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GB/T 18883-2022 (GB/T18883-2022, GBT 18883-2022, GBT18883-2022)
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GB/T 18883-2022: PDF in English (GBT 18883-2022)

GB/T 18883-2022
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 13.040.01
CCS C 51
Replacing GB/T 18883-2002
Standards for Indoor Air Quality
ISSUED ON: JULY 11, 2022
IMPLEMENTED ON: FEBRUARY 1, 2023
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 5
2 Normative References ... 5
3 Terms and Definitions ... 6
4 Requirements for Indoor Air Quality ... 7
5 Determination and Evaluation of Indoor Air Quality Indicators ... 8
Appendix A (normative) Technical Guideline for Indoor Air Quality Indicator Testing
... 10
Appendix B (normative) Determination of Formaldehyde ... 18
Appendix C (normative) Determination of Benzene, Toluene and Xylene ... 23
Appendix D (normative) Determination of Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC)
... 39
Appendix E (normative) Determination of Benzo [a] pyrene in Inhalable Particulate
Matter ... 48
Appendix F (normative) Determination of Inhalable Particulate Matter and Fine
Particulate Matter ... 53
Appendix G (normative) Determination of Total Number of Bacteria ... 57
Appendix H (normative) Determination of Radon ... 59
Bibliography ... 68
Standards for Indoor Air Quality
1 Scope
This document specifies the physical, chemical, biological and radioactive indicators and
requirements of indoor air quality, and describes the determination methods of each indicator.
This document is applicable to residential and office buildings. Other indoor environments may
take this document as a reference.
2 Normative References
The contents of the following documents constitute indispensable clauses of this document
through the normative references in this text. In terms of references with a specified date, only
versions with a specified date are applicable to this document. In terms of references without a
specified date, the latest version (including all the modifications) is applicable to this document.
GB 3095-2012 Ambient Air Quality Standard
GB/T 12372 Standard Method for Examination of Nitrogen Dioxide in Air of Residential Areas
- Modified Saltzman Method
GB/T 14669 Air Quality - Determination of Ammonia - Ion Selective Electrode Method
GB/T 15435 Ambient Air - Determination of Nitrogen Dioxide - Saltzman Method
GB/T 16128 Standard Method for Hygienic Examination of Sulfur Dioxide in Air of Residential
Areas - Formaldehyde Solution Sampling - Pararosaniline Hydrochloride Spectrophotometric
Method
GB/T 16129 Standard Method for Hygienic Examination of Formaldehyde in Air of Residential
Areas - Spectrophotometric Method
GB/T 18204.1 Examination Methods for Public Places - Part 1: Physical Parameters
GB/T 18204.2 Examination Methods for Public Places - Part 2: Chemical Pollutants
GB/T 27476.5 Safety in Testing Laboratories - Part 5: Chemical Aspects
GB/T 32465 Requirements for Verification & Validation of Detection Methods and Internal
Quality Control on Chemical Analysis
HJ 93 Specifications and Test Procedures for PM10 and PM2.5 Sampler
Appendix A
(normative)
Technical Guideline for Indoor Air Quality Indicator Testing
A.1 Overview
This guideline specifies the point layout, sampling time and frequency, sampling instruments,
sampling methods, sampling records, sample transportation and storage, inspection methods,
quality assurance measures, result calculation and expression, and laboratory safety of indoor
air quality indicator testing. If there are clarified requirements in the determination methods of
the various indoor air quality indicators, the determination methods shall prevail; if there are
no requirements, this guideline may be taken as a reference.
A.2 Point Layout
A.2.1 Environmental requirements
Before sampling, the doors and windows, air purification equipment and fresh air system shall
be closed for at least 12 h. During sampling, the doors and windows, air purification equipment
and fresh air system shall remain closed. In the indoor environment where the air conditioner
is used, the air conditioner shall be kept in normal operation. The measurement of physical
indicators and indoor radon measurement (solid nuclear track measurement method), as well as
other measurements that fail to satisfy the aforementioned requirements shall be carried out
under the normal use of the house.
A.2.2 Number of sampling points
The number of sampling points shall be determined in accordance with the indoor area and site
conditions being monitored to correctly reflect the level of indoor air pollutants. For a single
room with an area less than 25 m2, 1 point shall be set; for a single room with an area 25 m2 ~
50 m2 (not included), 2 ~ 3 points shall be set; for a single room with an area 50 m2 ~ 100 m2
(not included), 3 ~ 5 points shall be set; for a single room 100 m2 and above, at least 5 points
shall be set.
A.2.3 Layout mode
For single-point sampling, lay out the point in the center of the house; for multi-point sampling,
the points shall be evenly distributed diagonally or in a quincunx pattern. The sampling point
shall avoid ventilation openings and heat sources; the distance from the wall shall be greater
than 0.5 m; the distance from the doors and windows shall be greater than 1 m.
A.2.4 Height of sampling point
In principle, it shall be consistent with the height of the adult’s breathing zone, and the relative
height shall be between 0.5 m ~ 1.5 m. If conditions permit, in consideration of the breathing
height of the sitting and lying state and the child’s height, the sampling at a relative height of
0.3 m ~ 0.6 m shall be added.
A.3 Sampling Time and Frequency
For the annual average concentration (for example, radon), conduct the sampling for at least 3
months (including winter); for the 24-hour average concentration (such as: benzo [a] pyrene,
PM2.5 and PM10, etc.), conduct the sampling for at least 20 h; for the 8-h average concentration,
conduct the sampling for at least 6 h; for the 1-h average concentration, conduct the sampling
for 45 min; in accordance with different determination methods, continuous or interval
sampling can be conducted.
A.4 Sampling Instrument
In accordance with the existence of the various indicators in the indoor air, select an appropriate
equipment. The noise of the instrument and equipment shall generally be less than 50 dB(A);
if the noise is too loud, the indoor noise shall be reduced through the mode of installing sound-
absorbing boxes.
A.5 Sampling Methods
A.5.1 General requirements
The sampling methods of the various indicators shall take the specific stipulations in the
determination method as a reference. On the basis of the method applicability verification, the
sampling method parameters, including sampling volume, sampling flow rate and sampling
time, can be appropriately adjusted to satisfy the testing requirements for the indoor air quality
indicators. The annual average and 8-hour average indicators are required. If the determination
method allows, the screening method can be adopted first for the sampling. If the test results
comply with the requirements of the indicators, they can be directly evaluated; if they fail to
comply with the requirements, the cumulative method shall be adopted for the sampling. For
benzo [a] pyrene, PM2.5 and PM10 that adopt the 24-h average, due to the limitation of the
determination method, the screening method cannot be adopted, and the cumulative method
needs to be directly adopted.
A.5.2 Sampling with screening method
For the screening method, the sampling should be conducted for 45 min. If a direct-reading
instrument is used, the sampling interval is 10 min ~ 15 min; each point is monitored at least 4
~ 5 times; the final result is expressed as a time-weighted average. Under special circumstances
(for example, radon), in accordance with the requirements of different determination methods,
the sampling shall be conducted for at least 24 h (consecutive measurement method) or 2 d ~ 7
d (activated carbon box measurement method).
A.5.3 Sampling with cumulative method
The on-site instruments shall comply with relevant national standards and technical
requirements. Before use, they shall be verified or calibrated in accordance with the instructions.
The flow rate of the sampling system shall be kept constant. Before and after sampling, it is
necessary to calibrate with a qualified flowmeter under load conditions; the relative deviation
between the two calibrations shall not exceed 5%, and the average value of the two results shall
be taken as the actual value of the sampling flow. The samplers shall be calibrated on the site
of sampling.
A.9.3 On-site blank inspection
During on-site sampling, at least two sampling tubes (membranes) and one group (six pieces)
of culture plates shall be kept without sampling, and shall be treated the same as other sampling
tubes (membranes) and culture plates as on-site blank during the sampling process; after
sampling, they shall be sent to the laboratory together with other samples. During sample
analysis, the on-site blank shall be determined at the same time. If the inspection result of the
blank sample exceeds the quantification limit of the determination method, or if there are
colonies growing on the culture plate of the blank sample, then, the batch of samples shall be
invalid.
A.9.4 Inspection of parallel samples
During the collection of each batch of samples, parallel samples shall be collected, and the
number of parallel samples shall not be less than 10%. When the number of samples is less than
10, at least one parallel sample shall be collected. The ratio of the absolute difference of the
determined values of the parallel samples to the average value shall not exceed 20%.
A.9.5 Other quality assurance measures
The quality assurance measures shall run through the entire process of indoor air quality
inspection. The aforementioned clauses mainly focus on chemical indicators and indoor air
sampling. For other content that is not covered, refer to the determination methods of specific
indicators and comply with the relevant national standards and technical requirements.
A.10 Result Calculation and Expression
A.10.1 Concentration correction
The final concentration of gaseous pollutants (such as: sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and
ozone, etc.) refers to the corrected concentration under the reference state (when the
atmospheric temperature is 298.15 K and the atmospheric pressure is 101.325 kPa). The
concentration of other pollutants (such as: PM10, PM2.5 and benzo [a] pyrene, etc.) is the
concentration under the atmospheric pressure and temperature at the time of monitoring.
For gaseous pollutants, the sampling volume is converted into the volume under the reference
state in accordance with Formula (A.1), and the final pollutant concentration is calculated.
Appendix B
(normative)
Determination of Formaldehyde
B.1 Principle
Use a sampling tube packed with coated 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) to collect a certain
volume of air samples. Formaldehyde in the sample is catalyzed by strong acid and reacts with
DNPH coated on silica gel to generate stable and colored formaldehyde-2,4-
dinitrophenylhydrazone. After elution with acetonitrile, use a high-performance liquid
chromatograph with a UV detector or a diode array detector to conduct the analysis; use the
external standard method to quantify it.
B.2 Reagents and Materials
The reagents and materials used in this method are as follows:
---Acetonitrile (CH3CN): chromatographically pure; the content of formaldehyde shall be
less than 1.5 g/L; keep it away from light;
---Blank reagent water: deionized water; after inspection, the content of formaldehyde
shall be less than 1.5 g/L;
---Standard stock solution (100 g/mL, calculated by formaldehyde): directly use
commercially available certified formaldehyde-2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone standard
solution (which shall be sealed after opening and stored at a low temperature of 4 C in
the dark; the shelf life is 2 months); alternatively, it can also be prepared with
commercially available standard substance and diluted with acetonitrile to the required
mass concentration;
---Standard service solution (10 g/mL, calculated by formaldehyde): accurately transfer-
take 1.00 mL of standard stock solution into a 10 mL volumetric flask; use acetonitrile
to dilute to the scale; mix it well;
---DNPH sampling tube: DNPH-coated packed column sampling tube, commercially
available product, one-time use (filler: 1,000 mg, particle size: 10 m); the sampling
tube shall be stored at a low temperature of 4 C and kept away from light; the storage
time shall be minimized, so as to avoid excessively high blank value;
---Ozone removal column: commercially available product, one-time use (filler: granular
potassium iodide); when the ozone-containing air passes through the device, iodide ions
are oxidized to iodine, and meanwhile, the ozone in it is consumed;
---Disposable syringe: 5 mL medical sterile syringe;
---Syringe filter: 0.45 m organic membrane.
B.3 Instruments and Equipment
The instruments and equipment used in this method are as follows:
---Gas sampler: select a sampler with a suitable flow range to satisfy the sampling flow
requirements and ensure a stable flow;
---High-performance liquid chromatograph: equipped with a UV detector or a diode array
detector, with gradient elution function;
---Chromatographic column: C18 column, 4.6 mm  250 mm, particle size: 5 m, or
equivalent chromatographic column.
B.4 Sample Collection and Storage
B.4.1 Sample collection
The sample collection system generally consists of gas sampler, sampling conduit, DNPH
sampling tube and ozone removal column, etc. The recommended sampling method parameters
are consecutive sampling time of at least 45 min and sampling flow rate of 1 L/min.
B.4.2 Sample storage
The sampling tube shall be sealed with sealing caps at both ends and tightly wrapped with
aluminum foil, stored and transported at a low temperature of 4 C in the dark. If it cannot be
analyzed in time, it shall be stored at a low temperature of 4 C and kept away from light; the
duration should not exceed 30 d.
B.5 Analytical Procedures
B.5.1 Recommended analysis conditions
Mobile phase: gradient elution, 60% acetonitrile, maintain for 20 min; within 20 min ~ 30 min,
acetonitrile linearly increases from 60% to 100%; within 30 min ~ 32 min, acetonitrile
decreases to 60% and maintain for 8 min. The recommended analysis conditions are applicable
to the simultaneous determination of ketones and aldehydes. If formaldehyde is separately
determined and there is no interference from other ketones and aldehydes, isocratic elution can
be adopted to shorten the analysis time. Detection wavelength: 360 nm, flow rate: 1.0 mL/min,
injection volume: 20 L, column temperature: 30 C.
B.5.2 Calibration
B.5.2.1 Preparation of standard series
Respectively and accurately transfer-take 0.02 mL, 0.2 mL, 0.5 mL, 1 mL and 2 mL of the
standard service solution into a 10 mL volumetric flask; use acetonitrile to reach a constant
Appendix C
(normative)
Determination of Benzene, Toluene and Xylene
C.1 Solid Adsorption - Thermal Desorption - Gas Chromatography
C.1.1 Principle
Use a sampling tube to collect benzene, toluene and xylene in the indoor air. Place the sampling
tube in a thermal desorption instrument for desorption; use a gas chromatographic column to
separate it; use a hydrogen flame ionization detector for analysis; use the external standard
method to quantify it.
C.1.2 Reagents and materials
The reagents and materials used in this method are as follows:
---Methanol (CH3OH): chromatographically pure;
---Carrier gas: nitrogen (N2), with a purity of 99.999%, purified with a purification tube;
---Combustion gas: hydrogen (H2), with a purity of 99.99%;
---Combustion-supporting gas: air, purified with a purification tube;
---Standard stock solution (2,000 g/mL): directly use commercially available certified
standard solutions of benzene, toluene, o-xylene, m-xylene and p-xylene; alternatively,
they can also be prepared with commercially available standard substances and diluted
with methanol to the required mass concentration;
---Sampling tube: made of stainless steel or hard glass, with an outer diameter of 6.3 mm,
an inner diameter of 5 mm and a length of 90 mm (or 180 mm); filled with at least 200
mg of poly-2,6-diphenyl-p-phenylene ether (Tenax TA) absorbent with a particle size
of 0.18 mm ~ 0.25 mm (60 mesh ~ 80 mesh). The safe sampling volume of benzene,
toluene and xylene in a sampling tube filled with 200 mg of Tenax TA is respectively:
6.2 L, 38 L and 300 L.
C.1.3 Instruments and equipment
The instruments and equipment used in this method are as follows:
---Gas sampler: within the range of 0.02 L/min ~ 0.5 L/min, the flow error shall be less
than 5%;
---Aging device: the maximum temperature shall be able to reach above 350 C and the
maximum carrier gas flow rate shall be able to reach at least 100 mL/min;
---Thermal desorption instrument: it is able to carry out secondary thermal desorption on
the sampling tube and carry the desorbed gas into the gas chromatograph with inert gas.
The desorption temperature, time and carrier gas flow rate are adjustable, and the
desorption samples can be concentrated by cold trap;
---Gas chromatograph: equipped with hydrogen flame ionization detector;
---Chromatographic column: capillary column with polyethylene glycol as the stationary
phase, 0.25 mm  30 m, membrane thickness 0.25 m, or equivalent capillary column;
---Micro-syringe: 1 L ~ 10 L, with a precision of 0.1 L.
C.1.4 Sample collection and storage
C.1.4.1 Sample collection
C.1.4.1.1 Preparation of sampling tube
The newly filled sampling tube shall be aged by passing inert gas through an aging device or a
thermal desorption instrument with the aging function. The aging flow rate is 100 mL/min; the
temperature is 270 C; the time is 120 min. The used sampling tube shall be aged at 270 C by
passing inert gas for more than 30 min. The aged sampling tube shall be immediately sealed
with a polytetrafluoroethylene cap and stored in a sealed bag or a protective tube. Store the
sealed bag or protective tube in a box or desiccator that contains activated carbon at 4 C. The
aged sampling tube shall be used within two weeks.
C.1.4.1.2 Flow calibration
On the site of sampling, connect a sampling tube to the gas sampler and adjust the flow rate.
This sampling tube is only used to adjust the flow rate, not for sampling or analysis.
C.1.4.1.3 On-site sample collection
Connect the aged sampling tube to the gas sampler. The recommended sampling method
parameters are consecutive sampling time of at least 45 min and sampling flow rate of 0.1 L/min.
C.1.4.1.4 Collection of blank samples
Every time a sample is collected, at least one on-site blank sample shall be collected. The mode
of collecting on-site blank samples is to transport the aged sampling tube to the sampling site,
remove the sealing caps and re-seal them; do not participate in sample collection and store them
together with the sampling tubes, in which, the samples are already collected.
C.1.4.2 Sample storage
After sampling, immediately use sealing caps to seal both ends of the sampling tube; store it at
C.1.7.3 Precision and recovery rate
When the mass concentration of benzene, toluene, p-xylene, m-xylene and o-xylene in the
sample is approximately 0.02 mg/m3 and 0.16 mg/m3, re-perform the determination. The
relative standard deviation of benzene is respectively 3.0% and 6.9%; the relative standard
deviation of toluene is respectively 1.8% and 6.7%; the relative standard deviation of p-xylene
is respectively 2.1% and 5.4%; the relative standard deviation of m-xylene is respectively 2.5%
and 4.9%; the relative standard deviation of ortho-xylene is respectively 4.2% and 7.2%. The
recovery rate of benzene is respectively 101.2% and 96.3%; the recovery rate of toluene is
respectively 83.1% and 94.1%; the recovery rate of p-xylene is respectively 82.8% and 98.1%;
the recovery rate of m-xylene is respectively 81.3% and 98.4%; the recovery rate of o-xylene
is respectively 94.7% and 106.0%.
C.1.8 Quality assurance and control
C.1.8.1 Before sampling, the sampling tube shall be thoroughly aged, so as to remove the
sample residue. The amount of residue shall be less than the detection limit of the method.
During the transportation and storage, the sampling tube shall be kept air-tight.
C.1.8.2 The content of the components to be determined in the on-site blank sample shall be
less than the quantification limit of the method.
C.1.8.3 For each batch of samples, set up at least one pair of sampling tubes in series for
penetration test. The detection amount of the components to be determined in the latter
sampling tube shall be less than 20% of the detection amount of the components to be
determined in the previous sampling tube, otherwise, it is regarded as sampling penetration,
and the sampling tube shall be replaced, or the sampling volume shall be reduced.
C.1.8.4 For every 20 samples tested, the middle concentration point of the calibration curve
shall be determined once, so as to confirm whether the performance of the instrument has
significantly changed. If the relative deviation of the result at this point is greater than 20%, it
is necessary to find out the reason, and if necessary, re-draw the calibration curve. The
calibration curve shall use at least 5 concentration points (except the blank), and the
concentration of the lowest point shall be close to the quantification limit of the method; the
correlation coefficient shall be greater than 0.99.
C.1.8.5 For samples whose test results do not comply with the requirements of the indicators,
it is necessary to combine mass spectrometry to eliminate the interference of other components.
C.2 Activated Carbon Adsorption - Carbon Disulfide Desorption - Gas Chromatography
C.2.1 Principle
Use activated carbon sampling tube to collect benzene, toluene and xylene in the indoor air; use
carbon disulfide to desorb the solvent; use a gas chromatograph equipped with hydrogen flame
ionization detector to conduct the analysis; use the external standard method to quantify it.
The instruments and equipment used in this method are as follows:
---Gas sampler: within the range of 0.02 L/min ~ 0.5 L/min, the flow error shall be less
than 5%;
---Gas chromatograph: equipped with hydrogen flame ionization detector;
---Chromatographic column: capillary column with polyethylene glycol as the stationary
phase, 0.25 mm  30 m, membrane thickness 0.25 m, or equivalent capillary column;
---Micro-syringe: 1 L ~ 10 L, with a precision of 0.1 L.
C.2.4 Sample collection and storage
C.2.4.1 Sample collection
C.2.4.1.1 Flow calibration
On the site of sampling, connect a sampling tube to the gas sampler and adjust the flow rate.
This sampling tube is only used to adjust the flow rate, not for sampling or analysis.
C.2.4.1.2 On-site sample collection
Cut off the sealed ends of the activated carbon sampling tube; connect it to the sampler (Section
a is the gas inlet); check the air-tightness of the sampling system. The parameters of the
sampling method should be: consecutive sampling time is at least 60 min and sampling flow
rate is 0.4 L/min.
C.2.4.1.3 Collection of blank samples
Every time a sample is collected, at least one on-site blank sample shall be collected. The mode
of collecting on-site blank samples is to transport the activated carbon tube to the sampling site,
cut off both ends and immediately seal with polytetrafluoroethylene caps; do not participate in
sample collection and store them together with the sampling tubes, in which, the samples are
already collected.
C.2.4.2 Sample storage
After sampling, immediately use polytetrafluoroethylene caps to seal both ends of the activated
carbon sampling tube. Store it in an air-tight place and away from light. The sample can be
stored for 5 d.
C.2.5 Analytical procedures
C.2.5.1 Recommended analysis conditions
The recommended gas chromatography conditions of the method are as follows:
---Temperature-raising program: the initial temperature is 65 C, maintain for 5 min; at 5
......
 
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