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GB/T 31485-2015 (GB/T31485-2015)

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GB/T 31485-2015: PDF in English (GBT 31485-2015)
GB/T 31485-2015
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 43.120
T 47
Safety requirements and test methods for
traction battery of electric vehicle
ISSUED ON. MAY 15, 2015
IMPLEMENTED ON. MAY 15, 2015
Issued by.
General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection
and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China;
Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of
China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
1 Scope ... 4 
2 Normative references ... 4 
3 Terms and definitions ... 4 
4 Symbol ... 5 
5 Requirements ... 5 
6 Test methods ... 7 
7 Inspection rules ... 16 
Foreword
This Standard is drafted based on the provisions provided in GB/T 1.1-2009.
This Standard was proposed by Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of the
People’s Republic of China.
This Standard shall be under the jurisdiction of National Technical Committee of Auto
Standardization (SAC/TC 114).
Drafting organizations of this Standard. China Automotive Technology & Research Center,
Beijing University of Technology, China Electronics Technology Group Corporation 18th
Research Institute, China North Vehicle Research Institute, Shenzhen BYD Auto Co., Ltd.,
Tianjin Lishen Battery Co., Ltd., Shanghai Automotive Group Co., Ltd. Technology Center,
China First Automobile Co., Ltd., Chongqing Changan New Energy Automobile Co., Ltd.,
Dongfeng Motor Group Company Limited Technology Center, Beiqi Foton Motor Co., Ltd.,
Dongfeng Motor Co., Ltd. Dongfeng Nissan Passenger Vehicle Company, Ningde Shidai
New Energy Technology Co., Ltd., Hubei Camel Storage Battery Research Institute Co.,
Ltd., CITIC UNITA Guli Power Technology Co., Ltd., Zhejiang Gushen Energy Technology
Co., Ltd., Harbin Guangyu Power Co., Ltd., Huizhou City Yinen Electronics Co., Ltd., Hefei
Guoxuan High-tech Power Energy Co., Ltd., Haite Electronics Group Co., Ltd. AND
Shanghai Kanai Energy Co., Ltd.
Main drafters of this Standard. Wu Feng, Wang Fang, Xiao Chengwei, Meng Xiangfeng,
Cai Yi, Zhang Jianhua, Hu Daozhong, Fang Bin, Gao Hongbo, Wang Zhenpo, Zhu
Yanqing, Zhang Huiping, Wang Jin, Jian Wenfeng, Zhang Na, Wu Ningning, Fei Xiaojuan,
Zhang Zhe, Shun Jianping, Zhu Yanchun, Ruan Xushong, Xu Xinwu, Yu Hongtao, Guang
Chenshang, Yang Chongjiao, Yuan Chanrong, Xia Yang, Zhang Huiping, Wang Hailan, Li
Tao and Guo Yan.
Safety requirements and test methods for
traction battery of electric vehicle
1 Scope
This Standard specifies the safety requirements, test methods, and inspection rules for
traction battery of electric vehicle (hereinafter referred as “battery”).
This Standard is applicable to lithium-ion battery and metal hydride nickel battery which
are used in electric vehicle. For other traction batteries, this Standard is served as
reference.
2 Normative references
The following documents are indispensable for application of this document. For the dated
documents so quoted, only the dated versions apply to this document. For the undated
documents so quoted, the latest versions (including all modification sheets) apply to this
document.
GB/T 2900.41 Electrotechnical terminology - Primary and secondary cells and
batteries
GB/T 19596 Terminology of electric vehicles
3 Terms and definitions
The following terms and definitions AND those specified in GB/T 2900.41 and GB/T 19596
apply to this Standard.
3.1
secondary cell
A basic unit, designed to be chargeable, that can directly transform chemical energy into
power energy and is composed of electrode, membrane, electrolyte, case and terminal.
3.2
battery module
A power supply combination of one or more of secondary cells which are connected in
series or in parallel or in series-parallel, with only one pair of positive and negative output
terminals.
3.3
explosion
Fierce explosion of battery case, with violent noise and projectiles of major composition
(solid substance).
3.4
fire
Combustion occurred in any part of battery (the last time is more than 1s). Spark and arc
do not belong to combustion.
3.5
leakage
The liquid inside battery is leaked out.
3.6
case
Protection parts which is used to seal inner parts of battery and prevent it from being in
direct contact with outside.
4 Symbol
For the purpose of standard, the following symbols shall apply.
C1. Rated capacity per one hour rate (Ah).
I1. Discharge current per one hour rate, equal to C1 (A).
5 Requirements
5.1 Secondary cell
5.1.1 When over-discharge test in sub-clause 6.2.2 is carried out on secondary cell, there
shall have no explosion, fire or leakage.
5.1.2 When over-charge test in sub-clause 6.2.3 is carried out on secondary cell, there
shall have no explosion and fire.
5.1.4 When dropping test in sub-clause 6.2.5 is carried out on secondary cell.
6.2.4 Short-circuit test
Short-circuit test shall be carried out according to the following procedures.
a) Charge secondary cell according to the method in sub-clause 6.1.3;
b) Short-circuit the positive and negative poles of the secondary cell externally for
10min and the external circuit resistance shall be less than 5mΩ;
c) Observe it for 1h.
6.2.5 Dropping test
Dropping test shall be carried out according to the following procedure.
a) Charge secondary cell according to the method in sub-clause 6.1.3;
b) Drop the secondary cell with positive and negative terminals downward from 1.5m
height to cement floor;
c) Observe it for 1h.
6.2.6 Heating test
Heating test shall be carried out according to the following procedure.
a) Charge secondary cell according to the method in sub-clause 6.1.3.
b) Place secondary cell in temperature chamber.
-- For lithium battery, increase the temperature at 5°C/min rate until it reaches
130°C±2°C; maintain it for 30min; then stop heating.
-- For nickel-metal hydride battery, increase the temperature at 5°C/min rate until it
reaches 85°C±2°C; maintain it for 2h; then stop heating.
c) Observe it for 1h.
6.2.7 Crushing test
Crushing test shall be carried out according to the following procedure.
a) Charge secondary cell according to the method in sub-clause 6.1.3.
b) Carry out test according to the following conditions.
— Crushing direction. apply pressure along the direction perpendicular to battery pole
plate (as shown in Figure 1)
— Crushing plate form. semi-cylinder with 75mm radius and length (L) greater than the
The battery module samples shall fulfill the following conditions.
-- The total voltage shall not be lower than 5 times of secondary cell voltage;
-- The rated capacity shall not be lower than 20Ah or be equal to rated capacity of
battery used for full-vehicle.
Note. Battery module to be tested can be made up of in-parallel and in-serial actual
modules.
All test items shall be carried out with sufficient safety protection measures. If the test
objective has additional active protection circuit or apparatus, it shall be removed.
6.3.2 Over-discharging test
Over-discharging test shall be carried out according to the following procedure.
a) Charge battery module according to the method in sub-clause 6.1.4;
b) Discharge battery module at 1I1(A) for 90 min;
c) Observe it for 1h.
6.3.3 Over-charging test
Over-charging test shall be carried out according to the following procedure.
a) Charge battery module according to the method in sub-clause 6.1.4;
b) Charge at constant current of 1I1(A) and terminate when the secondary cell voltage
reaches 1.5 times of charge termination voltage specified by manufacturer or the
charge duration reaches 1h;
c) Observe it for 1h.
6.3.4 Short-circuit test
Short-circuit test shall be carried out according to the following procedure.
a) Charge battery module according to the method in sub-clause 6.1.4;
b) Short-circuit positive and negative poles of the battery module externally for 10min
and the external circuit resistance shall be less than 5mΩ;
c) Observe it for 1h.
6.3.5 Dropping test
Dropping test shall be carried out according to the following procedure.
a) Charge battery module according to the method in sub-clause 6.1.4;
b) Drop the secondary cell with positive and negative terminals downward from 1.2m
height to cement floor;
c) Observe it for 1h.
6.3.6 Heating test
Heating test shall be carried out according to the following procedure.
a) Charge battery module according to the method in sub-clause 6.1.4;
b) Place battery module in temperature chamber.
— For lithium battery, increase the temperature at 5°C/min rate until it reaches
130°C±2°C and maintain it for 30min. Then stop heating.
— For nickel-metal hydride battery, increase the temperature at 5°C/min rate until it
reaches 85°C±2°C and maintain it for 2h. Then stop heating.
c) Observe it for 1h.
6.3.7 Crushing test
Crushing test shall be carried out according to the following procedure.
a) Charge battery module according to the method in sub-clause 6.1.4;
b) Carry out test according to the following conditions.
— Crushing plate form. semi-cylinder with 75mm radius and its length shall be
gr...
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(Above excerpt was released on 2015-09-15, modified on 2021-06-07, translated/reviewed by: Wayne Zheng et al.)
Source: https://www.chinesestandard.net/PDF.aspx/GBT31485-2015