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GB/T 16988-2013 PDF in English


GB/T 16988-2013 (GB/T16988-2013, GBT 16988-2013, GBT16988-2013)
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GB/T 16988-2013: PDF in English (GBT 16988-2013)

GB/T 16988-2013
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 59.080.01
W 04
Replacing GB/T 16988-1997
Quantitative determination for mixtures of special
animal fiber and wool
ISSUED ON: DECEMBER 17, 2013
IMPLEMENTED ON: NOVEMBER 01, 2014
Issued by: General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and
Quarantine of PRC;
Standardization Administration of PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
1 Scope ... 5 
2 Normative references ... 5 
3 Principle ... 5 
4 Instruments and tools ... 6 
5 Reagents ... 6 
6 Test environment ... 6 
7 Sampling ... 6 
8 Pre-conditioning and humidity conditioning ... 7 
9 Preparation of specimen ... 7 
10 Measurement ... 8 
11 Calculation of test results ... 9 
12 Test report ... 11 
Appendix A (Normative) Surface morphological characteristics of commonly
used animal fibers ... 12 
Appendix B (Informative) Fade ... 14 
Appendix C (Normative) Density of commonly used animal fiber ... 15 
Appendix D (Informative) Calculation example ... 16 
Quantitative determination for mixtures of special
animal fiber and wool
1 Scope
This standard specifies the determination method, of using a projection
microscope, to determine the content of each component fiber, in special fluffy
animal fibers, wool, and their mixtures, such as cashmere, rabbit hair, mohair,
camel wool (hair), yak wool (hair), alpaca hair.
This standard applies to special animal fibers, wool and their mixtures.
2 Normative references
The following documents are essential to the application of this document. For
the dated documents, only the versions with the dates indicated are applicable
to this document; for the undated documents, only the latest version (including
all the amendments) is applicable to this standard.
GB/T 6529 Textiles - Standard atmospheres for conditioning and testing
GB/T 8170 Rules of rounding off for numerical values & expression and
judgement of limiting values
GB 9994 Conventional moisture regains of textiles
GB/T 10685 Wool - Determination of fiber diameter - Projection microscope
method
3 Principle
The determination of the content of special animal fiber and wool mixture is,
based on the scale structure characteristics of special animal fiber and wool, to
distinguish various types of fibers, on a projection microscope or a microscope
imaging analyzer; respectively record the number; measure their diameters;
use formula to calculate the mass percentage of special animal fiber, wool and
their mixture.
multiple of a complete pattern, from each piece). Cut it, from the middle along
the warp direction, into two parts; one is the representative sample of the test,
whilst the other is the standby sample.
7.2.5 Knitted fabric specimen: Disassemble the knitted fabric into yarns. Cut at
least 150 pieces of 20 cm long yarn. Then cut the yarn, from the middle, into
two parts; one is the representative sample of the test, whilst the other is the
standby sample.
8 Pre-conditioning and humidity conditioning
Carry out pre-conditioning and humidity conditioning of specimen, under the
conditions specified in Chapter 6. When the moisture regain of the specimen is
lower than the public moisture regain, pre-conditioning may be exempted. Refer
to GB 9994 for the public moisture regain of various types of fibers.
9 Preparation of specimen
A total of three test specimens are prepared in this test. The specimens
prepared shall ensure that the number of measured fibers is not less than 1500.
Two of them are independently tested by two operators. If there is a difference
between the two results, it shall test a third test specimen.
9.1 Loose fiber
9.1.1 Spread the test representative sample flat on the test bench. Use
tweezers to take at least about 500 mg of fiber (not less than 20 points in total),
equally from different parts. Mix and divide as evenly as possible into three parts.
Sort it slightly, to make the fibers basically parallel.
9.1.2 Use a Hastelloy slicer or double blades, to cut fiber fragments of about
0.4 mm ~ 0.6 mm long, from the middle of the fiber. Each fiber can only be cut
once; it must not be cut repeatedly or lost.
9.1.3 Put all the fiber fragments on the watch glass. Add dropwise an
appropriate amount of liquid paraffin. Use tweezers to stir it, to make it evenly
distributed in the medium. Then take an appropriate amount of specimen. Place
it on the glass slide. Cover a cover glass. When covering, remove the excess
viscous medium mixture first, to ensure that no medium is squeezed out from
under the cover glass, after the cover glass is covered, so as to avoid fiber loss.
9.2 Pile
9.2.1 Cut out about 1/3 of each pile, in the longitudinal direction.
9.2.2 Use a Hastelloy slicer or a double blade, to cut the fiber fragments about
0.4 mm ~ 0.6 mm long, from the middle of the pile. Do not cut repeatedly or
lose.
9.2.3 The remaining operations are the same as 9.1.3.
9.3 Yarn
9.3.1 Divide the test representative sample into three parts, as evenly as
possible.
9.3.2 Use a Hastelloy slicer or double blades, to cut fiber fragments of about
0.4 mm ~ 0.6 mm long. Each yarn can only be cut once; it must not be cut
repeatedly or lost.
9.3.3 The remaining operations are the same as 9.1.3.
9.4 Woven fabrics
9.4.1 For the representative samples with significant differences in warp and
weft yarns, it shall disassemble the warp and weft yarns first. Then weigh them
respectively (if the fabric is circulated in a pattern, it shall disassemble at least
an integer multiple of the complete pattern). Take at least 150 yarn segments in
each direction. Divide them into three parts as evenly as possible. If there is no
significant difference in the warp and weft yarns of the fabric, all the yarns in a
complete square can be cut, as a test specimen.
9.4.2 The rest of the operations are the same as 9.3.2 and 9.3.3.
9.5 Knitted fabric
After taking out the yarn, operate according to 9.3.
10 Measurement
10.1 Observe the various fibers, which enter the field of view, according to the
method specified in the test procedure of GB/T 10685. Measure the diameter
of each type of fiber as required. The number of each fiber, whose diameter is
measured, shall not be less than 300. At the same time, according to the fiber
morphology and structure characteristics, identify its type, as shown in
Appendix A. Respectively record the number of various types of fibers. For each
test specimen, test a total of more than 1500 fibers.
Note: If the number of fibers has reached 1500, whilst the glass slide only moves to
the middle, it must continue to count to the side before stopping. If the proportion of
the above-mentioned certain types of fibers, in the mixture, is low, AND the specimen
Appendix A
(Normative)
Surface morphological characteristics of commonly used animal fibers
A.1 Cashmere
Cashmere is composed of scales and cortex, without a medulla layer. The
edges of the scales are smooth, similar to a ring-like covering on the hair shaft;
the covering spacing is larger than that of wool; the scale density is 60
pieces/mm ~ 80 pieces/mm; the scale is relatively thin, which closely wrap
around the hair shaft, with a small opening angle; the cross-section is often a
regular circle. The coarse hair fiber is composed of three parts: scale layer,
cortex layer, medulla layer. The edges of the scales, at the lower part of the
coarse hair shaft, are smooth or slightly wavy. The edge of the scales near the
hair tip is zigzag. The cross-section of the coarse hair is approximately round,
some are elliptical.
A.2 Rabbit hair
Rabbit hair basically has a medulla layer; only a very small part of the fine hair
is free from medulla. The medulla of the villi is in intermittent and single-row
ladder. Its cross-section is irregular quadrilateral, which has a cavity in the
middle. The medulla of the coarse hair is ladder-shaped, in double, three, four
rows; a very small number can reach more than ten rows; the cross-section is
in ovaloid or oval shape, with one to more cavities in the middle. The scales of
rabbit hair are mostly oblique wood grain.
A.3 Mohair
Mohair is heterogeneous hair, which is mixed with a certain amount of
medullated hair and dead hair. The scales are flat and close to the hair shaft,
rarely overlapping, with a smooth surface and strong luster. The cross-sectional
shape of the fiber is oval or approximately circular.
A.4 Camel fluff (hair)
The color of camel hair fiber is milky white, light yellow, yellowish brown, tan,
etc. It is mainly composed of scale layer and cortex layer; some even has
medulla layer. It has relatively small amount of surface scales, which are in
incomplete covering; the edge is smooth AND the scale density is 40 pcs/mm
~ 90 pcs/mm; the cross-sectional shape is almost circular. The medulla layer of
camel hair is thin and discontinuous. The medulla layer of thick hair is
continuously distributed in thin and narrow strips.
......
 
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.