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GB/T 2410-2008 (GB/T2410-2008)

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GB/T 2410-2008: PDF in English (GBT 2410-2008)
GB/T 2410-2008
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 83.080.01
G 31
Replacing GB/T 2410-1980
Determination of the Luminous Transmittance and
Haze of Transparent Plastics
ISSUED ON: AUGUST 4, 2008
IMPLEMENTED ON: APRIL 1, 2009
Issued by: General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and
Quarantine;
Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of
China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
1 Scope ... 4 
2 Normative References ... 4 
3 Terms and Definitions ... 4 
4 Samples ... 5 
5 State Conditioning ... 5 
6 Test Environment ... 5 
7 Test Methods ... 5 
8 Test Report ... 11 
Appendix A (informative) Derivation of Haze Calculation Formula ... 12 
Determination of the Luminous Transmittance and
Haze of Transparent Plastics
1 Scope
This Standard stipulates two methods for the determination of luminous transmittance
and haze of transparent plastics. Method A is haze meter method. Method B is
spectrophotometry.
This Standard is applicable to the determination of luminous transmittance and haze
of transparent plastics in plate, sheet and thin-film state.
2 Normative References
Through the reference in this Standard, clauses of the following documents become
clauses of this Standard. In terms of references with a specific date, all the subsequent
modification sheets (excluding the corrected content) or the revised editions are not
applicable to this Standard. However, all parties that reach an agreement in
accordance with this Standard are encouraged to explore the possibility of adopting
the latest version of these documents. In terms of references without a specific date,
the latest version is applicable to this Standard.
GB/T 2918-1998 Plastics - Standard Atmospheres for Conditioning and Testing (idt
ISO 291:1997)
3 Terms and Definitions
The following terms and definitions are applicable to this Standard.
3.1 Haze
Haze refers to the ratio of scattered light flux (which deviates from the direction of
incident light through transmittance on the sample) to transmitted light flux. It shall be
expressed in percentage (in terms of this method, scattered light flux which deviates
from the direction of incident light by over 2.5 shall merely be used in the calculation
of haze).
3.2 Luminous Transmittance
Luminous transmittance refers to the ratio of light flux, which is transmitted on the
sample, to light flux, which is cast onto the sample, expressed in percentage.
4 Samples
4.1 Requirements
Samples cannot have defects that would affect material performance or defects that
would cause deviations in research.
4.2 Shapes and Dimensions
Sample dimensions shall be sufficiently large to cover the entrance window of
integrating sphere. It is recommended that sample shall be circular pieces with the
diameter of 50 mm, or, 50 mm  50 mm square pieces.
4.3 Sample Inspection
Both sides of surface shall be flat and parallel. There shall be no dust, oil stain, foreign
matters or scratches; or visible internal defects and granules. except when it is
requested to test the influence of these defects on haze.
4.4 Sample Quantity
When there are no special requirements, there shall be 3 samples in each group.
5 State Conditioning
Under the temperature of 23 °C ± 2 °C and the relative humidity of 50% ± 10%, in
accordance with GB/T 2918-1989, conduct state conditioning for not less than 40 h,
then, proceed with the test. Under special circumstances, in accordance with material
instructions, or conditions negotiated and determined by the demand-side and the
supply-side, conduct state conditioning.
6 Test Environment
Test shall be conducted in the same environment as sample state conditioning.
7 Test Methods
7.1 Method A: Haze Meter Method
7.1.1 Instrument
The geometric performance and optical performance of the instrument shall comply
with the requirements in this Part. The principle of the instrument is shown in Figure 1.
Beams illuminated on sample shall basically be unidirectional parallel light. Any
ray of light cannot be over 3 deviated from the optical axis. In any window area
of the sphere, beams cannot generate halo.
When sample is placed in the entrance window of the integrating sphere, the
angle between the vertical line of the sample, and the line of centers of the
entrance window and the exit window shall not be more than 8.
When a beam is not blocked by sample, it is approximate to a circle with distinct
boundaries on the cross section of the exit window; the center of the beam and
the center of the exit window are consistent. The angle corresponding with the
center of the entrance window and the exit window constitute a 1.3 ± 0.1 belt
to the center of the entrance window.
Inspect whether the diameter of the unblocked beam and the central position
of the exit window maintain constant, especially after there are changes in the
aperture and focal length of the light source.
NOTE 1: in terms of haze degree, 0.1 belt deviation is equivalent to ± 0.6% of
uncertainty. This is related with the evaluation of accuracy and deviation
of this method.
d) Reflective surface
The internal surface, baffle and standard reflector of the integrating sphere shall
have basically identical reflectivity and unsmooth surfaces. In the whole visible
light wavelength zone, they shall have a high reflectivity.
e) Light trap
When sample does not exist, light trap shall be able to completely absorb the
light, otherwise, the design of light trap is unnecessary to the instrument.
f) Instrument calibration
Use standard haze plate to calibrate the instrument.
7.1.2 Test procedures
7.1.2.1 Sample dimensions
Measure the thickness of the sample. When thickness is less than 0.1 mm, the
measurement shall at least be accurate to 0.001 mm. When thickness is more than
0.1 mm, the measurement shall at least be accurate to 0.01 mm.
7.1.2.2 Read data
Adjust the zero rotary knob of the haze meter, so that when the integrating sphere is
Figure 2 -- Sketch Map of Spectrophotometer Scattering
The spectral characteristics of the light source of the instrument shall comply with the
tristimulus values of the color specification system released by International
Commission on Illumination (CIE) in 1931; color coordinates of light source C or light
source A in CIE standard.
This instrument uses integrating sphere as a measurement system. The sample stays
close to the window of the integrating sphere. The internal surface, baffle and standard
reflector of the integrating sphere shall have unsmooth internal surfaces and basically
identical reflectivity. Within the whole visible light wavelength range, they shall have a
high reflectivity.
Two geometric conditions may be adopted: non-vertical illumination with diffused
reception and diffused illumination with non-vertical reception. Instrument which
adopts diffused illumination with non-vertical reception shall comply with the following
requirements:
a) Integrating sphere
Use integrating sphere to illuminate the diffusing sample. As long as the total
area of the window does not exceed 4.0% of reflected surface area in the
integrating sphere, any diameter of sphere is applicable. The center of the light
trap window of the sample and the sphere shall be on the same maximum
circumference of the sphere; the angle constituted by their center and the
center of the sphere shall be not less than 170. The angle constituted by the
light trap window and the center of the sample window along the beam direction
shall be within 8. When light trap is in the work location and there is no sample,
the axis of the incident beam shall pass through the sample and the center of
the light trap window.
b) Condenser lens
Along the axis of the unidirectional beam, observe the sample. Any ray of light
cannot be over 3 deviated from the optical axis. In any window area of the
sphere, beams cannot generate halo.
When sample is in place, the angle between the normal of the sample, and the
central connection of the sample and the light trap window shall not exceed 8.
When sample is not in place, in the exit window area, the beam zone shall be
approximate to a circle with distinct boundaries; the center of the beam and the
center of the light trap window shall be consistent. The angle corresponding
with the center of the sample window and the light trap window constitute a 1.3
± 0.1 belt to the center of the sample window.
c) Light trap
Appendix A
(informative)
Derivation of Haze Calculation Formula
A.1 Haze formula shall be derived through the following two steps.
A.1.1 Luminous transmittance
Luminous transmittance, which is expressed in percentage, shall be calculated in
accordance with Formula (A.1):
Where,
Tt---luminous transmittance;
T2---total transmitted light flux through the sample;
T1---incident light flux.
A.1.2 When T3---scattered light flux of the instrument is zero, scattered luminous
transmittance, which is expressed in percentage, shall be calculated in accordance
with Formula (A.2):
Where,
Td---scattered luminous transmittance;
T4---scattered light flux of the instrument and the sample;
T1---incident light flux.
A.1.3 When T3---scattered light flux of the instrument is larger than zero, the total
scattered light flux T4 is larger than the scattered light flux of the sample. This part of
scattered light flux of the instrument is proportional to T3 and equals to T3 times of T2/T1.
Therefore, the modified scattered light flux of the sample---T4 shall be calculated in
accordance with Formula (A.3):
Where,
......
 
(Above excerpt was released on 2019-10-12, modified on 2021-06-07, translated/reviewed by: Wayne Zheng et al.)
Source: https://www.chinesestandard.net/PDF.aspx/GBT2410-2008