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GB/T 32453-2015 PDF in English


GB/T 32453-2015 (GB/T32453-2015, GBT 32453-2015, GBT32453-2015)
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GB/T 32453-2015: PDF in English (GBT 32453-2015)

GB/T 32453-2015
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 49.020
V 70
Rule for Classification and Gradation of Earth
Observation Satellite Data Product
ISSUED ON: DECEMBER 31, 2015
IMPLEMENTED ON: JULY 01, 2016
Issued by: General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection
and Quarantine;
Standardization Administration of PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
Introduction ... 4
1 Scope ... 5
2 Normative References ... 5
3 Terms and Definitions ... 5
4 Abbreviation ... 10
5 Classification and Gradation Principles ... 10
6 Classification System and Rules ... 11
6.1 Classification system ... 11
6.2 Classification rules ... 11
7 Gradation System and Rules ... 16
7.1 Gradation system ... 16
7.2 Gradation rules ... 17
8 Expansibility Principles ... 20
Appendix A (Informative) Attributes and Measurement Units of the Grading
Indicators for Optical and Microwave Data Products (Partial) ... 21
Appendix B (Informative) Examples of Application for Classification and
Gradation Rules of Satellite Earth Observation Data Products ... 25
Bibliography ... 42
Rule for Classification and Gradation of Earth
Observation Satellite Data Product
1 Scope
This Standard specifies the classification and gradation rules of satellite earth
observation data products, and establishes the classification and gradation system of
satellite earth observation data products.
This Standard is applicable to the product classification and gradation in the production,
management and service of satellite earth observation data products.
2 Normative References
The following documents are essential to the application of this document. For the
dated documents, only the versions with the dates indicated are applicable to this
document; for the undated documents, only the latest version (including all the
amendments) are applicable to this document.
GB/T 13923-2006 Specifications for Feature Classification and Codes of
Fundamental Geographic Information
GB/T 14950-2009 Terms of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing
GB/T 17694-2009 Geographic Information – Terminology (ISO/TS 19104-2008)
ISO/TS 19101-2:2008 Geographic Information – Reference Model – Part 2:
Imagery
3 Terms and Definitions
For the purpose of this document, the terms and definitions defined in GB/T 13923-
2006, GB/T 14950-2009, GB/T 17694-2009 and ISO/TS 19101-2:2008 and the
following apply. For the sake of use, some terms and definitions in GB/T 13923-2006,
GB/T 14950-2009, GB/T 17694-2009 and ISO/TS 19101-2:2008 are repeatedly listed.
3.1 Remote sensing
Techniques for collecting and interpreting target information without directly touching
3.9 Black body
A hypothetical ideal radiator, it can absorb all the external electromagnetic radiation
without any reflection and transmission.
3.10 Emissivity
The ratio of the radiation emittance of an object at a certain temperature and a certain
wavelength to the radiation emittance of a black body at the same temperature and
the same wavelength, which is also called the specific emissivity.
3.11 Brightness temperature
The temperature of the black body equal to the radiation emittance of the observed
object, the value of which is equal to the radiation temperature.
3.12 Backscattering coefficient
Radar reflectance per unit cross-sectional area of the target in the direction of
incidence.
3.13 Digital elevation model
A dataset that assigns two-dimensional coordinate elevation values through an
algorithm.
[GB/T 17694-2009, definition B.133]
3.14 Fundamental geographic information features
Geographical elements described by basic geographic information include water
systems, residential areas and facilities, transportation, pipelines, borders and political
districts, landforms, vegetation and soil, place names, and the basis for spatial
positioning, etc.
[GB/T 13923-2006, definition 2.2]
3.15 Radiometric correction
Correction of systematic and random radiation distortion or deformation caused by
external factors, data acquisition and transmission systems.
[GB/T 14950-2009, definition 5.195]
3.16 Relative radiometric correction
Normalize the amount of radiation measured between image elements or between
sensors, between spectral bands, or at different times.
sources, such as edge extraction, classification, etc., and fuse at the feature layer.
3.25 Decision-level fusion
Fusion based on image understanding and image recognition, that is, fusion after
feature extraction and feature recognition process.
3.26 Parameter inversion
Based on the model knowledge, the state parameters of the target are inferred based
on the measurable parameter values, which is also known as parameter inversion.
3.27 Validation
An independent method is used to evaluate the authenticity and accuracy of satellite
earth observation data products.
3.28 Cross validation
The use of verified satellite earth observation data products with known accuracy to
evaluate the quality of satellite earth observation data products to be inspected is an
indirect method of authenticity verification.
3.29 Geoelectric field
The electric field that exists naturally on the earth's surface is divided into a geoelectric
field and a natural electric field according to the field source. The geoelectric field refers
to a geoelectric field that changes globally or regionally, and the natural electric field is
a geoelectric field that changes relatively locally.
3.30 Geomagnetic field
The Earth's magnetic field exists in a wide space from the Earth's core to hundreds or
even thousands of Earth radius. It originates from magnetic rocks inside the Earth and
current systems distributed inside and outside the Earth. It consists of three parts,
including core field, crustal field and changing magnetic field.
3.31 Ionosphere
The ionosphere is an area where the upper atmosphere of the earth is partially ionized
above 60km.
3.32 Earth gravity field
The vector field formed by the gravity vector corresponding to each point in the space
domain on the surface of the earth and near the ground affected by gravity.
3.33 Gravity gradient
gradation systems have a clear structure and can reflect the inherent characteristics
and connections between different categories and grades of data products.
5.2 The classification and gradation rules have broad applicability; and the scope of
the classification and gradation system shall cover various existing remote sensing
satellite earth observation data products.
5.3 The settings and classification characteristics of categories and grades shall be
concise and clear, easy to operate and accepted and used by various users.
5.4 The formulation of classification and gradation rules first considers mainstream
data products that are currently widely used and highly standardized. At the same time,
it shall also consider the possibility of new data products and new categories and
grades in a certain period of time in the future, which shall be scalable.
5.5 It shall be able to establish a clear mapping relationship with the classification and
gradation rules of earth observation data used by the remote sensing satellites at home
and abroad; and can be easily integrated with relevant foreign classification and
gradation schemes.
6 Classification System and Rules
6.1 Classification system
The satellite earth observation data products are classified according to the target
characteristics and detection methods detected by the satellite sensors. The
classification system consists of large, medium and small categories. Products
involved in the comprehensive processing of different types of satellite earth
observation data products can be classified into corresponding categories according
to the main data sources used.
6.2 Classification rules
6.2.1 Large categories
According to the detection bands of satellite sensors and the main characteristics of
their observation objects, they are divided into three categories: optical data products,
microwave data products, and geophysical data products:
a) Optical data products: data products with the detection wavelength range of
0.1µm ~ 1.0×103µm; with reflectance and radiation energy of the target object
obtained by the optical sensor and the image data products obtained by
processing them. Or image data products with distance and the like information
of the target detected by the emitting laser pulses Information and processing
them;
According to the detection method of data acquisition, the microwave data products
are divided into two medium categories: active microwave data products and passive
microwave data products:
a) Active microwave data products: data products obtained by detecting the
backscattering characteristics or echo delay information of earth objects through
transmitting microwave signals with microwave sensors; and image data
products obtained by processing them;
b) Passive microwave data products: data products obtained by detecting
microwave radiation characteristics of the earth or the atmosphere through
microwave sensors; and image data products obtained by processing them.
6.2.2.3 Geophysical field data products
According to the detected geophysical field, it is divided into three medium categories:
gravity field data products, electromagnetic field data products and other geophysical
field data products:
a) Gravity field data products: data products with earth’s gravity field obtained by
satellite motion parameters by tracking each other between satellites or directly
observe satellite gravity gradient inversion;
b) Electromagnetic field data products: data products with the parameters such as
the earth’s basic magnetic field, changing magnetic field and atmospheric,
ionosphere-related electromagnetic fields and plasma obtained through
observations of geoelectric fields, geomagnetic fields, and ionospheric
parameters, etc.;
c) Other geophysical field data products.
See Table 1 for the classification system structure of satellite earth observation data
products.
f) Ku waveband (12GHz~18GHz);
g) K waveband (18GHz~27GHz);
h) Ka waveband (27GHz~40GHz);
i) V waveband (40GHz~75GHz);
j) W waveband (75GHz~110GHz);
k) mm waveband (110GHz~300GHz).
6.2.3.2.3 According to the polarization method of microwave detection, it is divided into
6 categories, which are as follows:
a) HH polarization (horizontal transmission, horizontal reception);
b) VV polarization (vertical transmission, vertical reception);
c) HV polarization (horizontal transmission, vertical reception);
d) VH polarization (vertical transmission, horizontal reception);
e) Dual polarization (HH/VV, HH/HV, VV/VH, HV/VH);
f) Full polarization (HH/HV/VV/VH).
6.2.3.2.4 The small categories of spaceborne active microwave (imaging radar) data
products currently include:
a) HH polarized products, VV polarized products, HV polarized products, VH
polarized products, dual polarized products and fully polarized products in the L
waveband; HH polarized products and VV polarized products in the S waveband.
b) HH polarized products, VV polarized products, HV polarized products, VH
polarized products, dual polarized products and fully polarized products in C
waveband.
c) HH polarized products, VV polarized products, HV polarized products, VH
polarized products, dual polarized products, and fully polarized products in X
waveband.
6.2.3.3 Passive microwave data products
6.2.3.3.1 The passive microwave data products are divided into small categories based
on two factors, i.e. the working waveband of the microwave and the polarization mode
of the detection.
7.1.2 Level-0 is the original data product obtained by processing the data received by
the ground station through de-formatting.
7.1.3 Level-1 and Level-2 products are basic data products commonly used in various
industries and fields; and their gradation is divided according to the processing level of
radiometric correction and geometric correction.
7.1.4 Levels-3~6 products are value-added data products in various industries and
fields. They are data products obtained by integrating processing the ground control
points or digital elevation models and thematic application information according to
application requirements.
7.1.5 Level-0 and basic data products include corresponding grades of data products
generated by superimposing some basic geographic information elements.
7.1.6 Sub-level data products are products that are further divided according to the
single-item data processing levels on the basis of Levels-1~6 data products.
7.1.7 Extended-level data products are products further subdivided on the basis of sub-
level products.
7.1.8 The content of the grading indicators and the nominal measurements adopted
by different categories of satellite earth observation data products are different. For the
attributes and their measurement units of the grading indicators for some optical and
microwave data products can refer to Appendix A.
7.2 Gradation rules
7.2.1 Level-0 (L0)
Level-0 data products refer to initial data products that have been de-formatted and
decompressed for distribution by strip, scene, or region.
7.2.2 Level-1 (L1)
Level-1 data products are radiation-corrected data products from Level-0 data and can
be divided into 2 sub-levels according to the degree of radiometric correction
processing.
Sub-level 1 (L1_1): Products that have undergone the relative radiometric correction.
Sub-level 2 (L1_2): Products that have undergone the absolute radiometric
correction.
7.2.3 Level-2 (L2)
Data products that have undergone system geometric correction based on L0-L1 data
Professional application data products obtained through fusion and parameter
inversion of professional data or information integration processing based on the L0-
L4 data; sub-levels and extended levels can be subdivided according to the degree of
processing.
According to the degree of image fusion, Sub-levels 1 ~ 3 are divided.
Sub-level 1 (L5_1): Data products that have undergone the pixel-level fusion.
Sub-level 2 (L5_2): Data products that have undergone the feature-level fusion.
Sub-level 3 (L5_3): Data products that have undergone the decision-level fusion.
From the perspective of parameter inversion, Sub-levels 4 ~ 6 are divided.
Sub-level 4 (L5_4): Inversion products based entirely on the parameter itself.
Sub-level 5 (L5_5): Parametric inversion products verified by cross-checking method.
Sub-level 6 (L5_6): Parametric inversion products that have undergone field
authenticity testing.
7.2.7 Level-6 (L6)
Data products that use the three-dimensional expression based on L3-L5 data.
Sub-level 1 (L6_1): Unmeasurable three-dimensional expression data products
produced from data products at level L3 and above.
Sub-level 2 (L6_2): Measurable three-dimensional data products produced from
data products at level L4 and above.
Sub-level 3 (L6_3): Three-dimensional data products produced by L4 ~ L5 data
products, which can support professional information analysis and process virtual
expression.
7.2.8 Level Identification
The level identification consists of a level identification, sub-level identification, and
extended level identification. Thereof, the identification of the levels and sub-levels is
represented by the combination of the letter L and Arabic numerals; and the
identification is shown in Table 3.
......
 
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.