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GB/T 23336-2022 PDF in English


GB/T 23336-2022 (GB/T23336-2022, GBT 23336-2022, GBT23336-2022)
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GB/T 23336-2022: PDF in English (GBT 23336-2022)

GB/T 23336-2022
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 43.080.10
CCS T 70
Replacing GB/T 23336-2009
General technical requirements for semi-trailer
ISSUED ON: JULY 11, 2022
IMPLEMENTED ON: NOVEMBER 01, 2022
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 6
2 Normative references ... 6
3 Terms and definitions ... 8
4 Technical requirements ... 8
5 Test methods ... 13
6 Inspection rules ... 17
7 Identification and storage ... 18
Annex A (normative) Technical requirements for key components of side curtain
vehicle ... 19
General technical requirements for semi-trailer
1 Scope
This document specifies technical requirements, test methods, inspection rules,
identification and storage for semi-trailers.
This document applies to semi-trailers on the road. Other semi-trailers may refer to this
document for use.
2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this
document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references,
the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
GB 1589, Limits of dimensions, axle load and masses for road vehicles
GB/T 3730.1, Motor vehicles and trailers - Types - Terms and definitions
GB/T 4606, Road vehicles. 50 semi-trailer fifth wheel coupling pin - Basic and
mounting/interchangeability dimensions
GB/T 4607, Road vehicles. 90 semi-trailer fifth wheel coupling pin - Basic and
mounting/interchangeability dimensions
GB/T 5053.1-2006, Road vehicles - Connectors for the electrical connection of
towing and towed vehicles-7-pole connector type 24 N (normal) for vehicles with 24
V nominal supply voltage
GB 7258-2017, Technical specifications for safety of power-driven vehicles
operating on roads
GB 12676-2014, Road vehicle - Braking systems - Structure, performance and test
methods
GB/T 13873, Road vehicles - Trailer test procedure
GB/T 13881, Road vehicles - Pneumatic braking connections between towing
vehicles and trailers
GB/T 15088, Road vehicles - Fifth wheel kingpins - Strength test
GB/T 17350, Terms marks and designation for special purpose vehicles and special
trailers
GB/T 18411, Power-driven vehicles manufacturer plate
GB/T 20070, Road vehicles - Mechanical coupling between tractors and semi-
trailers - Interchangeability
GB/T 20716.1, Road vehicles - Connectors for the electrical connection of towing
and towed vehicles - Part 1: Connectors for braking systems and running gears of
vehicles with 24V nominal supply voltage
GB/T 20717, Road vehicles - Connectors for the electrical connection of towing and
towed vehicles. 15-pole connector for vehicles with 24V nominal supply voltage
GB/T 25088, Road vehicles - Connectors for the electrical connection of towing and
towed vehicles. 7-pole connector type 24S (supplementary) for vehicles with 24V
nominal supply voltage
GB/T 26777, Semitrailer lauding gears
GB/T 31883, Road vehicles - Drawbar couplings, drawbar eyes, fifth wheel kingpins,
hook couplings and toroidal eyes - Wear limits for in-use mechanical couplings
GB/T 32861, Road vehicles - Location of electrical and pneumatic connections
between towing vehicles and trailers
GB/T 37706, Installation and operation technical requirements of tail lifts for
vehicle
GB/T 39015.2, Road vehicles - Interchangeability of mechanical couplings between
tractors and semi-trailers - Part 2: Low-coupling tractors and high-volume semi-
trailers
GB/T 40475, Technical requirements for lectotype of refrigerated and insulated
vehicles
JT/T 389, Van trailer technical conditions
JT/T 475, Trailer axle
JT/T 882-2014, Technical requirements of cargo loading-unloading and securement
for swap trailer transport
JT/T 1178.2, Safety specification for commercial vehicle for cargos transportation -
Part 2: Towing vehicle and trailer
QC/T 252, Type test regulations for special automobile
4.1.14 The handle of the semi-trailer linkage support device shall be placed on the right
side of the semi-trailer.
4.1.15 Semi-trailer shall be installed with anti-rollover system, tire temperature
monitoring device, tire pressure monitoring device, peripheral monitoring device, brake
wear alarm device. When the brake system air pressure to be installed is lower than the
starting air pressure, the alarm device shall comply with the provisions of GB 7258.
4.1.16 The braking distance and braking stability of the semi-trailer after forming an
articulated car train shall comply with the provisions of GB 7258.
4.1.17 The braking force percentage of the semi-trailer shall comply with the provisions
in 7.11.1.1 of GB 7258-2017.
4.1.18 The braking response time of the semi-trailer shall comply with the provisions
of 5.4.4 in GB 12676-2014. The braking response time marking requirements shall
comply with the provisions of 7.2.10 in GB 7258-2017.
4.1.19 The brake release time of the semi-trailer shall not exceed 0.65s.
4.1.20 When the semi-trailer is fully loaded and the parking brake is working, the static
braking force during static traction in the forward or backward direction shall be:
a) The static braking force of each axle of the single-axle and double-axle semi-
trailer shall not be less than 28% of the axle load to the stress;
b) The static braking force of the semi-trailer with three axles and above shall not be
less than 14% of the total mass-to-stress.
4.1.21 The parking brake system of the semi-trailer shall be able to meet the following
requirements after the semi-trailer is disengaged from the semi-trailer tractor:
a) The fully loaded semi-trailer remains stationary on 18% of the up and down slopes;
b) The empty semi-trailer remains stationary on 20% of the up and down slopes.
4.1.22 The braking force balance requirements of the semi-trailer shall comply with the
provisions in 7.11.1.2 of GB 7258-2017.
4.1.23 The sealing performance of the braking system shall meet the following
requirements:
a) For semi-trailers with air brakes, when the air pressure rises to 750kPa (or the
achievable maximum service brake line pressure, whichever is smaller) and the
brakes are not used, after stopping the air compressor for 3min, the decrease in air
pressure shall be less than or equal to 10kPa;
b) For semi-trailers with air brakes, when the air pressure is 750kPa (or the
achievable maximum service brake line pressure, whichever is smaller), after
stopping the air compressor, brake immediately. After the air pressure is stabilized,
observe for 3min. The air pressure decrease value is less than or equal to 30kPa.
4.2 Vehicle frame
4.2.1 When the total length of the frame is not more than 8000mm, the length error shall
be ± 5mm. When the total length increases by 1000mm (when it is less than 1000mm,
it is calculated as 1000mm), the length error value increases by 1mm, and the maximum
does not exceed 12mm. Width error is measured as ±4 mm at any point.
4.2.2 On any cross section of the longitudinal and transverse beams, the verticality of
the upper and lower wings to the web shall not be greater than 1% of the width of the
wing.
4.2.3 The longitudinal straightness of the stringer web shall be 2mm over any 1000mm
length. It shall be 0.1% of its length over the full length.
4.2.4 When the total length of the frame is not more than 8000mm, the difference
between the diagonals of the frame shall not be more than 7mm. For every 1000mm
increase in length (when it is less than 1000mm, it is calculated as 1000mm), the
difference between the diagonals of the frame is allowed to increase by 1mm.
4.3 Main assembly
4.3.1 The supporting device of semi-trailer shall comply with the provisions of GB/T
26777. The connection strength of the supporting device shall comply with the
provisions of GB/T 13873.
4.3.2 Semi-trailer axles shall comply with the provisions of JT/T 475.
4.3.3 Semi-trailer traction pins shall meet the following requirements.
a) The main dimensions, installation and interchangeability of the traction pins shall
comply with the provisions of GB/T 4606 and GB/T 4607.
b) The strength of the traction pin shall comply with the provisions of GB/T 15088.
c) The wear limit size of the traction pin shall comply with the provisions of GB/T
31883.
d) The strength of the connection area between the traction pin and the traction seat
of the semi-trailer shall comply with the provisions of GB/T 13873.
4.3.4 Electrical and gas connectors shall meet the following requirements.
a) The lateral position and arrangement sequence of the electrical connectors of the
semi-trailer tractor and the semi-trailer workshop shall comply with the provisions
4.3.10 The semi-trailer braking equipment shall comply with the provisions of GB 7258
and GB 12676.
4.4 Semi-trailer reliability
The semi-trailer shall be safe and reliable within the specified test mileage.
5 Test methods
5.1 Main dimension measurement
5.1.1 Measurement conditions
The measurement conditions shall meet the following requirements:
a) The measurement site has a solid horizontal support surface. The site area can
accommodate the projection of the semi-trailer on the horizontal plane;
b) The semi-trailer is placed on the measurement site in a straight forward state;
c) The lengthwise dimensions are measured on a line parallel to the vehicle support
surface and the vehicle longitudinal symmetry plane. The width dimension is
measured on a straight line parallel to the plane perpendicular to the longitudinal
plane of symmetry of the vehicle. The height dimension is measured on a straight
line perpendicular to the support surface;
d) The semi-trailer is in no-load state. When the semi-trailer is equipped with
movable parts and components, it shall be carried out in accordance with the
provisions of GB 1589.
5.1.2 Measuring instruments and equipment
The relevant measuring instruments and equipment shall meet the following
requirements:
a) Steel tape measure: range is 30m; minimum scale is 1mm;
b) Heavy hammer;
c) Height gauge: minimum scale is 1mm;
d) Angle ruler: range is 180°; minimum scale is 0.5°;
e) Leveler.
5.1.3 Measurement method
The horizontal dimension can be measured directly. It can also be measured by
projecting both ends of the measurement dimension onto the ground with the help of a
heavy hammer. The vertical dimension can be directly measured with a steel tape. It
can also use a special measuring tool such as height ruler to measure.
5.2 Braking performance test
5.2.1 Braking distance and braking stability test
The braking distance and braking stability test of the semi-trailer after forming a car
train are carried out in accordance with the provisions of GB 7258.
5.2.2 Braking force percentage test
The braking force percentage test of the semi-trailer is carried out in accordance with
the provisions of GB 7258.
5.2.3 Brake response time test
The brake response time test of the semi-trailer is carried out in accordance with the
provisions of GB 12676.
5.2.4 Brake release time test of semi-trailer
5.2.4.1 Test conditions
The initial air pressure of the service brake air chamber is 0.67MPa.
5.2.4.2 Test instruments
The test instruments are as follows:
a) Gas pressure gauge: minimum resolution is 5kPa;
b) Electric stopwatch: minimum reading is 0.01s;
c) Micro switch, air pressure control valve.
5.2.4.3 Test method
Test according to the following steps:
a) Connect the test vehicle to the brake test device of the semi-trailer. Install gas
pressure gauge and time recording device;
b) While operating the service brake valve, start the switch of the time recording
device. Observe the change in air pressure in the brake chamber. When the air
pressure of the brake air chamber drops to 0.035MPa, record the time recorded by
the time recording device at this time.
b) Do another test in the opposite direction.
5.2.5.3.3 No-load slope holding capacity test
The no-load slope holding capacity test of the semi-trailer shall be carried out according
to the provisions of 7.10.3 in GB 7258-2017.
5.2.5.4 Test result
The average value of the three minimum values of the positive direction test and the
three minimum values of the reverse direction test of the static braking force test is the
static braking force of the semi-trailer.
5.2.6 Braking force balance performance test
The braking force balance performance test after the semi-trailer is composed of a car
train is carried out in accordance with the provisions of GB 7258.
5.2.7 Brake system sealing performance test
5.2.7.1 Test conditions
The test conditions are as follows:
a) The test vehicle shall have an air brake pipe connector;
b) The test vehicle is in no-load state.
5.2.7.2 Test instruments and equipment
The test instruments and equipment are as follows:
a) Barometer: minimum resolution is 5kPa;
b) Electric stopwatch: minimum reading is 0.01s.
5.2.7.3 Test method
The test method is carried out according to the following steps:
a) Install the air pressure gauge on the air tank of the semi-trailer. Then increase the
air tank pressure to the specified value. If a towing vehicle is used (a simulation
device can be used instead of the towing vehicle) to provide the air source, the
engine of the towing vehicle needs to be turned off;
b) Use an air pressure gauge to measure the pressure drop value of the semi-trailer
brake in two states within a specified time;
c) Carry out the test twice each.
5.2.7.4 Test result
The maximum pressure drop in the two tests is the test result.
5.3 Main assembly test
5.3.1 The test of the semi-trailer supporting device is carried out in accordance with the
provisions of GB/T 26777.
5.3.2 The axle test of the semi-trailer is carried out in accordance with the provisions
of JT/T 475.
5.3.3 The strength test of the traction pin of the semi-trailer shall be carried out in
accordance with the provisions of GB/T 15088.
5.3.4 The strength test of the connection area between the traction pin and the traction
seat of the semi-trailer shall be carried out in accordance with the provisions of GB/T
13873.
5.3.5 The body test of the van semi-trailer shall be carried out in accordance with the
provisions of JT/T 389.
5.3.6 The floor strength test of the semi-trailer shall be carried out in accordance with
the provisions of JT/T 389.
5.4 Semi-trailer reliability test
The reliability test of the semi-trailer shall be carried out in accordance with the
provisions of QC/T 252.
6 Inspection rules
6.1 Exit-factory inspection
6.1.1 Each product shall be inspected before leaving the factory. After passing the
inspection and issuing a certificate of conformity, it can leave the factory.
6.1.2 The exit-factory inspection items are as follows:
a) For appearance, see 4.1.9, 7.1;
b) For braking performance, see 4.1.17, 4.1.19, 4.1.20;
c) For vehicle assembly adjustment, see 4.1.10 and 4.1.12;
d) For signal devices, electrical connectors, see 4.3.4, 4.3.5.
6.2 Type test
Annex A
(normative)
Technical requirements for key components of side curtain vehicle
A.1 Side curtain vehicle
The side curtain fabric shall choose the PVC cord fabric with the surface density of not
less than 900g/m2, with the polyester industrial filament fabric as the base fabric and
the polyvinyl chloride material as the coating layer.
A.2 Side curtain reinforcement belt
A.2.1 Strength requirements
The width of the side curtain reinforcement belt is 50mm. The tensile strength of both
vertical and horizontal reinforcement belts shall not be less than 23kN.
A.2.2 Layout requirements
The spacing of the horizontal reinforcement belts and the spacing of the vertical
reinforcement belts shall not be greater than 600mm. A wear-resistant lining with a
width of 300mm shall be added to the sliding column. The number of reinforcement
belts (x) in the vertical direction shall meet the requirements of formula (A.1).
Where,
x - Number of reinforcement belts (shall be rounded up);
L - Length of the side curtain carriage body, in millimeters (mm).
A.3 Side curtain tightening hook
The side curtain tightening hook shall be made of flat material without sharp corners.
Both positions a and b in Figure A.1 shall be chamfered. See Figure A.1 for the size
requirements of the perforation position of the tightening belt and the size of the hook.
The strength of the side curtain tightening hook shall meet the relevant test and normal
use requirements.
......
 
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.