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GB 15630-1995 PDF in English


GB 15630-1995 (GB15630-1995) PDF English
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GB 15630-1995: PDF in English

GB 15630-1995
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
UDC 614.84:003.62
C 80
Requirements for the Placement of Fire Safety Signs
ISSUED ON: JULY 19, 1995
IMPLEMENTED ON: FEBRUARY 1, 1996
Issued by: State Technical Supervision Bureau
Table of Contents
1 Subject Content and Application Scope ... 3
2 Normative Standards ... 3
3 Terms ... 3
4 Placement Places ... 4
5 Placement Principles ... 5
6 Placement Requirements ... 7
7 Placement Methods ... 14
8 Inspection and Maintenance ... 19
Appendix B Reflection Method of Fire Safety Sign Board Made of
Retrodirective Reflection Material (Informative) ... 23
Appendix C Common Color Scope and Retrodirective Reflection Factor of Fire
Safety Sign (Informative) ... 24
Appendix D Thickness of Fire Safety Sign Board (Informative) ... 26
Appendix E Dimension of Character Auxiliary Sign (Informative) ... 27
Additional Explanation ... 28
Requirements for the Placement of Fire Safety Signs
1 Subject Content and Application Scope
1.1 This standard specifies the place, principle, requirements and methods etc. for
the placement of fire safety signs.
1.2 This standard is applicable to places where fire safety signs are used to show
fire safety information.
2 Normative Standards
GB 13495 "Fire Safety signs"
GB J16 "Code of Design on Building Fire Protection and Prevention"
GB J45 "Specifications for the Design of Highrise Civil Buildings (Trial)-Fire
Prevention"
3 Terms
3.1 Viewing distance
Distance from observer's eyes to the sign’s center-point.
In this standard, viewing distance is expressed by letter D, as shown in Figure 1.
3.2 Viewing angle
The included angle BETWEEN the connecting-line of observer's eyes and the sign’s
center-point AND the plane where the sign is located.
In this standard, viewing angle is expressed by letter α, as shown in Figure 1.
3.3 Displacement
The distance FROM the sign’s center-point TO the visual axis WHEN the eyes directly
look at the plane where the sign is located.
corresponding "Fire Alarm" sign.
5.10 Places equipped with fire telephone shall be arranged with "Fire Telephone"
sign. Places without public telephone (e.g. telephone booth) may also be arranged
with "Fire Telephone" sign.
5.11 Places equipped with fire protection equipment such as flush fire hydrant,
Siamese connection and sheltered post fire hydrant shall be arranged with "Flush Fire
Hydrant", sign "Post Fire Hydrant" sign and "Siamese Connection" sign etc.
5.12 The following areas shall be correspondingly arranged with "No Burning", "No
Smoking", "No Inflammable Material", "No Matches", "No Fireworks", "Danger of
Fire-Highly Flammable Materials", "Danger of Fire-Oxidizing Materials" and "Danger
of Explosion-Explosive Materials" signs, etc.:
a. At the entrance or in the fire compartment of manufacturing area and plant
building etc. with Category A, B or C fire hazard;
b. At the entrance or in the fire compartment of warehouses with Category A, B or
C fire hazard;
c. In fire compartment with Category A, B or C liquid storage tank and storage yard
etc.
d. Flammable, combustion supporting gas storage tank or tank field and fire
compartment of buildings and storage yard;
e. Fuel oil, gas fired boiler house in civil building, the oil immersed transformer
room, the shop, workplace and storeroom using chemical flammable and
explosive materials and their nearby;
f. On transport facilities with Category A, B or C liquid and other chemical
hazardous materials;
g. In forest and mine etc. fire compartments.
5.13 Place for water-explosive storage or place where could endanger surrounding
environment if put out fire with water shall be arranged with "No Watering to Put Out
the Fire" sign.
5.14 For hotel, restaurant, shopping center (shop), theater, hospital, library, archive
(room), vehicle (ship, plane) waiting room hall, vehicle, ship, plane and other public
places, "No Smoking" sign etc. shall be arranged if the relevant department provides
against smoking.
5.15 Other places require the placement of fire safety signs.
6 Placement Requirements
6.1 Fire safety signs shall be arranged on fire safety involved eye-catching position.
The front of the sign or its nearby shall be free from any obstruction disturbing public
reading.
6.2 Unless necessary, as a general rule, the sign shall not be arranged on movable
objects such as door, window, frame, and also shall not be arranged in places often
sheltered from other objects.
6.3 Fire safety sign placement shall be free from contradiction and repeat in content,
and shall express the necessary information clearly with minimum signs to the
greatest extent.
6.4 Direction auxiliary sign shall be arranged in passage part where public choosing
direction, and shall be arranged according to the shortcut to goal.
6.5 Fire safety signs shall be arranged such that viewing angles of most observers
are close to 90°.
6.6 The size of the fire safety signs shall be determined according to the maximum
viewing distance D. Determine the size of the sign according to Appendix A of GB
13495 after the required maximum viewing distance is measured.
The determination of the viewing distance D shall be in accordance with Appendix A
(informative) of this standard.
6.7 Displacement X of the sign shall be reduced as much as possible. For the
observer observing the maximum viewing distance D, the angle of displacement θ
should not be larger than 5° as a general rule, and shall not be larger than 15° for the
maximum extent. If the requirements cannot be met because of conditions, the size of
the sign shall be enlarged properly to meet the requirements of conspicuity.
6.8 The color of the sign shall remain the same under all related lighting.
6.9 Fabrication materials of fire safety sign boards
6.9.1 Evacuation sign boards shall be fabricated with incombustible materials, if not,
they shall be equipped with shelters made of glass or incombustible transparent
material outside.
6.9.2 The fabrication-material combustion performance of sign board for other use
shall meet the fire protection requirements of the corresponding places. For
non-evacuation sign board used indoors, the oxygen index of its fabrication material
shall not be less than 32.
6.10 Placement requirements for fire safety sign indoors and at access
6.10.1 Placement requirements for evacuation sign
6.10.1.1 In evacuation exit, "Emergency Exit" sign should be arranged at both sides
of the passage and on the wall surface at corner; the distance from top edge of the
sign board to the ground shall not be larger than 1m as shown in Figure 2. The sign
may also be directly arranged on the ground with a firm incombustible transparent
protective plate on it as shown in Figure 3. The spacing between signs shall not be
larger than 20m. The distance from the end of dead end to the sign shall not be larger
than 10m.
6.10.1.2 In the exit of evacuation exit, "Emergency Exit" sign shall be arranged on
door frame edge or upper part of door, which is the position A or B shown in Figure 4.
The height hl from top edge of sign board to ceiling shall not be less than 0.5m. The
height h2 between the lower edge of sign board on position A and the ground shall not
be less than 2.0m.
6.10.1.3 For the ceiling not high enough, the sign may also be arranged in position C
or D of Figure 4, the height h3 from sign’s center-point to the ground shall be within
1.3m~1.5m.
6.10.1.4 The height from the lower edge of evacuation sign board suspended on
indoor hall to the ground shall not be less than 2.0m as shown in Figure 5.
6.10.2 For other sign boards attaching to indoor wall surface etc., their center point
height from the ground shall be within 1.3m-1.5m.
6.10.3 The height of the lower edge of the other sign boards suspended on indoor
hall from the ground shall not be less than 2.0m.
6.10.4 In room and its opening, the fire safety signs shall be arranged on bright
place. For prohibition sign (circular ring plus oblique line) and warning sign (triangle)
of fire safety signs, in daily situation, the minimum average illumination of their
surfaces shall not be less than 5lx, and the ratio of the minimum illumination to the
average illumination (uniformity ratio of illumination) shall not be less than 0.7.
Informatory sign (square) and its auxiliary sign shall meet the following requirements:
6.10.4.1 For informatory sign and its auxiliary sign requiring exterior lighting, in daily
situation, the minimum average illumination and uniformity ratio of illumination of their
surfaces shall also meet the above-mentioned requirements. If fire accident occurs,
the interrupted normal lighting power shall be capable of automatically shifting to
emergency lighting power in 5s, and emergency lighting fixtures shall be provided for
lighting. The minimum average illumination and the uniformity ratio of illumination of
sign surface shall still meet the above-mentioned requirements.
6.10.4.2 For informatory sign and its auxiliary sign with interior lighting, the interior
lighting fixtures shall be automatically activated to provide lighting in 5s if the
illumination outside the sign surface is less than 51x. If fire accident occurs, the
interrupted normal lighting power for interior lighting fixtures shall automatically shift to
the emergency lighting power in 5s. No matter which power supply is on for interior
lighting, the average brightness on the sign surface should be 17-34cd/m2, but the
maximum brightness on any sub-region shall not be larger than 80cd/m2, and the
minimum brightness shall not be less than 15cd/m2, and the ratio of the maximum
brightness to the minimum brightness shall not be larger than 5:1.
6.10.4.3 For informatory sign board and its auxiliary sign board made of
self-luminescent material, the brightness of any light-emitting area of the surface shall
not be less than 0.51cd/m2. The ratio of the maximum brightness to the minimum
brightness on the surface of the character auxiliary sign board shall not exceed 3:2.
The ratio of the maximum brightness to the minimum brightness of graphical sign
shall not exceed 5:2.
6.11 Fire safety signs arranged outdoors shall meet the following requirements:
6.11.1 For sign boards attaching to building outdoors, their center point height from
the ground shall not be less than 1.3m.
6.11.2 The lower edge height of the sign board fixed by outdoor-use sign pole from
the ground shall be larger than 1.2m.
6.11.2.1 For sign boards arranged on road-side, their interior edge shall not be less
than 0.25m from the road surface (or road shoulder) edge. The lower edge height of
the sign board shall be within 1.8~2.5m from the road surface as shown in Figure 6.
6.11.2.2 For sign boards arranged on road-side, the sign board located plane shall
be installed vertically or at 80°~90° angle to the running direction as shown in Figure
7.
Table 1 -- Distance from Warning Sign to Dangerous Place
Calculated driving-speed, km/h >60 ≤60
Distance from sign to dangerous place, m 100~250 20~100
6.11.3 Fire safety sign board shall be arranged in the open bright environment. The
minimum average illumination on surfaces of various sign boards used in daily
situation shall not be less than 51x, and the uniformity ratio of illumination shall not be
less than 0.7. Fire safety sign boards used at night or in relatively dark environment
shall adopt light lighting to meet their minimum average illumination requirements.
They may also be made of self-luminescent materials. Fire safety sign boards
arranged on road-side for vehicle use may also adopt retrodirective reflection
materials. The reflection way is detailed in Appendix B (informative).
6.12 For underground works, "Emergency Exit" sign should be arranged at both
sides of the passage and on the wall surface at corner, and the sign’s center-point
height shall be within 1.0m~1.2m from the ground. It also may be arranged on the
ground (as shown in Figure 3). The spacing between signs shall not be larger than
10m. Sign lighting shall meet the requirements of Article 6.10.4 and Article 6.13.
6.13 The continuous serving time of the emergency lighting power for sign shall
meet the corresponding requirements of the standard or regulation of its located
environment, but shall not be less than 20min.
7 Placement Methods
7.1 Types
7.1.1 Attached type: fire safety sign may be directly attached to facilities such as
buildings by nailing, hanging, sticking, inlaying etc. methods as B, C and D shown in
Figure 3 and Figure 4.
7.1.2 Suspended type: suspend the sign board on the phase site position with
hanger rod, zipper etc. It is applicable to hotel, restaurant, vehicle (ship, plane) waiting
room hall and opening etc. as shown in Figure 5.
7.1.3 Column type: fix the sign board to the sign post upright next to the object
indicated as shown in Figure 6.
7.2 Gap
7.2.1 For two or more square fire safety signs arranged together, a gap at least 0.2
times of the sign nominal dimension shall be remained between each two signs as
7.2.4.2 According to placement place, the sign placement shall meet the
requirements of Article 6.11.2 of this standard.
7.2.4.3 For square sign board and other shape sign boards arranged together, the
gap between square sign board and sign post shall not be less than 0.2 times of the
sign nominal dimension, and that of the other shape sign boards shall not be less than
5cm as shown in Figure 11a.
7.2.4.4 For two or more triangle (circular) sign boards or triangle, circular and square
sign boards arranged on one sign post, the gap between each two sign boards shall
not be less than 5cm as shown in Figure 11b.
7.2.4.5 For two square sign boards arranged on one sign post, the gap between the
two shall not be less than 0.2 times of the sign nominal dimension as shown in Figure
11c.
7.3 Fixing method
7.3.1 For attach-arranged fire safety sign boards fixed by nails, as a general rule, at
least three points of circular and triangle sign boards shall be fixed, and at least four
points for square and rectangle sign boards. The fixed points should select the
background color parts on the edge. For gum sticking sign board, it shall be fixed by
full gum covering its back or its edge and center point.
7.3.2 Suspend-arranged fire safety sign boards shall adopt at least two loops
(threads), and shall not bear incline after being suspended. Lighter sign board shall be
equipped with relatively firm bracket before being suspended.
7.3.3 Column-arranged fire safety sign board shall be firmly fixed to the sign post by
bolt, pipe hoop etc. The fixing method may be carried out referring to Figure 12.
7.3.3.1 Outside-arranged fire safety sign boards shall take wind pressure function
into account, and the wind pressure may be calculated according to the following
formula:
Where,
P -- the wind pressure on unit area, Pa;
ρ -- the air density, generally taking 1.2258kg/m3;
c -- the wind factor (for sign board, c=1.2; for sign post, c=0.7);
v -- the wind speed, m/s (generally 30~50m/s).
After external force being calculated, the stability of sign board, sign post, beam,
connecting bolt and foundation shall be checked and calculated according to different
support methods to figure out the section dimension etc. of each part.
7.3.3.2 If the sign board bears not enough strength, to improve the strength,
methods such as thickening, reinforced back or edge curl reinforcement shall be
taken.
7.3.4 All fire safety sign boards arranged in other methods shall be firm to ensure
exerting its due function.
8 Inspection and Maintenance
The arranged fire safety sign boards and their lighting fixtures etc. shall be inspected
once at least half a year. They shall be repaired and maintained, replaced or
re-arranged under one of the following conditions:
a. Destroyed or lost;
b. The chromaticity coordinate and the luminance factor of the sign exceed its
application scope (refer to Table C1 of Appendix C);
c. The retrodirective reflection factor of the retrodirective reflection sign is less than
50% of the minimum reflection factor (refer to Table C2 of Appendix C2);
d. Fail to meet the requirements of Article 6.10.4, Article 6.11.3, Article 6.12 and
Appendix B
Reflection Method of Fire Safety Sign Board Made of Retrodirective
Reflection Material
(Informative)
B1 Prohibition sign shall completely reflect or only the black patterns reflect while
other places do not reflect.
B2 Warning sign shall be arranged such that its yellow bottom reflects AND the
black patterns and frame do not reflect.
B3 For informatory sign, the sign with relative-simple symbols shall completely
reflect; and the sign with relative complex sign may be arranged such that the white
sign reflects while the red background or green background does not reflect.
B4 Direction auxiliary sign shall be arranged such that the arrow-head reflects while
the red background or green background does not reflect.
B5 Character auxiliary sign used in combination with warning sign shall be arranged
such that the yellow background reflects while the black character does not reflect.
B6 Character auxiliary sign used in combination with prohibition sign shall
completely reflect.
B7 Character auxiliary sign used in combination with informatory sign shall be
arranged such that the character reflects while the red background or green
background does not reflect.
......
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.