall be treated uniformly as the production
(Above excerpt was released on 2022-06-04, modified on 2022-06-04, translated/reviewed by: Wayne Zheng et al.)
Source: https://www.chinesestandard.net/PDF.aspx/GBT40662-2021