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GB 17691-2018

Chinese Standard: 'GB 17691-2018'
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BASIC DATA
Standard ID GB 17691-2018 (GB17691-2018)
Description (Translated English) Limits and measurement methods for emissions from diesel fuelled heavy-duty vehicles (CHINA VI)
Sector / Industry National Standard
Classification of Chinese Standard Z64
Date of Issue 2018-06-22
Date of Implementation 2019-07-01
Older Standard (superseded by this standard) GB 11340-2005(Partial); GB 17691-2005
Regulation (derived from) Ministry of Ecology and Environment Announcement No. 14 of 2018

GB 17691-2018
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
Replacing GB 17691-2005
Limits and measurement methods for emissions from
diesel fueled heavy-duty vehicles (CHINA VI)
重型柴油车污染物排放限值及测量方法
(中国第六阶段)
ISSUED ON: JUNE 22, 2018
IMPLEMENTED ON: JULY 01, 2019
Issued by: Ministry of Ecology and Environment;
State Market Regulatory Administration.
Table of Contents
State Market Regulatory Administration... 1
Foreword ... 4
1 Scope ... 7
2 Normative references ... 7
3 Terms and definitions ... 9
4 Pollution control requirements ... 20
5 Signage of engine (vehicle) ... 23
6 Technical requirements and tests ... 24
7 Installation on vehicles ... 31
8 Family and parent engine ... 32
9 Up-to-standard requirements and inspection of new produced vehicles ... 34
10 Requirements and inspection of in-use compliance ... 36
11 Implementation of standard ... 38
Appendix A (Normative) Materials for type test ... 40
Appendix B (Informative) Format of type test report ... 64
Appendix C (Normative) Test procedure of standard cycle of engine ... 68
Appendix D (Normative) Technical requirements for reference fuels ... 242
Appendix E (Normative) Test requirements of non-standard cycle of engine
... 245
Appendix F (Normative) On-board diagnostic system (OBD) ... 256
Appendix G (Normative) Requirements for proper operation of the NOx control
system ... 347
Appendix H (Normative) Durability of engine system ... 379
Appendix I (Normative) Requirements and inspection of production consistency
assurance ... 387
Appendix J (Normative) Technical requirements of in-use compliance ... 392
Appendix K (Normative) Portable emission measurement system (PEMS) along
actual road ... 407
Appendix L (Normative) Measurement method for pollutant emission of vehicle
chassis dynamometer ... 437
Appendix M (Normative) Special requirements for type test of liquefied
petroleum gas and natural gas engines and vehicles ... 442
Appendix N (Normative) Technical requirements for diesel-gas dual-fuel
engines and vehicles ... 448
Appendix O (Normative) Type test of alternative emission aftertreatment device
as an independent assembly ... 485
Appendix P (Normative) Acquisition of vehicle OBD and vehicle maintenance
information ... 499
Appendix Q (Normative) Technical requirements and communication data
format for remote emission management on-board terminal ... 501
Limits and measurement methods for emissions from
diesel fueled heavy-duty vehicles (CHINA VI)
1 Scope
This standard specifies the emission limits and test methods for gaseous and
particulate pollutants as emitted by the vehicles equipped with compression
ignition engine and its engines, as well as the emission limits and test methods
for gaseous pollutants emitted from the ignition engine vehicles and its engine
which use natural gas (NG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as fuel.
This standard is applicable to the type test, production consistency inspection,
supervisory inspection of emission from new produced vehicle, compliance
inspection of in-use vehicle of the category M2, M3, N1, N2, N3 which is equipped
with compression ignition and gas-fueled ignition engines as well as the
category M1 vehicles which have a total mass of more than 3500 kg.
The type test of whole vehicle according to this standard may be extended to
variants and modified vehicles which have a reference mass exceeding 2380
kg.
If the category M1, M2, N1, N2 vehicles which are equipped with compression
ignition and gas-fueled ignition engines have been type-tested according to GB
18352.6-2016, they may be exempted from the type test of this standard.
2 Normative references
This standard refers to the following documents or their terms. For undated
references, the latest edition applies to this standard.
GB/T 2624 Measurement of fluid flow by means of pressure differential
devices inserted in circular cross-section conduits running full (IDT ISO 5176)
GB/T 3730.2 Road vehicle - Masses - Vocabulary and codes
GB/T 8190.1 Reciprocating internal combustion engines - Exhaust emission
measurement - Part 1: Test-bed measurement of gaseous and particulate
exhaust emissions
GB/T 15089 Classification of power-driven vehicles and trailers
GB/T 17692 Measurement methods of net power for automotive engines
GB 18047 Compressed natural gas as vehicle fuel
GB 18352.6-2016 Limits and measurement methods for emissions from
light-duty vehicles (CHINA 6)
GB/T 19001 Quality management systems - Requirements
GB/T 27840 Fuel consumption test methods for heavy-duty commercial
vehicles
GB 30510 Fuel consumption limits for heavy-duty commercial vehicles
ISO 5725 Measurement method and result accuracy
ISO 7000 Equipment graphic symbol - Index and list
ISO 13400 Road vehicles - Internet protocol (DoIP)-based diagnostic
communication
ISO 15031 Road vehicles - Vehicles and emission diagnostics related
equipment communication
ISO 15031-3 Road vehicles - Communication between vehicle and external
equipment for emissions-related diagnostics - Part 3: Diagnostic connector
and related electrical circuits: Specification and use
ISO 15031-7 Road vehicles - Communication between vehicle and external
equipment for emissions-related diagnostics - Part 7: Data link security
ISO 15765-4 Road vehicles - Diagnostic communication over Controller
Area Network (DoCAN) - Part 4: Requirements for emissions-related
systems
ISO 27145 Road vehicles - Implementation of World-Wide Harmonized On-
Board Diagnostics (WWH-OBD) communication requirements
SAE J1708 Serial data communications between microcomputer systems in
heavy-duty vehicle applications
SAE J1939 Communication protocol of local area network (CAN bus) for
commercial vehicle's control system
SAE J1939-13 External diagnostic connector
SAE J1939-73 Application layer - diagnosing
SAE J2186 Electrical/electronic (E/E) data link security
ASTM E 29-06B Standard practice for using significant digits in test data to
additional type test of engine. Except for engine test, all vehicles undergoing
type test are required to be subject to the test by the portable emission
measurement system (PEMS) as specified in 6.2.2.
4.1.1.4 Requirements for fuels of type test
4.1.1.4.1 When the parent engine is subjected to type test, it shall use the
reference fuel complying with the provisions of Appendix D of this standard.
4.1.1.4.2 For natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas engines (vehicles), it shall
use the fuel types as specified in Appendix M to carry out type test.
4.1.1.4.3 Type test of natural gas engines and LPG engines shall meet the
requirements of Tables M.1 and M.2 of Appendix M.
4.1.1.4.4 The type test of the dual-fuel engine shall meet the requirements of
Table N.2 of clause N.6.1.2.
4.1.1.4.5 If the fuel to be used in the design of the engine family is not included
in the reference fuel range specified in Appendix D, the manufacturer shall:
a) A clear description of the types of commercially available fuel that the
engine family can use.
b) Prove that the parent engine can meet the requirements of this standard
when burning commercially available fuel.
c) Prove that the engine can meet the in-use compliance requirements when
using the specified fuel in combination with any of the commercially
available fuels of any component.
4.1.2 Type test of engine family (parent engine)
4.1.2.1 When the engine is subject to type test, select a parent engine that can
represent the engine model or family. If the selected engine does not fully
represent the model or family as described in Appendix A, it shall select another
representative engine for testing.
4.1.2.2 When the whole vehicle is subject to type test, select a vehicle that can
represent the vehicle model (family) for type test. If the selected vehicle does
not fully represent the vehicle model (family) as described in clause 8.4, it shall
select another representative vehicle for testing.
4.1.2.3 The parent engine (or the base model) represents the emission level of
all engine models (vehicle models) in the family, the type test of the parent
engine (or the parent vehicle) may be extended to all members of the family.
Other members in the family do not need to be tested.
be disclosed after technical processing.
5 Signage of engine (vehicle)
5.1 General requirements
The engine's signage may be in the form of text and numbers, or in the form of
a two-dimensional code.
The signage must be concise and clear, its text, numbers or graphics shall be
clear, obvious, readable, not erased. The fixing method of the signage must be
firm throughout the life of the engine and must not be removed.
5.2 Location of engine signage
The installation position of the signage on the engine shall not hinder the normal
operation of the engine. In the service life of engine, it generally requires no
position change. In addition, when all the accessories required for engine
operation are installed, the signage shall be located where it is easy for normal
people to see.
The signage shall be close to or incorporated on the nameplate of the
manufacturer.
5.3 Contents of engine signage
The engine's signage shall contain at least the following:
a) Engine model;
b) Date of manufacture: Year, month, day ("day" is optional. If the date of
manufacture has been marked in other parts, it may not be indicated in
the signage repeatedly);
c) The words “CHINA VI”;
d) The trademark or full name of the manufacturer;
e) Emission control key components (e.g., EGR, DOC, SCR, DPF, etc.).
5.4 Special requirements for natural gas and LPG engine (vehicle)'s
signages with a defined fuel range
5.4.1 For natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas engines with a defined fuel
range during type test, in addition to meeting the requirements of 5.3, it shall
also include the following information:
a) Limited to the use of natural gas of high (low) calorific value;
6.9.1 The manufacturer shall demonstrate that under all normal conditions,
especially at low temperatures, the NOx system can maintain its emission
control function.
6.9.2 The manufacturer shall report the information on the control strategy of
the exhaust gas recirculation system (EGR) and the selective catalytic
reduction system (SCR) in a low temperature environment to the competent
department of ecological environment under the State Council. The information
shall also include a description of the impact of this system running at low
temperature system onto the emission.
6.9.3 Ensure the normal operation of the NOx control measures, meet the
requirements of Appendix G. Follow the requirements of Appendix G to conduct
test and verification.
6.10 Requirements for duel fuel engine
Dual-fuel engines or vehicles that meet the requirements of this standard and
are tested according to Appendix N.
6.11 Requirements for replacement pollution control devices
The design, manufacture and installation of the replacement pollution control
device shall achieve the performance of the original emission control device, so
that the pollutant emissions of the engine and the vehicle comply with the
provisions of this standard, thereby effectively control the pollutant emission
under normal conditions of use and throughout the full life of the vehicle.
The replacement pollution control device shall be type-tested according to the
provisions of Appendix O.
6.12 Technical requirements for whole vehicle
6.12.1 The vehicle manufacturer shall install the engine on the whole vehicle
and shall strictly follow the installation requirements specified in Chapter 7, to
ensure that the vehicle meets the non-standard cycle emission requirements
as specified in Table 4.
6.12.2 The vehicle manufacturer shall ensure that after assembling the engine
into the whole vehicle, the OBD system and the NOx control system are not
changed; meanwhile when verified according to Annex KE along actual road, it
can still meet the technical requirements as specified in clause 6.8 and clause
6.9.
6.12.2.1 The vehicle shall have an OBD diagnostic interface that meets the
requirements of ISO 15031. The diagnostic interface shall be in the vicinity of
the driver in the vehicle, in a location that is easy to find and access, marked
shall not exceed the power absorbed by the accessories as specified in
Appendix A for engines that have been type-tested.
7.1.4 The characteristics of the exhaust aftertreatment system shall be
consistent with the declarations in the engine type test in Appendix A.
7.2 Installation of type-tested engine on vehicle
An engine that is type-tested as an independent technical assembly shall meet
the following requirements when installed on a vehicle:
a) The OBD systems shall, when installed according to the requirements of
Annex FA, meet the installation requirements of the engine manufacturer
as specified in Appendix A.
b) The NOx control system shall, when installed according to the provisions
of Annex GD, meet the installation requirements of the engine
manufacturer as specified in Appendix A.
c) The dual-fuel engines that are type-tested as independent technical
assemblies shall, when installed on vehicle, also meet the requirements
of N.6.3 and N.8.2, as well as the installation requirements of engine
manufacturer as specified in Annex AA.
8 Family and parent engine
8.1 Engine family
8.1.1 Determine the parameters of engine family
The same engine family must have the basic parameters as specified in C.4.2.
For dual-fuel engines, the engine family shall also comply with the additional
requirements of N.3.1 of Appendix N.
8.1.2 Selection of parent engine
The parent engine of the family shall be selected according to the requirements
specified in C.4.3.
For dual-fuel engines, the selection of parent engine shall also meet the
additional requirements of N.3.2.
8.1.3 Expansion of engine family
8.1.3.1 If the requirements of 8.1.1 are met, it may incorporate the new engine
model into the engine family that has been type-tested.
that meets the requirements of paragraphs b) ~ d) of 8.4.1.
9 Up-to-standard requirements and inspection of new
produced vehicles
9.1 General requirements
9.1.1 Vehicle and engine manufacturers shall take measures according to
Appendix I to ensure production consistency.
9.1.2 Engine manufacturers must take measures to ensure that the engine,
system, component or independent technology assembly is consistent with the
engine type that has been type-tested.
9.1.3 The production consistency inspection shall be based on the information
disclosure materials in Appendix A and Appendix B.
9.1.4 The vehicle and engine used for the test shall be randomly selected. The
manufacturer must not make any adjustments to the taken vehicle or engine
(including updates to the ECU software).
9.1.5 The vehicle shall not run-in in principle. If the manufacturer requests it, it
can be run-in according to the running-in specifications, but it must not exceed
500 km. Meanwhile it shall not make any adjustment of the vehicle.
9.2 Up-to-standard self-inspection of new produced vehicle
9.2.1 In order to ensure that the mass-produced vehicles meet the technical
requirements as specified in clause 6.12, the vehicle manufacturer shall
formulate an off-line inspection plan for each vehicle type (family), including
inspection items, inspection methods, sampling methods, sampling ratios, etc.
9.2.2 The self-inspection of the pollutant emission of vehicle shall be tested
according to the PEMS test method of whole vehicle as specified in Appendix
K of this standard. If the vehicle is subject to the production consistency
inspection of the fuel consumption of whole vehicle according to GB 30510, it
shall carry out pollutant emission inspection according to Appendix L at the
same time.
9.2.3 The sampling method shall be statistically representative, which can
represent the emission control level of the same batch of vehicles within a
certain production cycle.
9.2.4 The vehicle manufacturer shall record and archive the vehicle inspection
test in detail. The record document shall be kept for at least 5 years. The
competent department of ecological environment may check the test records
competent department of ecological environment shall conduct sampling
inspection according to the requirements of 10.2.2.
10.2.1 Self-inspection of manufacturer
10.2.1.1 When the engine family is type-tested, the engine manufacturer shall
also formulate a self-inspection plan for in-use compliance. The self-inspection
of the engine manufacturer's in-use compliance shall be based on the engine
family.
10.2.1.2 When the vehicle model (family) is type-tested, the vehicle
manufacturer shall also establish a self-inspection plan for in-use compliance.
The vehicle manufacturer’s self-inspection for in-use compliance shall be based
on the vehicle model or vehicle family, which may cover the extended vehicle
models produced by refitted vehicle manufacturer.
10.2.1.3 The self-inspection plan for in-use compliance includes the test
schedule and sampling plan, which shall be reported to the competent
department of ecological environment under the State Council.
10.2.1.4 The engine manufacturer shall carry out the self-inspection of in-use
compliance according to the self-inspection plan, try to select the vehicles from
different vehicle manufacturers to conduct tests. The self-inspection report of
the in-use compliance of the engine family shall disclose the information,
meanwhile be used as a part of the self-inspection report of the in-use
compliance of the vehicle family of the vehicle manufacturer.
10.2.1.5 The vehicle manufacturer shall carry out the self-inspection of in-use
compliance according to the self-inspection plan, try to select different vehicle
models from the vehicle family to conduct test. The self-inspection report of in-
use compliance of the vehicle model (family) shall disclose the information.
10.2.2 Sampling inspection by competent department of ecological
environment
10.2.2.1 The competent department of ecological environment may follow the
test procedures of the in-use compliance as specified in Appendix J, to conduct
sampling inspection of the in-use compliance of the vehicle model (family).
10.2.2.2 If the competent department of ecological environment under the State
Council confirms that a certain vehicle model (family) does not meet the
requirements of this standard, the manufacturer shall take corrective measures
according to clauses 10.3 and J.5 of this standard.
10.3 Corrective measures
10.3.1 The manufacturer shall submit a plan for rectification measures to the
a) Official documents: It shall be disclosed to the competent department of
ecological environment under the State Council and may be provided to
relevant parties as needed.
b) Extended documents: It shall be kept confidential. The extension
documents shall be disclosed to the competent department of ecological
environment under the State Council or may be kept by the manufacturer.
However, it shall be ensured that these documents can be checked at any
time when the validity of the type test is being confirmed.
A.3.5.2 If all output signals are clearly represented by the matrix obtained from
the control range of the individual unit's input signals, the file shall describe the
functional operation of the drivability limit system as required by Appendix G,
including the parameters required to retrieve system-related information. The
material shall be disclosed to the competent department of ecological
environment under the State Council.
A.3.5.3 The extension document package shall include the operation
information of all auxiliary emission control strategy (AES) and basic emission
control strategy (BES), including description of AES revision parameters, AES
working boundary conditions, descriptions on possible startup of AES and BES
under the test conditions as specified in Appendix E. The extension document
shall also contain the descriptions on the control logic of the fuel system, timing
strategy, switching points during all operating conditions. It shall also include a
complete description of the drivability limitation system as required in Appendix
G, including related monitoring strategies.
A.3.6 For engine models or families that are type-tested as independent
technical assemblies, it shall also submit the following materials:
a) For ignition engines, as described in Appendix C, if misfire occurs from the
beginning of the emission and causes the engine's emissions to exceed
the limits as specified in Appendix F, or causes the exhaust catalyst to
overheat and eventually causes irreparable damage, the manufacturer
shall declare the minimum misfire rate in all above misfire events;
b) Instructions for preventing tampering and modification of the emission
control electronics unit, including preventing the renewal of equipment
approved or calibrated by the manufacturer;
c) The OBD document which complies with the requirements of F.8;
d) The OBD-related information provided for access of OBD shall comply
with the requirements of Appendix P of this standard;
e) Declare compliance with non-standard cyclic emissions according to the
requirements of 6.4.3 and the template of Appendix E;
requirements of CB.2. The technical indicators of the measurement system
shall comply with the requirements of clause CB.3 (measurement of gaseous
pollutants), clause CB.4 (measurement of particulate pollutants), Annex CE.
If other systems or analyzers are able to obtain the equivalent results as
described in C.3.2, the testing agency may approve them.
C.3.2 Equivalent system
To determine the equivalence between an equivalent system and a system of
this Appendix, it shall be confirmed on the basis of a correlation study of at least
seven pairs of samples.
The result is the specific emission value of the cycle. The comparison test shall
be carried out in the same laboratory, on the same test bench, on the same
engine, preferably at the same time. Under the test bench and engine
conditions of the laboratory as described above, the equivalency of the
sample's mean values is obtained from the F-test and t-test statistics as
described in clause CF.3. Outlier data is determined according to ISO 5725 and
removed from the database. The system used for the comparison test shall be
reported to the competent department of ecological environment under the
State Council.
C.4 Engine family
C.4.1 Overview
The design parameters are characteristics of a certain engine family. All
engines of the family members have these parameters. Engine manufacturers
may determine which engines belong to a family according to the criteria of the
family members in clause C.4.2.
The manufacturer shall submit to the State Council's competent department of
ecological environment the reasonable information on the emission level of the
engine family members.
C.4.2 Parameters of engine family
When determining the engine family, certain design parameters may interact
with each other under certain conditions. It shall ensure that only engines with
similar emissions characteristics can be included in the same engine family.
The manufacturer shall confirm this situation and report to the competent
department of ecological environment under the State Council. This can be
used as a standard for building a new engine family.
If the devices and characteristics as not listed in this clause seriously affect
emissions, the manufacturer shall identify the device based on good
it is a parent engine or a family member engine, if the same aftertreatment
system as the parent engine is installed, the engine must not be assigned to
the same engine family without the aftertreatment system.
C.4.3 Selection of parent engine
C.4.3.1 Compression ignition engine
The parent engine of the engine family shall be selected based on the preferred
principle of maximum fuel supply per stroke at the maximum torque speed. If
there are two or more engines complying with the preferred standard, it shall
use the maximum fuel supply per stroke at the rated speed as the secondary
principle for selecting parent engine.
C.4.3.2 Spark ignition engine
The parent engine in the family shall be selected according to the preferred
principle of maximum displacement. If two or more engines are according to the
preferred principle, the parent engine shall be selected according to the
following order of secondary selection:
a) Maximum fuel supply per stroke at rated power speed
b) Maximum ignition timing
c) Minimum EGR rate
C.4.3.3 Supplementary provisions for parent engine selection
In some cases, the inspection agency may add a second engine to conduct
emission test according to the technical data as provided by the engine
manufacturer, to facilitate determining the worst emission level of the engine in
the family.
If the engine in the family has other variable characteristics that can affect the
exhaust pollutants, these characteristics shall also be taken into account when
selecting the parent engine.
C.5 Test conditions
C.5.1 Laboratory test conditions
It shall measure the absolute temperature of the air at the engine inlet (Ta,
expressed in Kelvin) and dry air pressure (Ps, expressed in kPa). For multi-
cylinder engines with multiple sets of intake manifolds, such as “V-type” engines,
it shall measure the average temperature of each group of intake manifolds. It
shall follow the requirements below to determine the laboratory atmospheric
factors fα, which shall be recorded together with the test result. When fα meets
The engine shall be tested by installing accessories and equipment required by
the Annex CG.
If the engine accessories cannot be installed as required, the power of the
accessories shall be calculated according to the provisions of C.5.3.2 to C.5.3.5.
C.5.3.2 Accessories/equipment to be installed for testing
If the accessories to be installed according to the requirements of Annex CG
are not installed during the test, the power (reference and actual power) as
absorbed by these accessories shall be subtracted from the test.
C.5.3.3 Accessories/equipment that do not need to be installed for testing
If the accessories that shall not be installed according to the requirements of
Annex CG cannot be removed during the test, the power (reference and actual
power) as absorbed by these accessories shall be added during the test. If the
total power as absorbed by these accessories is more than 3% of the maximum
net power, the manufacturer shall provide a written description.
C.5.3.4 Determination of accessory power
In case:
a) As required by the Annex CG, the accessories/equipment that shall be
installed on the engine are not installed, and/or
b) As required by the Annex CG, the accessories/equipment that shall not be
installed on the engine cannot be removed.
It needs to determine the power absorbed by the accessory/equipment.
Meanwhile the testing agency shall confirm the test/calculation method for the
accessory power throughout the test cycle as submitted by the engine
manufacturer.
C.5.3.5 Engine cycle power
According to clause C.5.3.1, it shall be based on the engine power to calculate
the reference and actual cycle power (see clause C.6.4.8 and clause C.6.8.6).
In this case, the Pf and Pr Where are equal to 0, whilst P is equal to Pm.
If the corresponding accessories/equipment are installed according to C.5.3.2
and/or C.5.3.3, the transient cycle power Pm,i shall be corrected as follows:
Where:
type of reagent required for testing and the amount of reagent consumed.
Engines equipped with a continuous regenerative aftertreatment system do not
require special tests, but requires verification of the regeneration process
specified in C.5.6.2.
Engines equipped with a cyclic regenerative aftertreatment system shall be
tested according to the requirements of C.5.6.3 and the results of the emission
shall be corrected in consideration of the regeneration. In this case, in the test
portion where regeneration occurs, the average emissions depend on the
frequency at which regeneration occurs.
C.5.6.2 Continuous regeneration
For continuously regenerated exhaust aftertreatment systems, it shall, after the
aftertreatment system stabilizes, measure the pollutant emissions. At least one
regenerative test shall be carried out in the WHTC hot state test cycle. The
manufacturer shall state the conditions at which regeneration occurs (particle
load, temperature, exhaust back pressure, etc.).
To verify the continuous regeneration process, it shall carry out at least 3 WHTC
hot state cycles. When the engine is subject to the WHTC hot state test cycle,
it shall be warmed up according to the requirements of C.6.4.1 and hot-dipped
according to the requirements of C.6.6.3, then perform the first WHTC hot state
test, the other two WHTC tests shall also be carried out after hot dip according
to C.6.6.3. During the test, it shall record the exhaust temperature and pressure
(temperature before and after aftertreatment, exhaust back pressure, etc.).
If the test proves the regenerative conditions as specified by the manufacturer
and that the deviation of the specific emission results of the particulate matter
masses of the three WHTC hot state tests is less than ±25% or 0.005 g/kwh
(whichever is larger), the exhaust aftertreatment system is considered to be
continuously regenerative. It is tested according to the testing rules of clause
C.6.6 (WHTC) and clause C.6.7 (WHSC).
If the exhaust aftertreatment system has a safe mode that can be converted to
a cyclic regeneration mode, it shall be inspected according to C.5.6.3. In this
particular case, emissions may exceed emission limits and emissions are not
weighted.
C.5.6.3 Cyclic regeneration
For cyclic regenerative exhaust aftertreatment systems, emissions shall be
measured in at least 3 WHTC hot state cycles, wherein one is during the
regeneration process, two outside the regeneration process, meanwhile it shall
be the WHTC cycle after the exhaust aftertreatment system is stabilized. Finally
make the measurement results weighted according to the formula of C.5.6.3.
commercially available fuel according to national standards.
The fuel temperature and measuring point shall be as specified by the
manufacturer.
C.5.10 Crankcase emissions
It is not allowed to emit any gas in the crankcase to the atmosphere.
For engines equipped with an air intake booster such as a turbocharger, pump,
fan, or mechanical supercharger, which may discharge the emission from the
crankcase into the environment, it shall, when the engine is subject to emission
test, add the emission from crankcase to the exhaust emission.
If, under all operating conditions, crankcase emissions are introduced into the
upstream exhaust of the exhaust aftertreatment, the crankcase emissions are
deemed to meet the requirements.
Pollutants in open crankcases shall be introduced into the exhaust gas for
measurement as follows:
a) The inner wall of the connecting pipe shall be smooth, conductive, not
reacting with the crankcase pollutants, have a length as short as possible;
b) The number of elbows in the crankcase's piping shall be as small as
possible, the radius of the elbows that must be installed shall be as large
as possible;
c) The crankcase's exhaust pipe shall be heated, thin-walled or insulated.
The back pressure of the crankcase shall meet the requirements of the
engine manufacturer;
d) The crankcase's exhaust shall be routed downstream of the aftertreatment
or emission control device, but shall be upstream of the sampling probe
and fully mixed with the engine exhaust before sampling. In order to
accelerate mixing to avoid boundary layer effects, the exhaust pipe of the
crankcase shall extend into the exhaust flow, the direction of the
crankcase's exhaust pipe outlet is fixed relative to the direction of the
exhaust.
If the emission test results meet the limit requirements, it is determined that
the crankcase emissions meet the standard requirements.
C.5.11 Requirements for emission measurement of crankcases for
ignition engines
C.5.11.1 The crankcase pressure shall be measured at the appropriate position
throughout the test cycle. The pressure measurement accuracy of the
crankcase pressure shall be within ±1 kPa.
C.5.11.2 If the crankcase pressure is not more than atmospheric pressure
under any of the measurement conditions of C.5.11.1, the crankcase emissions
are considered to comply with the provisions of C.5.10.
C.6 Test procedure
C.6.1 Principles of emission measurement
Run the test cycle according to the requirements of C.6.2.1. and C.6.2.2.
Perform the measurement of pollutant according to the sampling methods
described in C.6.1.1 and C.6.1.2. Use the mass of various pollutants exhausted
and the corresponding engine cycle work to calculate the specific emission.
C.6.1.1 Continuous sampling
Pollutant concentration, exhaust mass flow (raw or diluted) are continuously
tested in raw or diluted emissions, to calculate pollutant mass flow and cycle
emissions.
C.6.1.2 Air bag sampling
The diluted sample gas is continuously extracted and stored in proportion. Use
air bag to collect the gaseous pollutants. Use filter paper to collect the
particulate matter. Calculate the specific emission of gaseous pollutants and
the specific emission of particulate matter.
C.6.1.3 Measurement procedures
In this standard, it describes two measurement systems with the same function:
a) The gas component is measured directly from the original exhaust gas,
the particulate matter is measured by a partial-flow dilution system;
b) Gas components and particulate matter are measured by a full-flow
dilution system (CVS system).
Both measurement systems can be used in the emission measurement cycle
and allow any combination of the two systems (e.g., direct gas measurement
and full-flow particle measurement, etc.).
C.6.2 Test cycle
C.6.2.1 World harmonized transient cycle (WHTC)
The world harmonized transient cycle (WHTC) in Annex CJ includes a set of
nominal percentages of speed and torque that vary from second to second. The
WHTC test cycle is as shown in Figure C.3. In order to perform tests on an
experience. At the end of the warm-up of engine, it shall ensure that the
temperature of engine coolant and lubricant remain within ±2% of the average
for at least 2 min, or the engine coolant's temperature is regulated by the
thermostat.
C.6.4.2 Determination of transient performance speed
Use the formula below to determine the minimum and maximum transient
performance speeds.
Minimum transient performance speed = Idle speed;
Maximum transient performance speed = nhi × 1.02 or the speed at which the
torque drops to 0 (whichever is smaller).
C.6.4.3 Transient performance curve of engine
According to the requirements of C.6.4.1, when the engine has been running
stably, it shall follow the steps below to test the engine's transient performance.
a) The engine shall be unloaded and operated at idle speed;
b) The engine shall be operated with the full load setting of the fuel injection
pump and the minimum transient performance speed;
c) The average increase rate of the engine from the minimum transient
performance speed to the maximum transient performance speed is 8 ± 1
(r/min) / s. Or use a constant rate to increase the minimum transient
performance speed to the maximum transient performance speed in 4 ~
6 minutes. It shall use the sampling rate at least one point per second to
record the speed and torque of the engine. When selecting the item b) in
C.6.4.7, to determine the negative torque, it can be set directly to the
minimum throttle after the transient performance test, reducing from the
maximum transient performance speed to the minimum transient
performance speed.
C.6.4.4 Determination of alternative performance
If the manufacturer believes that the measurement technique of the engine's
transient performance curve as described above is unsafe or does not
represent the engine, it may use a measurement technique for alternative
engine transient performance curve. The alternative measurement technique
for engine transient performance curve must achieve the purpose of the
specified determination procedure for engine transient performance curve, that
is, to determine the maximum effective torque that can be produced over the
entire allowable speed range of the engine. For safety or representative
reasons, if the measurement technique for engine transient performance curve
The choice of analyzer's range. An emission analyzer capable of automatically
or manually switching the range can be used, but during the test cycle, the
range of the emission analysis shall not be switched. At the same time, the gain
of the analyzer's analog amplifier shall not be switched during the test cycle.
It shall use the traceable standard gas which meets the technical requirements
as described in CB.3.3 to determine the zero gas and span gas response of the
analyzer. The FID analysis unit shall be based on a single carbon element (C1)
for analysis.
C.6.5.4 Preparation of particle sampling filter paper
At least one hour before the test, it shall place the filter paper in a dust-proof
and vented petri dish and place it in a weighing chamber for stabilization. After
the stabilization is completed, it shall weigh the filter paper and record the dead-
weight. Then store the filter paper in a petri dish or in a sealed filter holder, until
it is required for the test. If the filter paper is removed from the weighing
chamber, it must be used within 8 hours.
C.6.5.5 Adjustment of dilution system
The total diluted exhaust flow rate of the dilution system or the diluted exhaust
flow that passes through the particle flow system shall be set to prevent
condensation of water in the system, meanwhile, to ensure that the diluted
exhaust's temperature immediately before the particulate matter's primary filter
paper is between 315 K (42 °C) and 325 K (52 °C).
C.6.5.6 Startup of particle sampling system
The particle sampling system shall initially work in bypass mode. The test can
be performed against the background of the particles. Background
measurements may be made prior to or after the test. If the measurements are
taken before and after the test, it shall take the average value. If there is another
sampling system is available for background measurements, it may perform
sampling test for the background whilst sampling the exhaust particles.
C.6.6 WHTC cycle
C.6.6.1 Engine cooling
It may use natural cooling or forced cooling. For forced cooling, use a mature
engineering experience to set the system to pass cold air through the engine.
The cold oil passes through the engine lubrication system. Use the engine
cooling system to take away the heat from the coolant, to reduce the
temperature of the exhaust aftertreatment system. When the aftertreatment
device is forced to cool down, unless otherwise the aftertreatment system has
been cooled to a temperature lower than its catalytic activation temperature, it
a) At the beginning of the test cycle, the test equipment shall start
synchronously:
b) If it is a full-flow dilution system, start collecting and analyzing the dilution
air;
c) According to the method used, start collecting and analyzing the original
exhaust or diluted exhaust;
d) Start measuring the amount of diluted exhaust gas and the necessary
temperature and pressure;
e) If analyzing the original exhaust gas, start recording the exhaust mass
flow;
f) Start recording the feedback value of the dynamometer's speed and torque.
If the original exhaust measurement method is used, the concentration of
gaseous pollutants ((NM) HC, CO, NOx) and the mass flow of exhaust gas shall
be continuously measured and recorded in the computer system. The data
recording frequency is at least 2 Hz, the other data recording frequencies are
at least 1 Hz. For the analog recorder, it shall record its responsiveness. The
calibration shall be performed online or offline during data evaluation.
If a full-flow dilution system is used, HC and NOx shall be continuously
measured in the dilution tunnel, which has a minimum measurement frequency
of 2 Hz. The average concentration is calculated by integrating the measured
values of the analyzer in the entire test cycle. The system's response time does
not exceed 20 s. If necessary, it shall be aligned with CVS flow fluctuations,
sampling time, test cycle. The CO, CO2, NMHC are integration of continuously
measured values or the analyzed bag-sampling results of the entire cycle. Prior
to continuous sampling and analysis of the bag-sampling concentration,
determine the concentration of pollutants in the background air. All other data
that needs to be measured is recorded at a frequency of at least 1 Hz.
C.6.6.7 Sampling of particulate matter
At the beginning of the test cycle, the particle sampling system shall be switched
back from the bypass state.
If a partial-flow sampling system is used, it shall control the sampling pump, so
that the flow through the particle sampling probe or delivery tube is proportional
to the mass flow of the exhaust gas as determined according to CA.5.1.
If a full-flow sampling system is used, it shall control the sampling pump, so that
the flow through the particle sampling probe or delivery tube is within ±2.5% of
the set flow. If flow compensation is used (i.e., proportional flow control of
C.6.7.4 Record of emission-related data
a) At the beginning of the test cycle, the test equipment shall start
synchronously:
b) If it is a full-flow dilution system, start collecting and analyzing the dilution
air;
c) According to the method used, start collecting and analyzing the original
exhaust or diluted exhaust;
d) Start measuring the amount of diluted exhaust gas and the necessary
temperature and pressure;
e) If analyzing the original exhaust gas, start recording the exhaust mass
flow;
f) Start recording the feedback value of the dynamometer's speed and torque.
If the original exhaust measurement method is used, the concentration of
gaseous pollutants ((NM) HC, CO, NOx) and the mass flow of exhaust gas shall
be continuously measured and recorded in the computer system. The data
recording frequency is at least 2 Hz, the other data recording frequencies are
at least 1 Hz. For the analog recorder, it shall record its responsiveness. The
calibration shall be performed online or offline during data evaluation.
If a full-flow dilution system is used, HC and NOx shall be continuously
measured in the dilution tunnel, which has a minimum measurement frequency
of 2 Hz. The average concentration is calculated by integrating the measured
values of the analyzer in the entire test cycle. The system's response time does
not exceed 20 s. If necessary, it shall be aligned with CVS flow fluctuations,
sampling time, test cycle. The CO, CO2, NMHC are integration of continuously
measured values or the analyzed bag-sampling results of the entire cycle.
Before the exhaust enters the dilution tunnel, carry out continuous sampling or
use the background air-bag sampling method to determine the concentration of
pollutants in the background air. All other data that needs to be measured is
recorded at a frequency of at least 1 Hz.
C.6.7.5 Sampling of particulate matter
At the beginning of the test cycle, the particle sampling system shall be switched
back from the bypass state. If a partial-flow sampling system is used, it shall
control the sampling pump, so that the flow through the particle sampling probe
or delivery tube is proportional to the mass flow of the exhaust gas as
determined according to CB.4.6.1.
If a full-flow sampling system is used, it shall control the sampling pump, so that
purposes of this clause, the test cycle is defined as follows;
a) WHTC: Cold start - hot-dip - hot start;
b) Hot WHTC: Hot-dip - hot start;
c) Hot start WHTC for multiple regenerations - All hot start tests;
d) WHSC - Test cycle.
The deviation of the analyzer shall meet:
a) Before determining the drift, substitute the measured values of the zero
point and the span gas before and after the test into the formula in CA.7.1
for calculation;
b) If the deviation before and after the test is within ±1% F.S, the measured
concentration does not need to be corrected or corrected according to the
requirements of CA.7.1;
c) If the deviation before and after the test exceeds ±1% F.S, the test is invalid,
or it is corrected as required by CA.7.1.
C.6.8.5 Sampling analysis by gas bag
Specific requirements are as follows:
a) Gas bag analysis shall be carried out within 30 minutes after the
completion of the hot start test, or cold start sampling bag analysis during
hot-dip period;
b) Background sampling bag analysis shall be performed within 60 minutes
after the hot start test.
C.6.8.6 Calculation of cycle work
Before calculating the cycle work, it shall delete any records during engine start.
The actual cycle power Wact (kWh) of the entire test cycle shall be determined
based on the speed and torque values as feedback by the engine, to calculate
the transient power. The transient power of the entire test cycle is integrated to
obtain the actual cycle work Wact (kWh). If the engine is not equipped with
accessories/equipment as described in C.5.3.1, use the formula of C.5.3.5 to
correct the power.
Calculate the actual cycle work in the same way through integration as in
C.6.4.8.
Compare the actual cycle work Wact with the reference cycle work Wref, wherein
Wact shall be between 85% Wref and 105% Wref.
Where:
cref,z - The reference concentration of zero gas (usually 0), ppm;
cref,s - The reference concentration of the span gas, ppm;
cpre,z - The concentration of zero gas in the analyzer before the test, ppm;
cpre,s - The concentration of the span gas in the analyzer before the test, ppm;
cpost,z - The concentration of zero gas in the analyzer after the test, ppm;
cpost,s - The concentration of the span gas in the analyzer after the test, ppm;
cgas - The concentration of the sample gas, ppm.
After all corrections have been completed, follow the requirements of clause
CA.7.3 to calculate the specific emissions of each pollutant component of the
two groups. One set of calculations use the uncorrected concentration. The
other set uses the concentration after drift correction according to the formula
in clause CA.7.1.
Depending on the measurement system and calculation method used, calculate
the uncorrected emissions using the formulas in CA.5.2.3, CA.5.2.4, CA.6.2.3.1
or the formula in CA.6.2.3.3. Correspondingly, when calculating the corrected
emissions, use the formulas in clause CA.5.2.3, CA.5.2.4, CA.6.2.3.1 or the
formula in clause CA.6.2.3.3, wherein the Cgas is replaced by Ccor in the formula
of CA.7.1, respectively. If the transient concentration value cgas,i is used in the
corresponding formula, the corrected value is also the transient concentration
value ccor,i. In the formulas in CA.6.2.3.1, both the measured value and the
background concentration need to be corrected.
The final specific emission results of the corrected concentration calculation are
compared with the uncorrected specific emissions. The difference between the
two shall be within ±4% of the uncorrected result or ±4% of the limit, whichever
is larger. If it exceeds ±4%, the test is invalid.
If drift correction is performed, the results as shown in the report shall be the
corrected results.
CA.7.2 Calculation of NMHC and CH4
The calculation method of NMHC and CH4 is determined by the calibration
method. FID test equipment without non-methane cut-off NMC (the lower part
of Figure CE.3 in Annex CE) shall be calibrated by propane. For FID test
equipment with non-methane cut-off NMC (upper part of Figure CE.3 in Annex)
may be calibrated as follows:
d) The linearization inspection shall confirm at least 10 points (including the
zero point) from the zero point to the maximum value of the emission test.
For gas analyzers, the gas of known concentration which complies with
CB.3.3.2 shall be directly led into the analyzer interface;
e) Measure the reference value at a frequency of not less than 1 Hz.
Continuously record it for 30 seconds;
f) Calculate the arithmetic mean of the 30 second period. Follow the formula
of C.6.8.7 and use the least squares method to calculate the linear
regression parameter;
g) Linear regression parameters shall meet the requirements of CB.1 in Table
CB.1;
h) If necessary, check the zero setting again and repeat the confirmation
procedure.
CB.3 Measurement and sampling system of gaseous pollutants
CB.3.1 Technical requirements for analyzer
CB.3.1.1 General requirements
The analyzer's range and response time shall be compatible with the accuracy
required to measure the exhaust component's concentration under transient
and steady-state conditions.
The electromagnetic compatibility level of the equipment shall minimize
additional errors.
CB.3.1.2 Accuracy
Accuracy is the deviation of the analyzer reading from the reference value,
which shall not exceed ±2% of the reading or ±0.3% of full range, whichever is
larger.
CB.3.1.3 Precision
Precision is 2.5 times the standard deviation of 10 repeated response values
for a given calibration gas or span gas. For calibration gas or span gas of more
than 155 ppm (or ppm C), the repeatability does not exceed 1% of the full range
concentration of the range; for the calibration gas or span gas which is less than
155 ppm (or ppm C), it shall not exceed 2% of the full range concentration of
the range.
CB.3.1.4 Noise
(190 ± 10 °C). For NG-fueled engines or ignition engines, hydrocarbon
analyzers may be of non-heated hydrogen flame ion analyzers (FID, see Annex
CE.2.1.1) depending on the method of measurement.
CB.3.2.5 Analysis of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC)
The determination of components of methane and non-methane hydrocarbon
shall be carried out according to Annex CE.2.2 by the use of a heated non-
methane cut-off (NMC) and two FIDs. The concentration of the components
shall be determined according to CA.7.2.
CB.3.2.6 Nitrogen oxide (NOx) analyzer
There are two types of measuring instruments for NOx measurement. Any
instrument may be used as long as it meets the corresponding criteria of
CB.3.2.6.1 or CB.3.2.6.2. However, when following the requirements of C.3.2
to determine the equivalence of different test systems, only CLD is allowed as
the benchmark.
CB.3.2.6.1 CLD
For dry-base measurements, the NOx analyzer shall use a CLD or a heated
CLD equipped with a NO2/NO converter. For wet-base measurements, it shall
use the HCLD whose water-extinction inspection complies with requirements
(see CB.3.9.2.2) which has a converter that maintains a temperature above 328
K (55 °C). Regardless of CLD and HCLD, the inner wall temperature of the
sampling path shall be maintained at 328K ~ 473K (55 °C ~ 200 °C). For dry-
base measurement, the thermal insulated sampling line connects to the
converter. For wet-base measurement, the thermal insulated sampling line
connects to the analyzer.
CB.3.2.6.2 Non-dispersive UV detector (NDUV)
The measurement of NOx concentration may be performed by the use of a non-
dispersive ultraviolet detector (NDUV). If the NDUV only measures NO, it shall
install a NO2/NO converter upstream of the NDUV analyzer. The NDUV shall
be maintained at a temperature to prevent condensation of water vapor, unless
a sample dryer is installed upstream of the NO2/NO converter (if used) or
upstream of the analyzer.
CB.3.2.7 Measurement of air-fuel ratio
The air-fuel ratio measuring device of the exhaust flow according to CA.5.1.6
shall be a wide air-fuel ratio sensor or a zirconia type λ sensor. Sensor shall be
installed directly on the tailpipe. The exhaust temperature is high enough that
the water vapor cannot condense.
CB.3.6.7 Turn off the ozone generator
Turn off the ozone generator, to allow the mixed gas as described in CB.6.3.6
to flow through the converter into the detector. Record the indicated
concentration (b) (the analyzer is placed in NOx mode).
CB.3.6.8 NO mode
Switch the ozone generator, in the off state, to NO mode. Cut off the flow of
oxygen or synthetic air. At this time, the analyzer's NOx reading shall not deviate
by more than ±5% of the value as recorded in CB.3.6.2. (The analyzer is placed
in NO mode).
CB.3.6.9 Test interval
The efficiency of the converter is measured at least once a month.
CB.3.6.10 Efficiency requirements
The efficiency of the converter ENOx must not be less than 95%.
If in the most common range of the analyzer, the ozone generator cannot
reduce the NO concentration from 80% to 20% as required by CB.3.6.5, it shall
use the highest range of operation of the NOx converter.
CB.3.7 FID adjustment
CB.3.7.1 Optimization of detector response
The FID shall be adjusted according to the requirements of the instrument
manufacturer. It shall, in the most common working range, use propane span
gas which uses air as the equilibrium gas to optimize the response.
Set the gas and air flow to the value as recommended by the manufacturer.
Lead the span gas of 350 ± 75 ppm into the analyzer. The response of a given
gas flow is determined by the difference between the span gas response and
the zero gas response. Gas flow is adjusted incrementally above and below the
requirements of the manufacturer. Record the response of the span gas and
zero gas at these gas flows. Use the difference between the responses of the
span gas and the zero gas to draw a curve. Adjust the gas flow to the high
response region of the curve. The setting of initial flow rate may need to be
further optimized according to the hydrocarbon response and oxygen
interference inspection results as specified in CB.3.7.2 and CB.3.7.3. If the
hydrocarbon response and oxygen interference inspection results do not meet
the following requirements, the flow rate shall be gradually adjusted above and
below the conditions as specified by the manufacturer to repeat CB.3.7.2,
CB.3.7.3.
recommended to combine the various sets of manifolds upstream of the
sampling probe. If this is not possible, it is allowed to take the sample gas from
the set of manifolds with the highest CO2 emissions. The calculation of exhaust
emissions must use the total exhaust mass flow.
If the engine is equipped with an exhaust aftertreatment system, it shall take
the exhaust sample gas downstream of the exhaust aftertreatment system.
CB.3.11 Sampling from diluted exhaust
The tailpipe between the engine and the full-flow dilution system shall comply
with the requirements of Annex CE. The exhaust sampling probe shall be
installed in the dilution tunnel at a position near the particulate sampling probe,
where the dilution air and exhaust can be thoroughly mixed.
Sampling may be done in two ways:
a) Collect the pollutants from entire cycle into a sampling bag for
measurement after the test is completed. For HC, if the bag sampling
result is used, the sampling bag shall be heated to 464 ± 11K (191 ± 11 °C).
for NOx, the temperature of sampling bag shall be above the dew point
temperature;
b) Continuously sample and integrate the pollutants of entire cycle.
The concentration of background gas shall be determined upstream of the
dilution tunnel according to a) or b) and subtracted from the pollutant
concentration value as measured in CA.6.2.3.2.
CB.4 Particulate measurement and sampling system
CB.4.1 General provisions
Particulate mass measurement requires a particulate dilution sampling system,
particulate sampling filter paper, microgram balance, weighing chamber of
controlled temperature and humidity. The particulate sampling system shall be
designed to ensure that the particulate sampling exhaust is proportional to the
total diluted exhaust flow. General requirements for dilution systems: particulate
measurement requires using dilution gas (filtered ambient air, synthetic air, or
nitrogen) to dilute the sample gas. The requirements for dilution system are as
follows:
a) Completely eliminate condensation of water in the dilution and sampling
system;
b) Maintain the diluted exhaust temperature within 20 cm upstream or
downstream of the filter holder at 315 K (42 °C) ~ 325 K (52 °C);
CB.4.3 Sampling filter paper of particulate matter
During the test, the diluted exhaust gas shall pass through a filter paper that
meets the requirements of CB.4.4.1 ~ CB.4.4.3.
CB.4.3.1 Requirements for sampling filter paper
All filter paper types have a collection efficiency of at least 99% for 0.3 μm DOP
(dioctyl dicarboxylate) or PAO (poly alpha olefin). Whether the filter paper meets
the requirements can be judged by the product grade as ranked by the sampling
filter paper manufacturer according to the test conditions. Filter paper material
shall be:
a) Glass fiber filter paper coated with fluorocarbon (PTFE);
b) Membrane filter paper based on fluorocarbon (PTFE).
CB.4.3.2 Size of filter paper
The nominal diameter of the filter paper shall be 47 mm (with a tolerance of
46.50 ± 0.6 mm). The filter paper's contamination diameter shall be at least 38
mm.
CB.4.3.3 Oncoming speed of filter paper
The oncoming speed of the gas passing through the filter paper shall be 0.90 ~
1.00 m/s, the recorded airflow value of up to 5% can exceed this range. If the
total mass of the particulate matter on the filter paper exceeds 400 μg, the
oncoming speed of the filter paper may be reduced to 0.50 m/s. The oncoming
speed shall be calculated by dividing the volumetric flow of the filter paper at
the upstream pressure of the filter paper and the surface temperature of the
filter paper by the contaminated area of the filter paper.
CB.4.4 Technical requirements for weighing chambers and analytical
balances
The weighing chamber (compartment) environment shall be free of any
environmental pollutants (such as dust, aerosols or semi-volatiles) that may
contaminate the particulate filter paper. The weighing chamber shall meet the
specified technical conditions for at least 60 minutes before the filter paper is
weighed.
CB.4.4.1 Conditions of weighing chamber
During the pretreatment and weighing of the filter paper, the temperature of the
weighing chamber for pretreatment and weighing of the particulate filter paper
shall be maintained at 295K ± 1K (22 ± 1 °C). The humidity shall be maintained
at a dew point of 282.5 ± 1K (9.5 ± 1 °C).
tweezers;
c) The tweezers shall be grounded through the grounding wire or grounded
by the operator through the grounding wire, so that the grounding wire and
the balance are grounded together. The grounding wire shall have an
appropriate resistance to prevent accidental electric shock.
CB.4.4.5 Additional technical requirements
All components of the dilution system and sampling system from the tailpipe to
the filter holder are designed to minimize the adhesion or variation of particulate
matter due to contact with the original and diluted exhaust. All components must
be made of a conductive material that does not react with the exhaust
components and must be grounded, to prevent electrostatic effects.
CB.4.4.6 Calibration of flow measuring instrument
Each flow meter used in the particulate matter sampling and partial-flow dilution
system shall be linearly confirmed according to CB.2.3, to confirm that the
frequency meets the accuracy requirements of this standard. For airflow
reference values, it shall be measured by accurate flowmeters that meet
international and/or national standards. The reference requirements for the
measurement of different airflows are as shown in CB.4.5.2.
CB.4.5 Special requirements for partial-flow dilution system
The partial-flow dilution system shall ensure that a certain proportion of the
original exhaust sample is extracted from the engine's exhaust flow. The dilution
ratio or sampling rate rd or rs is determined to ensure reaching the accuracy as
specified in CB.4.5.2.
CB.4.5.1 System response time
Partial-flow dilution systems require fast system response. The system's
switching time shall be determined according to the procedures as specified in
CB.4.5.6. If the exhaust flow measurement (see CA.5.1.2) and the partial-flow
system have a combined switching time ≤ 0.3 seconds, it shall use online
control. If the switching time exceeds 0.3 seconds, it shall carry out the pre-
judgment control based on the previously recorded test cycle. In this case, the
comprehensive rise time shall be ≤ 1 second and the comprehensive delay time
shall be ≤ 10 seconds.
The overall system response design shall ensure that the particulate sampling
gas (qmp,i) is proportional to the exhaust flow. In order to determine the
proportional relationship, it shall use the data collection frequency of at least 5
Hz to perform regression analysis for qmp,i and qmew,i, and meet the following
criteria:
d) The absolute accuracy of qmdew and qmdw shall be within ±0.2% of full range.
The maximum deviation of difference between qmdew and qmdw shall be
within 0.2%. In the test, the linearity deviation shall be within ±0.2% of the
maximum value of qmdew.
CB.4.5.3 Calibration of differential flow measurement
It shall use one of the following methods to calibrate the flowmeter or the flow
measuring instrument, to ensure that the flow qmp of the probe which extends
into the tunnel reaches the accuracy requirements of CB.4.5.2.
a) The qmdw flowmeter shall be connected in series with the qmdew flowmeter.
The deviation of two flowmeters shall be calibrated for at least 5 calibration
points. The gas flow at these 5 calibration points shall be evenly
distributed between the minimum value qmdw used in the test and the qmdew
used in the test. The dilution tunnel may be bypassed;
b) The calibrated flow device shall be connected in series with the qmdew
flowmeter and shall be checked for the numerical accuracy of the test. The
calibrated flow device is connected in series with the qmdw flowmeter.
Within the dilution ratio of 3 ~ 50, select at least 5 reference points, to
check the accuracy of the corresponding qmdew as used in the test;
c) Disconnect the transmission tube (TT) from the exhaust and connect the
calibrated flow measuring device to the transmission tube. The measured
range shall be suitable for measuring qmp. qmdew shall be set to the value
used in the test. The qmdw within the range of corresponding dilution ratio
3 ~ 50 shall be set sequentially to at least 5 values. Alternatively, it may
also provide a dedicated calibration airflow path to bypass the tunnel.
However, the total airflow passing through the corresponding flowmeter
and the dilution airflow shall be same as those in actual test;
d) Tracer gas shall be led into the exhaust transmission tube (TT). The tracer
gas can be an exhaust component, such as CO2 or NOx. After being
diluted in the tunnel, the tracer gas's component is measured. It shall be
performed at 5 dilution ratios between 3 and 50. The accuracy of the
sample gas flow shall be determined according to the dilution ratio formula
rd.
To ensure the accuracy of qmp, it shall consider the accuracy of the gas analyzer.
CB.4.5.4 Inspection of carbon flow
In order to detect, identify and control problems and confirm that the partial-flow
determined, that is, from the start of the step response to the time when the
flow meter's response reaches 50%. The conversion time of the qmp signal in
the partial-flow system and the qmew,i signal in the exhaust flow meter shall be
confirmed in a similar manner. These signals will be used for regression testing
after each test (see CB.4.5.1).
The above calculation shall be repeated for at least 5 ascending and
descending responses and the average of the results is calculated. The internal
switching time (< 100 ms) shall be subtracted from this value, which is the pre-
judgement control value for the partial-flow dilution system, which will be used
for CB.4.5.1.
CB.5 Calibration of CVS system
CB.5.1 General requirements
The CVS system shall be calibrated by the use of precision flow meters and
throttling devices. The flow through the system needs to be measured in
different throttling states. It shall measure the control parameters of the system
which are related to the flow.
Various types of flow meters can be used, such as calibrated venturis,
calibrated laminar flow meters, calibrated rotameters.
CB.5.2 Calibration of positive displacement pump (PDP)
All pump-related parameters, as well as the relevant parameters of the
flowmeter in series with the pump, shall be measured simultaneously, to plot
the calculated flow ratio (in m3/s at the pump inlet, under absolute pressure and
temperature) corresponding to the correlation function. The correlation function
is a specific combination of the parameters of the pump. A linear equation of
pump flow and correlation function can be determined from the curve. If the
CVS system has multiple drives, each range used shall be calibrated.
The temperature shall be kept stable during the calibration process.
Leakage of all joints and piping between the venturi and the CVS pump shall
be kept below 0.3% of the lowest flow point (maximum throttling and minimum
PDP speed point).
CB.5.2.1 Data analysis
Each throttling set value (minimum of 6 set values) is measured according to
the method as specified by the manufacturer. It is converted to the standard
CVS volume flow (V0), expressed in m3/s. Then the standard air flow as well as
the absolute temperature and absolute pressure at the pump inlet are
substituted into the following equation, to convert it to the pump flow (V0),
c) Be installed at the position where the dilution air and exhaust are
thoroughly mixed in the dilution tunnel DT (see Figure CE.7) (i.e.,
about 10 times the diameter of the tunnel downstream from the point
where exhaust enters the dilution tunnel);
d) Maintain a sufficient distance (radial) from the other probes and the
inner wall of the tunnel, to protect it from any wake flow or eddy flow;
e) Heat to increase the exhaust temperature at the outlet of the probe to
463K ± 10K (190 ± 10 °C), or 385K ± 10K (112 ± 10 °C) for ignition
engine;
f) If using the FID analyzer (cold), it does not require heating.
4) CO, CO2, NOx sampling probe for SP3 diluted exhaust (only Figure CE.2)
The probe shall:
a) Be in the same plane as SP2;
b) Maintain a sufficient distance (radial) from the other probes and the
inner wall of the tunnel, to protect it from any wake flow or eddy flow;
c) Heat and insulate the entire length, so that the temperature is not lower
than 328K (55 °C), to prevent water condensation.
5) HF1 heated pre-filter (optional)
The temperature shall be the same as HSL1
6) HF2 heated filter
The filter shall filter the solid particles from the sample gas before
entering the gas analyzer. The filter's temperature shall be the same as
HSL1. The filter may be replaced as needed.
7) HSL1 heated sampling tube
The sampling tube delivers sample gas from a single probe to the split
point and HC analyzer.
The sampling tube shall:
a) Have an inner diameter which ranges 4 ~ 13.5 mm;
b) Be made of stainless steel or Teflon;
c) Maintain the temperature of the tube wall of each section independently
controlled and heated at 463K ± 10K (190 °C ± 10 °C) (if the exhaust
temperature at the sampling probe is ≤ 463K (190 °C));
d) Maintain the tube wall's temperature > 453K (180 °C) (if the exhaust
temperature at the sampling probe is > 463K (190 °C));
e) Maintain the gas temperature close to the heated filter HF2 and HFID
at 463K ± 10K (190 °C ± 10 °C).
8) HSL2 NOx heated sampling tube
The sampling tube shall:
a) Maintain the tube wall's temperature before the converter (in case of dry
base measurement) or before the analyzer (in case of wet base
measurement) at 328K ~ 473K (55 °C ~ 200 °C);
b) Be made of stainless steel or Teflon.
9) HP heated sampling pump
The pump shall be heated to the same temperature as the HSL.
10) SL CO and CO2 sampling tube
The sampling tubes shall be made of stainless steel or Teflon. It can
either be heated or not heated.
11) HC HFID analyzer
For the heated hydrogen flame ionization detector (HFID) or hydrogen
flame ionization detector (FID) for measuring the hydrocarbons, the
temperature shall be maintained at 453K ~ 473K (180 °C ~ 200 °C).
12) CO, CO2 NDIR analyzer
NDIR analyzer for measuring carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide (can
be used to measure dilution ratio in particulate matter measurement).
13) NOx CLD analyzer or NDUV analyzer
For the measurement of nitrogen oxides, it may use CLD, HCLD or
NDUV analyzer. If HCLD is used, its temperature shall be kept at 328K
~ 473K (55 °C ~ 200 °C).
14) B ice trough (selected for NO test)
Condense the water from the exhaust sample gas. As described in
Annex CB.3.9.2.2, the analyzer is not affected by water vapor
interference. This device may be selected. If condensation is used to
Annex CA.5.1. The flow controller shall be installed upstream or
downstream of the corresponding fan. When using compressed air, FC1
can directly control the flow of compressed air.
5) FM1 flow measuring device
Use a gas flow meter or other flow meter to measure the diluted exhaust
flow. If the calibrated pressure air blower PB is used to measure the flow,
it may select to use FM1.
6) DAF dilution air filter
It shall use a high efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) to filter the dilution
air (ambient air, synthetic air or nitrogen). According to EN 1822-1 (filter
grade of H14 or better), ASTM F 1471-93 or equivalent standards, the filter
has an initial minimum collection efficiency of 99.97%.
7) FM2 flow measuring device (only for partial sampling type, Figure CE.5)
Use a gas flow meter or other flow meter to measure the diluted exhaust
flow. If the calibrated suction blower SB is used to measure the flow, it may
select to use FM2.
8) PB pressure blower (only for partial sampling type, Figure CE.5)
Used to control the dilution air flow. The PB can be connected to the flow
controller FC1 or FC2. When using a butterfly valve, there is no need to
use PB. If calibrated, PB can be used to measure the dilution air flow.
9) SB suction blower (only for partial sampling type, Figure CE.5)
If calibrated, the SB can be used to measure the dilution air flow.
10) DT dilution tunnel (partial-flow)
Dilution tunnel
a) For partial sampling systems, there shall be sufficient length to allow the
exhaust and dilution air to be thoroughly mixed under turbulent
conditions (Reynolds number Re is more than 4000; Reynolds number
is calculated based on the inner diameter of the tunnel), e.g., full
sampling type, which does not require thorough mixing;
b) It shall be made of stainless steel;
c) The wall can be heated but the temperature does not exceed 325K
(52 °C);
d) It can be insulated.
11) PSP particulate sampling probe (only for partial sampling type, Figure
CE.5)
The particulate sampling probe is the guiding part of the PTT of the
particulate transmission tube PTT (see CE.3.3.1) and has the following
requirements:
a) It faces upstream and is installed at the position where the dilution air
and exhaust are thoroughly mixed, that is, on the centerline of the
dilution tunnel (DT), about 10 times the diameter of air duct downstream
of the point where the exhaust enters the dilution tunnel;
b) The minimum inner diameter is 8 mm;
c) The wall temperature can be directly heated to not more than 325K
(52 °C) or it may preheat the dilution air. The temperature of the dilution
air before entering the dilution tunnel shall not exceed 325K (52 °C);
d) It can be insulated.
CE.3.2 Full-flow dilution system
The dilution system as described in Figure CE.7 is based on the dilution of total
exhaust by constant-volume sampling (CVS) principle.
For the measurement of the diluted exhaust flow, it may use the positive
displacement pump PDP, critical flow venturi CFV, or subsonic venturi SSV. The
heat exchanger (HE) or electronic flow compensator (EFC) may be used for
proportional sampling of particulate matter and flow measurement. Because the
measurement of the mass of the particulate matter is based on the total diluted
exhaust flow, so there is no need to calculate the dilution ratio.
To continuously collect particulate matter, lead the diluted exhaust sample gas
into a two-stage diluted particulate sampling system (see Figure CE.9).
Although the secondary dilution system is part of the dilution system, it has most
of the components of a typical particulate sampling system and is therefore a
variant of the particulate sampling system.
PDP or the dilution air intake system. The static back pressure measured
when the PDP system is operating shall be kept within ±1.5 kPa of the
exhaust back pressure as measured by the PDP under the same engine
speed and load. When flow compensation (ECC) is not used, the
temperature of the mixed dilution exhaust immediately before the PDP
shall be within ±6K of the average working temperature as measured
during the test. Flow compensation can only be used when the
temperature at the PDP inlet does not exceed 325K (52 °C).
3) CFV Critical flow venturi
The CFV maintains the airflow at the throttling state (critical flow) to
measure the total diluted exhaust. The static back pressure measured
when the CFV system is operating shall be kept within ±1.5 kPa of the
static exhaust back pressure as measured when the engine is at the same
speed and load without connecting CFV. When not using the electronic
flow compensator (EFC), the temperature of the mixed diluted exhaust
immediately before the CFV shall be within ±11K of the average operating
temperature as measured during the test.
4) SSV subsonic venturi
The SSV uses the inlet pressure, temperature, pressure drop between the
venturi inlet and the throat to calculate the total diluted exhaust flow. It
shall be kept within ±1.5 kPa of the static exhaust back pressure as
measured when the engine is at the same speed and load without
connecting SSV. When not using the electronic flow compensator (EFC),
the temperature of the mixed diluted exhaust immediately before the SSV
shall be within ±11K of the average operating temperature as measured
during the test.
5) HE Heat exchanger (optional)
The heat exchanger shall have sufficient capacity to maintain the
temperature within the range as specified above. If electronic flow
compensator (EFC) is used, it may not require the heat exchanger.
6) EFC Electronic flow compensator (optional)
If the temperature at the inlets of PDP, CFV, SSV cannot be maintained
within the above specified range, it requires a flow compensation system,
to continuously measure the flow and control the proportional sampling
within the particulate sampling system. Therefore, a continuously
measured flow signal is required to ensure that the sample gas flow
through the particulate filter paper in the two-stage diluted particulate
sampling system is within ±2.5% of the deviation. (See Figure CE.7).
Annex CH
(Normative)
Test procedure for ammonia
CH.1 Overview
This Annex specifies the measurement procedures for ammonia (NH3). For
nonlinear analyzers, it is allowed to use the linearization circuits.
CH.2 Measurement principle
The measurement principle of ammonia shall comply with the requirements of
clause CH.2.1 or CH.2.2. It shall not use the gas dryers during the NH3
measurement.
CH.2.1 Laser diode spectrometer (LDS)
CH.2.1.1 Measurement principle
The LDS uses a single-tunnel spectroscopy principle to scan the near-infrared
spectral range via a single diode laser, to determine the absorption line of NH3.
CH.2.1.2 Installation
The analyzer is installed directly in the exhaust pipe (in situ) or in the analyzer's
sampling cabinet, to take sample according to the recommendations of the
manufacturer. If installed in the analyzer's sampling cabinet, the sampling lines
(sampling tubes, coarse filters, valves) shall be made of stainless steel or Teflon
and heated to at least 463 ± 10K (190 ± 10 °C), to reduce ammonia loss and
the effects of sampling. In addition, the sampling tube shall be as short as
possible according to the actual situation.
It shall minimize the effects of the exhaust temperature and pressure, the
installation environment, the vibration on the test, or otherwise use the
compensation techniques.
If applicable, the shielding gas used to connect the in-situ measurement and to
protect the instrument shall not affect the measurement of any concentration of
exhaust components downstream of the equipment. If affected, it may place the
sampling points of other exhaust components upstream of the equipment.
CH.2.1.3 Inspection of interference
In order to minimize interference from other components in the exhaust, the
laser spectral resolution shall be within 0.5 cm-1.
CH.2.2 Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyzer
or changes may affect the calibration, follow the requirements of CB.2.3 of this
Appendix to carry out linearization inspection. If it can be verified that the same
accuracy is achieved and the prior approval is obtained from the inspection
agency, the number of benchmarks allowed for calibration is less than 10.
The NH3 used for linearization inspection shall comply with the requirements of
clause CH.4.2.7. It is allowed to use the reference test chamber which contains
NH3 span gas. The test instrument whose signal is used for the compensation
algorithm shall meet the linearization requirements as specified in CB.2 of this
Appendix. Linearization inspections shall be carried out according to internal
inspection procedures, equipment supplier's recommendations, or GB/T 19001.
CH.4.2 Technical parameters of analyzers
The analyzer's range and response time shall meet the accuracy requirements
for NH3 concentration measurement under steady-state cycle and transient
cycle.
CH.4.2.1 Minimum detection limit
The analyzer's detection limit shall be < 2 ppm under all test conditions.
CH.4.2.2 Accuracy
That is, the deviation between the analyzer's reading and the reference value.
It shall not exceed ± 3% of the reading or ± 2 ppm, whichever is larger.
CH.4.2.3 Zero drift
The drift of the zero gas's response and the associated time interval shall meet
the specifications of the instrument manufacturer.
CH.4.2.4 Drift of span gas
The drift of the span gas's response and the associated time interval shall meet
the specifications of the instrument manufacturer.
CH.4.2.5 System response time
System response time shall be ≤ 20 s.
CH.4.2.6 Rise time
Analyzer's rise time shall be ≤ 5 s.
CH.4.2.7 NH3 standard gas
It shall have a mixed gas of chemical components as follows.
Annex CI
(Normative)
Measuring equipment of particle number emissions
CI.1 Technical requirements
CI.1.1 System overview
CI.1.1.1 The particulate sampling system shall be composed of the sampling
tube or sampling probe which takes sample from the uniform mixed gas in the
dilution system as described in CE.3.1 or CE.3.2, the volatile particle remover
installed upstream of the particle number counter (PNC), an appropriate
transmission tube.
CI.1.1.2 It is recommended to install a particle size pre-classifier (e.g., cyclone
or force type) in front of the volatile particle remover (VPR). It may also use the
sampling probe with appropriate particle size grading function as shown in
Figure CE.6 to replace the particle size pre-classifier. For partial-flow systems,
the mass of particulate matter and the particle number can be sampled by the
same pre-classifier, wherein the particle number sampling is performed in the
dilution system downstream of the pre-classifier. Alternatively, it may also use
an independent pre-classifier, wherein the particle number sampling is
performed in the dilution system upstream of the particulate mass pre-classifier.
CI.1.2 General requirements
CI.1.2.1 The particle sampling point shall be located in the dilution tunnel.
The particle transmission system (PTS) consists of a particle sampling probe
or probe (PSP) and a particle transmission tube (PTT). A particle transmission
system (PTS) directs the sample gas from the dilution tunnel into the inlet of the
volatile particle remover (VPR). The particle transmission system (PTS) shall
meet the following conditions:
For the full-flow dilution system and the partial-flow dilution system of partial
sampling type (as described in CE.3), the sampling tube shall be installed near
the center line of the dilution tunnel, at a distance 10 to 20 times the tunnel's
diameter downstream the gas inlet, at a position facing the gas flow direction.
The center axis of the sampling probe is parallel to the central axis of the dilution
tunnel. The sampling probe shall be installed in the dilution tunnel area, to
ensure that the sample is a homogeneous mixture of dilution air and exhaust.
For the partial-flow systems of full sampling type (as described in CE.3.1), the
particulate sampling point or sampling probe shall be installed in the particulate
transmission tube, upstream of the filter holder, flow measuring device, any
sampling/bypass separation points. The location of the sampling point or
sampling tube shall ensure that the dilution air and exhaust are evenly mixed.
CI.1.3.1 The particulate sample gas shall not pass through the sampling pump
before flowing through the particle number counter.
CI.1.3.2 It is recommended to use a sampling pre-classifier (PCF).
CI.1.3.3 The sampling pretreatment unit shall:
CI.1.3.3.1 Be able to dilute the sample gas one or more times, so that the
particle number concentration is lower than the upper limit of the single particle
counting module in the particle counter, and make the temperature at the inlet
of the particle number counter is below 35 °C.
CI.1.3.3.2 It includes an initial heating dilution process, wherein the temperature
of the output sample gas is from 150 °C to 400 °C and a dilution factor is at
least 10.
CI.1.3.3.3 Control the heating phase to a constant operating temperature, which
is within the range as specified in CI.1.3.3.2 with a tolerance of ±10 °C.
CI.1.3.3.4 Use the indicated information to display whether the heating phase
is at correct operating temperature.
The particle concentration attenuation factor (fr(di), the definition of which is as
shown in CI.2.2.2) of the electromigration diameters of 30 nm and 50 nm is not
more than 30% and 20%, respectively. For the volatile particle remover (VPR)
as a whole, the particulate attenuation factor corresponding the particle which
has an electromigration diameter of less than 100 nm does not exceed 5%.
CI.1.3.3.5 By heating and lowering the partial pressure of tetradecane
(CH3(CH2)38CH3), the vaporization rate of 30 nm n-tetradecane
(CH3(CH2)38CH3) particles which have an inlet concentration ≥ 10000 cm-3 can
be > 99.0 %.
CI.1.3.4 Particle number counter (PNC)
CI.1.3.4.1 It works under full-flow conditions.
CI.1.3.4.2 Based on the traceability principle, within the range from 1 cm-3 to
the upper limit of a single particle counting module, the counting accuracy is
±10%. If the measured average particle concentration during the extended
sampling period is less than 100 cm-3, it may require a higher statistical
confidence to verify the accuracy of the particle number counter (PNC).
CI.1.3.4.3 The resolution of at a particle concentration below 100 cm-3 is at least
0.1 cm-3.
CI.1.3.4.4 The single particle counting module has a linear response to particle
concentration over the entire measurement range.
(evaporation tube ET). The sampling probe or probe for the gas to be tested
shall be installed in the dilution tunnel, to extract a representative sample gas
from the homogeneous mixture of air and exhaust. The sum of the residence
time of the particulate matter in the sampling system and the T90 response time
of the particle number counter cannot be more than 20 s.
CI.1.4.2 Particle transmission system
The sampling probe or probe and the particle transmission tube (PTT) together
form a particulate transmission system (PTS).
For full-flow dilution systems and partial-flow dilution systems (as described in
CE.3), the sampling tube shall be installed near the centerline of the dilution
tunnel, approximately 10 to 20 times the diameter of the tunnel downstream of
the gas inlet, facing the direction of the airflow. The center axis of the sampling
probe is parallel to the central axis of the dilution tunnel. The sampling probe
shall be installed in the dilution tunnel area, to ensure that the sample is a
homogeneous mixture of dilution air and exhaust.
For full-sampling type partial-flow dilution systems (as described in CE.3), the
particle sampling point or sampling probe shall be installed in the particle
transmission tube, upstream of filter holder, flow measuring device, any
sampling/bypassing point. The sampling point or sampling tube shall be
positioned to ensure uniform mixing of the dilution air and exhaust. The size of
the particle sampling tube shall not affect the normal operation of the partial-
flow dilution system.
In the particle transmission system, the sample gas shall meet the following
conditions:
For the full-flow dilution system, the airflow's Reynolds number Re is < 1700;
The residence time in the particle transmission system shall be ≤ 3 s.
Other particle transmission sampling system structures are also acceptable
if it can be demonstrated that particles which have a particle size of 30 nm
have equivalent permeability.
The outlet tube (OT) that directs the diluted sample gas from the volatile
particle remover (VPR) into the particle counter's inlet shall have the
following characteristics:
The inner diameter shall be ≥ 4 mm;
The residence time of the sample gas which flows through the outlet tube
(POT) is ≤ 0.8 s.
Other outlet tube sampling structures are also acceptable if it can be
gas shall pass through a high efficiency particle air filter (HEPA) and the dilution
factor can be adjusted from 10 to 200 times.
CI.1.4.4.2 Evaporation tube (ET)
The evaporation tube's wall temperature shall be controlled to be more than or
equal to the primary particle number dilution device. The wall temperature shall
be maintained at a fixed value between 300 and 400 °C with a deviation of ±
10 °C.
CI.1.4.4.3 Secondary particle number dilution device (PND2)
The secondary particle number dilution device shall be designed to dilute the
particle number concentration. The dilution device shall be connected to a high
efficiency particle air filter (HEPA) and the dilution factor can be adjusted from
10 to 30 times. The dilution factor of the secondary particle number dilution
device shall be selected between 10 and 15 times, so that the downstream
particle number concentration is lower than the upper limit of the single particle
number counting module in the particle counter, meanwhile make the gas
temperature before entering the particle number counter be lower than 35 °C.
CI.1.4.5 Particle number counter (PNC)
The particle number counter shall meet the requirements of CI.1.3.4.
CI.2 Calibration and confirmation of the particle number sampling system
CI.2.1 Calibration of particle number counter
CI.2.1.1 The testing agency shall ensure that the particle number counter has
a traceable verification certificate and that the certificate is valid for 12 months
during the test.
CI.2.1.2 The particle number counter shall, if subjected to any significant
maintenance, be calibrated again and obtain a new calibration certificate.
CI.2.1.3 It shall use standard traceable calibration methods:
a) When sampling the standard particles which had been electrostatically
graded, the calibration is performed by comparing the response of the
calibrated and to-be-calibrated particle number counter of air electrometer;
or
b) Use the second particle number counter (this counter has been directly
calibrated by the above method), carry out calibration by comparing the
response of the particle number counter
For electrometer's calibration, it shall use at least 6 standard concentration
Nin (di) and Nout (di) shall be corrected under the same conditions.
It shall use the formulas below to calculate the average particle concentration
attenuation factor ( ) for a given dilution setting as follows
It is recommended to calibrate and confirm the volatile particle remover as a
whole.
CI.2.2.3 For volatile particle removers, the testing agency shall ensure that the
test is within the 6 months of valid period of the calibration certificate of the
volatile particle removal efficiency. If the volatile particle remover has a
temperature monitoring alert function, it allows a valid period of calibration of
12 months. At the minimum dilution setting and the operating temperature as
recommended by the manufacturer, when the inlet concentration is ≥ 10000 cm-
3, it shall be verified that the volatile particle remover can remove more than 99%
of n-tetradecane (CH3(CH2)38CH3) particles which has an electromigration
diameter of 30 nm.
CI.2.3 Inspection program of particle number counting system
CI.2.3.1 Prior to the test, when a high efficiency particle air filter (at least H13
grade or equivalent performance as specified in EN 1822) is installed at the
inlet of the entire particle sampling system (volatile particle remover and particle
number counter), the particle number counter displays a measured
concentration value of less than 0.5 cm-3.
CI.2.3.2 Each month, it shall use the calibrated flowmeter to check the particle
number counter. The difference between the measured value of the particle
number counter's flow and the nominal value shall not exceed 5%.
CI.2.3.3 Before the test, when the high efficiency particle air filter (at least the
H13 or the corresponding grade or equivalent performance as specified in EN
1822) is installed at the inlet of the particle number counter, the particle number
counter shall display the measured concentration value of ≤ 0.2 cm-3. After
removing this filter and changing to ambient air, the particle number counter
shall display the measured concentration value of at least 100 cm-3. When
installing the high efficiency particle air filter again, the measured concentration
value shall be returned to ≤ 0.2 cm-3.
CI.2.3.4 Before the test, it shall confirm that the evaporation tube of the key
component of the measuring system has reached its normal operating
indication temperature.
Appendix E
(Normative)
Test requirements of non-standard cycle of engine
E.1 Scope of application
This Appendix specifies the performance requirements and the disable
requirements for defeat strategy for engine and vehicle during type test, as well
as the requirements for effective control of the emission levels of normally used
vehicles under the environmental conditions and engine operating areas as
specified in this Appendix.
This Appendix also specifies test procedures for non-cyclic emissions of type
test vehicles.
E.2 Definition
E.2.1 Engine starting
The engine's crankshaft is from a standstill until it is 150 rpm lower than the
normal warm-up idle speed of the engine (defined as the forward gear for
vehicles with automatic transmissions).
E.2.2 Engine warm-up
The vehicle is fully operated so that the coolant's temperature is not lower than
70 °C.
E.2.3 Rated speed
The maximum full-load speed allowed by the speed limiter as specified by the
manufacturer in the sales and service manual or the maximum power speed
(without speed limiter) that the engine can achieve in the sales and service
manual as specified by the manufacturer.
E.3 General requirements
The design, manufacture, assembly, installation of any engine system and
elements of design that affect the emission of conventional pollutants shall be
such that the engine and vehicle meet the technical requirements of this
Appendix.
E.3.1 Prohibition of defeat strategy
Engine systems and vehicles shall be prohibited from using a defeat strategy.
selected 3 grids shall contain 5 random test points, respectively, totally 15 points.
Each grid shall be tested in turn. That is, after testing all five test points in one
grid, the test can be performed by switching to the next grid. These test points
form a gradually changed steady-state cycle.
E.6.2.3 The test sequence of each grid as well as the test sequence of each
test point in the grid are randomly determined. The 3 grids used for the test, the
15 operating condition points, the test order of the grid, the test order of each
point in the grid shall be randomly determined by the testing agency by a
conventional statistical method.
E.6.2.4 The average specific emission of conventional gaseous pollutants as
measured in the 5 operating condition points of any grid shall not exceed the
WNTE limits as specified in clause E.4.2.
E.6.2.5 The mass specific emission of particulate matter at 15 operating
condition points throughout the test cycle shall not exceed the WNTE limit.
E.6.3 Laboratory test procedures
E.6.3.1 After the WHSC test is passed, perform the WNTE test. Before the start
of the WNTE test, it shall follow the 9th operating condition point of the WHSC
cycle to carry out pretreatment for 3 min. Start the test immediately after it is
finished.
E.6.3.2 The engine shall be operated for 2 minutes at each random test point,
including the transition time from the previous steady state test point. The
engine speed and load transition between test points shall be linear, which has
a duration of 20 ± 1 s.
E.6.3.3 The total time from start to finish is 30 min, the cycle time of 5 points as
randomly selected in each grid is 10 min, that is, from the transition after
entering the 1st point to the end of the steady state measurement at the 5th point.
Figure E.4 shows the sequence of test procedures.
E.6.3.4 The WNTE laboratory test shall meet the validity statistics of clause
C.6.8.7 in Appendix C.
E.6.3.5 Emission tests shall be carried out according to C.6.5, C.6.7, CA.6.8 of
Appendix C.
E.6.3.6 The calculation of the test results is carried out according to Annex CA.
Figure E.4 Schematic diagram of the start of the WNTE test cycle (top left in
the Figure: preset end (the 9th operating condition point of WHSC); enter the 1st
grid; exit the 1st grid, enter the 2nd grid).
Appendix F
(Normative)
On-board diagnostic system (OBD)
F.1 Overview
This Appendix specifies the functional requirements for an onboard diagnostic
(OBD) system for engine (vehicle)'s emissions control.
F.2 Terms and definitions
F.2.1 Alert system
It refers to an on-board system that alerts the driver of the vehicle or other
related personnel when the OBD system detects a fault.
F.2.2 Non-volatile random access memory
Non-volatile random access memory (NVRAM) refers to the random access
memory which can still store the information when the power supply is
interrupted (for example, the vehicle battery is disconnected, the control unit's
fuse is removed). Usually, the non-volatile nature of NVRAM is achieved by
using a spare battery equipped on an on-board computer, or by using an
electronically erased and programmable read-only memory chip.
F.2.3 MI status
The command status of the malfunction indicator (MI), i.e., continuous-MI
continuous indication, short-MI indication, on-demand-MI indication or off.
F.2.4 Continuous-MI
Continuous-MI means the malfunction indicator MI starts the continuous
indication after the key is switched on and the engine is started (Key on - engine
on), or starts continuous indication from the start of the vehicle, whichever
occurs first. The malfunction indicator MI extinguishes when the key is switched
off.
F.2.5 Short-MI
Short-MI refers to the steady display state in the time period from the point when
the malfunction indicator MI starts to light up after the key is switched on and
the engine is started (Key on - engine on), or starts to light up after the vehicle
is started, to the point when the MI distinguishes after 15 s or the key is switched
off (whichever occurs first).
a) Direct measurement of emissions by exhaust emission sensors, which are
directly linked to test cycle emissions by models.
b) The amount of increase in emissions as indicated from the relationship
between the input and output information of the computer and specific
emission of test cycle.
F.2.15 Performance monitoring
Refers to failure monitoring which consists of functional inspections and
parameter monitoring that is not related to emission thresholds. This monitoring
is usually verified by whether the component or system is operating within the
appropriate range.
F.2.16 Total functional failure monitoring
Monitoring of failures that cause the system to completely lose its intended
function.
F.2.17 Component monitoring
Monitoring of circuit failures and rationality failures of the input components, as
well as monitoring of circuit failures and functional failures of the output
components. It is applicable to the circuit components as connected to the
engine control system.
F.2.18 Electrical circuit failure
A fault (such as an open-circuit or short-circuit) that causes the measured signal
(i.e., voltage, current, frequency, etc.) to exceed the sensor's design operating
range.
F.2.19 Rationality failure
When evaluating the signal of a sensor or component in a control system, the
failure of difference between the signal of one sensor or component and the
expected signal. Test signals for rationality failure (e.g., voltage, current,
frequency, etc.) shall be within the working range of the sensor design.
F.2.20 Functionality failure
A failure that the output component does not respond as expected by the
computer's instructions.
F.2.21 Malfunction emission control strategy (MECS)
A strategy that is activated within the engine system when an emission-related
failure occurs.
F.3.1 Primary type test
Engine manufacturers can propose OBD type test in one of three ways:
a) The engine manufacturer can propose a type test as an independent OBD
system by proving that the OBD system meets all the requirements of
Appendix F.
b) The engine manufacturer can carry out type test for OBD family by
demonstrating that the OBD parent engine system in the family meets all
the requirements specified in Appendix F.
c) The engine manufacturer may propose a type test for the OBD system by
demonstrating that the OBD system belongs to an OBD family that has
passed the type test.
F.3.2 Extension/modification of existing product catalogs
F.3.2.1 Extension of new engine system to an OBD family
At the request of the manufacturer, the new engine system can be classified
into the OBD family that has passed the type test. The extended engine system
has common emission failure monitoring/diagnostic method, but it shall be
reported to the competent department of ecological environment under the
State Council.
If all OBD technical elements of the OBD parent system can represent the new
engine system, the OBD parent system remains unchanged and the
manufacturer shall modify the documentation according to F.8.
If the new OBD system contains technical features that cannot be represented
by the OBD parent system, meanwhile the new OBD system can represent the
entire family, the new engine system shall be used as the OBD parent system.
In this case, it shall be verified that the new technical features of the OBD
comply with the requirements of this Appendix and that the documentation shall
be modified according to F.8.
F.3.2.2 Extension of design changes to OBD system
As requested by the manufacturer, after reporting to the competent department
of ecological environment under the State Council, if the manufacturer proves
the modification of the OBD system complies with the requirements of Appendix
F, the existing product catalog of the OBD system can be extended.
The OBD document shall be modified according to F.8.
If the current certificate is applicable to an OBD family, the manufacturer shall
demonstrate that the emission-related failure monitoring / diagnosis of each
Annex FC lists the systems or components that the OBD system needs to
monitor, describes the type of monitoring of each component or system (i.e.
emission threshold monitoring, performance monitoring, total functional failure
monitoring, component monitoring).
Manufacturers may decide to monitor additional systems and components.
F.4.2.1 Selection of monitoring technology
Manufacturer may use monitoring technologies other than those listed in Annex
FC. Meanwhile it shall demonstrate that the selected monitoring technology is
reliable, timely and effective (i.e., through technical considerations, test results,
prior agreements, etc.), disclose the information of relevant certification
materials.
If the system or component is not included in the Annex FC, the manufacturer
shall submit the materials to the competent department of ecological
environment under the State Council, describing the selected monitoring types
and monitoring technologies (that is, emission threshold monitoring,
performance monitoring, total functional failure monitoring, component
monitoring). Meanwhile follow the requirements of Annex FC to prove that the
selected monitoring types and monitoring technologies are stable, timely,
efficient.
F.4.2.1.1 Correlation of actual emissions
For emission threshold monitoring, it is usually verified on a test engine in the
test chamber, to obtain a correlation with the cyclic specific emissions.
For other monitoring (i.e., performance monitoring, total functional failure
monitoring or component monitoring), it does not requires obtaining the
emission of actual emission. However, it shall provide the test data to verify
whether it complies with the failure classification as required in F.6.2.
Example:
A circuit failure does not require an emission test, which is a Yes/No fault.
According to the requirements of this Appendix, if the manufacturer can
demonstrate that the total functional failure, the removal of component, or
system failure will not result in emissions exceeding the OBD limit, it is allowed
to carry out functionality monitoring of the component or system.
When an exhaust sensor is used to monitor the emission of a particular pollutant,
all other monitoring for that pollutant does not require further testing for the
correlation with actual emissions. However, this exemption does not preclude
the need for such monitoring, such as monitoring techniques for fault isolation
d) Failure will not delay or affect the performance of the original design of the
emission control system (e.g., damage to the reagent heating system
under cold conditions is not a special case).
The emission test shall be carried out on an engine test bench which is
equipped with a dynamometer according to the verification procedures
specified in this Appendix.
The verification test involved in item d) is not decisive. The manufacturer shall
submit appropriate design information, such as good engineering practice,
technical considerations, simulation and test results, to the competent
department of ecological environment under the State Council.
F.4.2.3 Monitoring of purification performance of post-exhaust processor
F.4.2.3.1 The OBD system is, based on the engine exhaust aftertreatment
system configuration, according to the monitoring requirements of FC.2.c (DPF),
FC.3.d (SCR), FC.4.a (LNT) or FC.15.a (TWC), real-time monitoring the
performance of emission aftertreatment purifier. If the emission aftertreatment
processor fails within the full life of the vehicle which causes the emissions to
exceed the OBD limit, it shall activate the driver alert system as specified in G4
of Appendix G, prompt the driver to repair it as soon as possible. When the alert
system includes an information display system, display the cause of the alert
(for example, "aftertreatment device's purification efficiency is low", "post-
processor's performance deteriorates", etc.).
F.4.2.3.2 Use the monitoring system specified in GB.4/emission post-
processor's type A failure counter to record the number of hours of engine
operation after the emission post-processor's type A failure is confirmed and
activated. The criteria for the activation and deactivation of this counter as well
as the operating mechanism are as shown in Annex GB of Appendix G.
F.4.2.3.3 If the post-processor's type A fault as described in F.4.2.3.1 causes
the driver's alert system to be activated, meanwhile the failure is still not
repaired within 36 hours of continuous engine operation, the primary drivability
limit system as described in G.5.3 shall be enabled and activated.
F.4.2.3.4 If the post-processor's type A failure as described in F.4.2.3.1 causes
the driver's alert system to be activated, meanwhile the failure is still not
repaired within 100 hours of continuous engine operation, the severe drivability
limit system as described in G.5.4 shall be enabled and activated.
F.4.2.3.5 If the failure occurs repeatedly, it shall follow the requirements of
Annex GB to reduce the number of hours before activating the drivability limit
system.
F.4.2.3.6 The principles for the activation and deactivation of driver alert and
status without going through the “potential DTC” phase. If this failure is defined
as a "potential DTC" state, it will remain in the previously active state until it is
confirmed and activated.
F.4.3.4 The monitoring system shall, after the first detection of the failure and
before the end of the next operation process, determine whether the failure
exists. If the failure exists, the system records a “confirmed and active DTC”
and the alert system is activated.
F.4.3.5 For the recoverable malfunction emission control strategy MECS (i.e.,
automatic recovery to normal and MECS deactivation before the next engine
start), there is no need to save the "confirmed and active DTC", unless the
MECS is activated again before the end of the next operation process. For
unrecoverable MECS, once the MECS is activated, it shall store the “confirmed
and active DTC”.
F.4.3.6 In some specific cases, the monitoring function requires more than two
operating procedures to detect and confirm the diagnostic trouble code (such
as the use of statistical models on the vehicle or monitoring of liquid
consumption), if the manufacturer proves to take a long time (for example,
through technical principles, test results, internal experience, etc.) and after
reporting to the competent department of ecological environment under the
State Council, it is allowed for more than two operational procedures.
F.4.3.7 For failures that have been confirmed and activated, if they are no longer
detected by the system during a complete operation process, the failure shall
be set to the previously active state before the start of the next operation and
remain in this state until the OBD information associated with the failure as
specified in F.4.4 is cleared by the scan-tool or cleared by the electronic control
unit from the memory.
Note: The above requirements are described in the Annex FB.
F.4.3.8 Permanent fault code
F.4.3.8.1 The failure as confirmed and activated by continuous-MI via
continuous light-up is recorded as a permanent fault code. This permanent fault
code shall be stored in the non-volatile random access memory at the latest
before the end of the ignition cycle.
F.4.3.8.1.1 The type A failures as confirmed and activated are recorded as
permanent fault codes.
F.4.3.8.1.2 The failures which have an accumulated time of more than 200
hours, are confirmed and activated by the type B1 which is activated but
unrepaired by continuous-MI are recorded as permanent fault code. According
to the number of B1 counters in the OBD system, it is divided into the following
codes and related information (including the associated freeze frame) cannot
be deleted directly from the electronic control unit by the OBD system. Only
when the confirmed diagnostic trouble code is kept for at least 40 warmup cycle
at the previously active state or this failure cannot be detected within 200 hours
of operation of engine, whichever comes first, this previously active diagnostic
trouble code and related information (including related freeze frames) can be
deleted by the OBD system from the electronic control unit.
F.4.4.3 Clearing of permanent fault code
F.4.4.3.1 If the OBD system records a permanent fault code, only after the OBD
system itself confirms that the failure that caused the permanent fault code no
longer exists, the OBD system can immediately clear the permanent fault code.
F.4.4.3.2 If all failure information except the permanent fault code in the onboard
computer is cleared (for example: using scan-tools, etc.), the OBD system does
not activate and light up the malfunction indicator, if the OBD system performs
one or more diagnostics in one driving cycle to confirm that the failure as
indicated by the stored fault code does not exist and that the failure does not
occur throughout the driving cycle, the OBD system can erase the permanent
fault code at the end of the cycle.
F.4.4.3.3 If more than one permanent fault codes are stored in the OBD system,
when the monitoring item of a permanent fault code satisfies the requirements
of F.4.4.3.1 or F.4.4.3.2, the OBD system can clear this permanent fault code.
Before clearing a permanent fault code, the OBD system does not require all
stored permanent fault codes to meet the requirements of F.4.4.3.1 or F.4.4.3.2.
F.4.5 Failure classification
Failure classification refers to the assignment of the corresponding failure
category when the failure is detected according to the requirements of F.4.2 of
this Appendix.
A failure is classified into a certain category throughout the full life of the vehicle,
unless it is confirmed by the competent ecological authority or the manufacturer
that it is necessary to classify this failure again.
If a failure has different effects on different pollutant emissions, or causes
different classifications due to affecting other monitoring capabilities, according
to the differential display principle, the failure shall be set to the priority display
category (e.g., type A failures take precedence over type B failures).
If MECS is activated after a failure is detected, it shall be classified based on
the impact of the activated MECS on emissions and other monitoring
capabilities. According to the differential display principle, the failure is set as
the priority display category.
In order to activate the malfunction indicator MI, the continuous-MI shall be
displayed with precedence over the short-MI and on-demand-MI, the short-MI
shall be displayed with precedence over the on-demand-MI.
F.4.6.3.1.1 Type A failures
When storing a confirmed and active type A diagnostic trouble code, the OBD
system shall give a continuous-MI activation command.
F.4.6.3.1.2 Type B failures
When storing a confirmed and active type B diagnostic trouble code, before the
next key-on, the OBD system shall give a short-MI activation command.
When the type B1 failure counter reaches 200 hours and the OBD system
detects that a type B1 failure still exists, it shall issue a continuous-MI activation
command.
F.4.6.3.1.3 Type C failures
Prior to engine start-up, the manufacturer may prompt for type C failure
information by means of an on-demand-MI display.
F.4.6.3.1.4 MI deactivation scheme
If a single monitoring event occurs, and the failure that originally activates the
continuous-MI is not detected during the current operation, meanwhile there is
no new continuous-MI activation command due to other failures, then this
"continuous-MI" shall be converted to the "short-MI" display mode.
The short-MI deactivation condition is that the failure is no longer detected
during the three consecutive operation periods from the operation process in
which the monitoring system has confirmed that the failure does not exist,
meanwhile the MI is not activated due to other type A or type B failures, then
this "short-MI" shall be deactivated.
Figure FB.1, FB.4A, FB.4B in the Annex FB respectively describe the conditions
for deactivation of the short-MI and continuous-MI under different conditions of
use.
F.4.6.4 MI activation in case of key-on engine-off
MI activation in case of key-on engine-off consists of two steps, which are
separated by a 5s MI off state:
a) Step 1 is used to display the readiness of the MI function and monitoring
component.
F.4.6.4.2.4 Active mode 4 - "Continuous-MI"
According to the priority display strategy as described in F.4.6.3.1, if the OBD
system gives a “continuous-MI” command, the malfunction indicator shall
remain light-up (“continuous-MI”).
F.4.6.5 Failure-related counter
F.4.6.5.1 MI counter
F.4.6.5.1.1 Continuous-MI counter
The OBD system shall contain a continuous-MI counter that records the number
of engine operating hours after the continuous-MI is activated.
Continuous-MI counters shall be accumulated every hour until the maximum
value that the 2-byte counter can display, unless otherwise the conditions at
which the counter can be reset to zero occur. Otherwise, the value shall be
frozen all the time.
1) Operation requirements of continuous-MI counter
The continuous-MI counter operates as follows:
a) If, starting from 0, there is a continuous-MI being activated, the
continuous-MI counter shall start counting;
b) After the continuous-MI is deactivated, the continuous-MI counter shall
stop and freeze the current value;
c) When the failures as activated by the continuous-MI are detected in 3
operation processes, the continuous-MI counter shall continue counting
from the previously frozen count value;
d) From the last time the continuous-MI counter is frozen, if a failure that
causes the continuous-MI to be activated is detected after 3 operation
processes, the continuous-MI counter shall recount from 0.
e) In the following cases, the continuous-MI counter shall be reset to zero:
i) From the last time the counter was frozen, the engine is running 40
warm-up cycles or running for 200 hours (whichever comes first), no
failure which activates the continuous-MI is detected;
ii) Use the OBD scan-tool to clear the OBD information.
k) The maximum engine running time as recorded by the B1 counter;
l) Confirmation of type B1 failure and activation of diagnostic trouble code,
as well as the running time of engine as read from the B1 counter;
m) Confirmation of type C failure and activation of diagnostic trouble code;
n) Pending diagnostic trouble code and their classification;
o) Previously active diagnostic trouble code and their classification;
p) Real-time information on sensor signals, internal and output signals
selected and supported by the OEM (see F.4.7.2 and Annex FE).
q) The freeze frame data required by this Appendix (see F.4.7.1.4 and Annex
FE);
r) Software calibration identification code;
s) Calibration verification code.
According to the provisions of Annex FH, external fault test equipment can be
used to clear diagnostic trouble codes and related information (running time
information, freeze frames, etc.) other than permanent fault codes as recorded
by the engine's OBD system.
F.4.7.1.4 Freeze frame information
According to the manufacturer's requirements, when storing a potential
diagnostic trouble code or a confirmed and active diagnostic trouble code, at
least the freeze frame information is saved. The manufacturer can update the
freeze frame information whenever the potential diagnostic trouble code is
detected again.
The freeze frame shall provide the vehicle operating conditions when the failure
is detected and when the data associated with the diagnostic trouble code is
stored. The freeze frame shall include the information listed in Table FE.1. The
freeze frame shall also include the information as described in Table FE.2 and
Table FE.3, which shall be used for monitoring or control purposes in the
specific control unit of the stored diagnostic trouble code (DTC).
Freeze frames of type A failure shall be stored preferentially compared to other
types of failures. Freeze frames of type B1 failures shall be stored preferentially
compared to type B2 and C failures. Freeze frames of type B2 failure shall be
stored preferentially compared to type C failures. A previously detected failure
shall be stored preferentially compared to the most recent failure store, unless
the most recent failure has a higher priority.
Appendix.
F.4.7.1.5.2 Readiness of monitoring function
Refer to the requirements of this Appendix, except for FC.11 and FC.12 in the
Annex FC, the readiness is applicable to each or each set of the monitoring
functions as specified in this Appendix.
F.4.7.1.5.3 Readiness of continuous monitoring
For the continuous operation monitoring function as specified in this Appendix,
in case of readiness of one or a set of monitoring functions as specified in FC.1,
FC.7, FC.10 of the Annex FC, it shall always indicate the "finished" status.
F.4.7.2 Data stream information
The OBD system shall provide the information displayed in the Table FE.1 ~
Table FE.4 to the scan tool in real time according to the request signal (the
actual signal value shall be used in preference to the replacement value).
To calculate the load and torque parameters, the OBD system shall report the
most accurate value as calculated by the electronic control unit (such as the
ECU).
Table FE.1 gives mandatory OBD information on engine load and speed.
Table FE.3 gives other OBD information that must be included, such as for
emission systems or OBD systems to enable or disable OBD monitoring.
Table FE.4 gives the perceptual or calculated information of the engine
configuration that needs to be covered. At the request of the manufacturer,
other freeze frames or data stream information may also be included.
If the OBD monitors a device which is not covered in the Annex FE (e.g., SCR),
it shall follow the similar method as described in Annex FE, save the information
of the sensor and actuator of the device to the data stream information. This
information shall be submitted to the competent department of ecological
environment under the State Council during the type test.
F.4.7.3 Acquisition of OBD information
The acquisition of OBD information shall be carried out according to the
standard methods as mentioned in Annex FH and the provisions of this part. It
shall not encrypt the standard OBD communication protocol.
The acquisition of OBD information shall not depend on any access code,
reading device or method that can only be obtained from the manufacturer or
supplier. The interpretation of OBD information cannot rely on any special
Disconnection of the vehicle's battery does not result in the deletion of OBD
information.
F.4.8 Safety of electronic control system
Unless authorized by the manufacturer, the emission control unit on any vehicle
shall have tamper-proof functionality. If these modifications are necessary for
diagnosis, maintenance, inspection, vehicle modification or repair, the
manufacturer shall authorize the modification.
Any reprogrammable computer code or operating parameters shall be
protected from tampering. The exchange of security information via the
protocols and diagnostic interfaces in this Appendix shall provide the same
protection level as specified in ISO 15031-7 (SAE J2186) or J1939-73. Any
removable calibration memory chip shall be placed in a sealed container or
protected by an electronic algorithm, so that it can only be modified by
specialized tools and procedures.
Modifications to computer-programmed engine operating parameters must also
use specialized tools and follow prescribed procedures (such as soldered or
packaged computer components or sealed computer control boxes).
The manufacturer shall take sufficient measures to ensure that the maximum
fuel supply setting of the vehicle is not tampered with during the maintenance
process.
For vehicles that do not require protection, the manufacturer may request an
exemption from the competent department of ecological environment under the
State Council. The evaluation criteria that the competent department of
ecological environment under the State Council may consider granting
exemptions include, but are not limited to, the availability of high-performance
chips, the efficient functioning of vehicles, the estimated sales volume of
vehicles.
When a manufacturer uses a programable computer programming device such
as an electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM), it shall
prevent the unauthorized recompilation. For off-site computer devices as
maintained by the manufacturer, the manufacturer shall strengthen the tamper-
proof protection measures and write protection functions. After reporting to the
competent department of ecological environment under the State Council, it
may use the same level of alternative tamper-proof methods.
F.4.9 Durability of OBD system
The OBD system shall be designed and manufactured to ensure that the type
of failure is identified throughout the useful life of the vehicle and engine system.
may be temporarily interrupted. The manufacturer may set a higher limit than
the above value, to make the system monitoring temporarily interrupted, but the
above situation shall be reported to the competent authority.
The manufacturer shall demonstrate that the monitoring below the above
voltage limits will be unreliable and that the vehicle cannot run a longer time
under the voltage at which the OBD function is temporarily interrupted, or
otherwise when the OBD system is monitoring the battery or the system voltage,
the monitoring function will be interrupted due to the detection of a low voltage.
F.5.4.2 High voltage
After the manufacturer reports to the competent department of ecological
environment under the State Council, for the emission-related monitoring
system affected by the battery or system voltage, when the battery or system
voltage exceeds the value as specified by the manufacturer, the monitoring
function may be temporarily interrupted.
The manufacturer shall demonstrate that monitoring above its specified voltage
limits is unreliable and that the charging system/alternator alert lights are to be
illuminated (or the meter is in the “red zone”). The OBD system detects voltage
failures in other temporarily interrupted monitoring functions by monitoring the
battery or system voltage.
F.5.5 Power take off (PTO)
After the manufacturer reports to the competent department of ecological
environment under the State Council, on the vehicle equipped with the power
take off (PTO), when the PTO unit is temporarily activated, the affected
monitoring function may be temporarily interrupted.
F.5.6 Forced regeneration
After the manufacturer reports to the competent department of ecological
environment under the State Council, the OBD monitoring function affected
during the forced regeneration of the engine's downstream emission control
system (such as particulate filter) may be temporarily interrupted.
F.5.7 Auxiliary emissions strategy (AES)
After the manufacturer reports to the competent department of ecological
environment under the State Council, except for the conditions of F.5.2, if the
monitoring capability of a monitoring system is affected by the AES work, the
OBD monitoring function may be temporarily interrupted during AES work.
F.5.8 Refueling
After refueling, when the system ECU needs to identify and adapt to changes
c) Principles of functional monitoring and component monitoring;
d) Monitoring parameters (e.g., frequency).
The commonality of the above basic parameters shall be proved by the
manufacturer through relevant engineering verification or other reasonable
methods, meanwhile it shall be reported to the competent department of
ecological environment under the State Council.
The manufacturer may prove to the competent department of ecological
environment under the State Council that the changes in the engine system
structure have little impact on the monitoring/diagnostic methods of the engine
emission control system, and the manufacturers may determine that these
methods are similar:
a) Their differences are limited to the specific parameter comparison of the
corresponding components (such as size, exhaust flow, etc.), or
b) Their commonality is based on good engineering judgment.
F.6.2.2 OBD parent engine system
For the compliance requirements of the OBD family, it shall verify that the OBD
parent engine in the family meets the requirements of this Annex.
The OBD parent engine is selected by the manufacturer and reported to the
competent department of ecological environment under the State Council.
Prior to testing, the competent authority has the right to require the
manufacturer to select additional engines for testing.
Manufacturer may also propose to the competent department of ecological
environment under the State Council to test additional engines, to cover the
entire emission OBD family.
F.6.3 Verification method of failure classification
The manufacturer shall provide reasonable documents to the competent
department of ecological environment under the State Council to prove the
rationality of each failure classification. This document includes failure analysis
(e.g., “failure mode and impact analysis”) and shall also include:
a) Simulation results;
b) Test results;
c) Reference to the previous classification.
In the following clauses, it lists the verification methods and test requirements
of ecological environment reclassifies the failure as type B2 or type C. In this
case, according to the requirements of the competent department of ecological
environment, the document shall record that the failure has been reclassified.
F.6.3.4 Type B2 verification (distinguishing between B2 and B1)
If the failure is type B2, the manufacturer shall indicate that the resulting
emissions are lower than OTLs.
If the competent department of ecological environment determines that its
emissions are higher than OTLs and does not agree to classify it as type B2,
manufacturers can test to prove that the emissions caused by the failure are
lower than OTLs. If the test fails, the competent department of ecological
environment shall reclassify the failure to type A or type B1; the manufacturer
shall then prove the rationality of the classification and update the
documentation.
F.6.3.5 Type B2 verification (distinguishing between B2 and C)
If the competent department of ecological environment does not agree the
manufacturer to classify the failure into type B2, because the emission caused
by the failure does not exceed the emission limit, the competent department of
ecological environment requires classifying the failure into type C. According to
the requirements of the competent department of ecological environment, the
type test documents shall be recorded.
F.6.3.6 Type C verification
To prove that a failure is a type C failure, the manufacturer shall demonstrate
that its emissions are below the emission limits.
If the competent department of ecological environment does not agree to
classify it as type C, a verification test is required to prove that the emission due
to failure is lower than the specified emission limits.
If the test fails, the competent department of ecological environment shall
request a reclassification of the failure, the manufacturer shall then demonstrate
the rationality of the classification and update the documentation.
F.6.3.7 Verification of permanent fault code
According to the provisions of F.4.3.8, verify the OBD system's storage
operation of the permanent fault code. According to the provisions of F.4.4.3,
verify that when the failure as indicated by the permanent fault code does not
exist, the OBD system may clear the stored permanent fault code by itself.
F.6.4 Verification program of OBD performance
distinguish type A and B1 failures
F.6.4.2.1.1 Emission threshold monitoring
If the emission caused by the failure as selected by the competent department
of ecological environment exceeds the requirements of OBD limit, the
manufacturer shall carry out the emission test verification according to F.7. The
qualified deteriorated components or devices shall not cause the relevant
emission to exceed the OTL limit by 20%.
F.6.4.2.1.2 Performance monitoring
When performing performance monitoring, emissions may exceed the OTL limit
by 20%. This requirement is permissible for individual cases, but shall be
reported to the competent department of ecological environment under the
State Council.
F.6.4.2.1.3 Component monitoring
When component monitoring is performed, the inspection of the qualified
deteriorated component does not require an OTL reference.
F.6.4.2.2 Monitoring of qualified deteriorated component for verification of
type B2 failures
In the case of a type B2 failure, the manufacturer shall, according to the
emission test specified in F.7, demonstrate that the qualified deteriorated
component or device does not cause the associated emissions to exceed its
corresponding OTL.
F.6.4.2.3 Detection of qualified deteriorated component for verification of
type C failures
In the case of a type C failure, the manufacturer shall, according to the emission
test specified in F.7, demonstrate that the qualified deteriorated component or
device does not cause the associated emissions to exceed the emission limits
of conventional pollutants.
F.6.4.2.4 Drivability limit system of degraded emission aftertreatment
device for verification of type A failure
According to F.4.2.3, carry out test verification of the alert and vehicle drivability
limit strategy as adopted by the type A failure where the emission exceeds OBD
limit due to failure of emission aftertreatment device.
F.6.4.3 Test report
The test report shall contain at least the information as required by the Annex
F.7 Test procedure
F.7.1 Test flow
During the test, the correct verification of the failure classification and the
performance verification of the OBD system may be performed separately. For
example, when the type A failure is subject to OBD performance test, it does
not require carrying out the verification test for the failure classification.
If applicable, it may use the same test to verify the failure classification,
verification of the qualified deteriorated components as provided by the
manufacturer, the normal monitoring function of OBD system.
Engines used for OBD system testing shall comply with the emission
requirements of this standard.
F.7.1.1 Verification of failure classification
According to F.6.3, the competent department of ecological environment
requires the manufacturer to verify a failure classification. The compliance
verification shall include a series of emission tests.
According to F.6.3.2, when the competent department of ecological
environment verifies the type B1 failure but not type A failure, the manufacturer
shall prove that under the selected test conditions, the emissions caused by the
corresponding failure shall be less than the OTLs:
a) The test conditions selected by the manufacturer shall be subject to the
approval of the competent authority;
b) Manufacturers are not required to demonstrate that emissions in other
failures are higher than OTLs.
According to the requirements of the manufacturer, the emission test can be
carried out up to 3 times.
If the emission value measured by any of the emission tests is lower than the
OTL, then it agrees to classify the failure as type B1.
If the competent department of the ecological environment requires testing to
prove the rationality of classifying a failure into type B2 but not type B1, or the
rationality of classifying it into type C but not type B2, the emission test shall not
be repeated. In this case, if the measured emission exceeds the OTL value or
the emission limit, the failure shall be reclassified.
Note: According to the provisions of F.6.3.1, the requirements for failure
classification verification of this paragraph are not applicable to type A failures.
F.7.1.2.3 Failure detection
The failure monitoring as selected by the competent department of ecological
environment shall be tested on the engine bench. After being replaced with
qualified deteriorated components, the failure monitoring shall make response
within two consecutive OBD test cycles as specified in F.7.2.2 of this Appendix,
in a method complying with the requirements of this Appendix.
If it has been specially noted in the description of the function monitoring and
reported to the competent department of ecological environment under the
State Council, some special function monitoring verification requires completion
by more than two operation processes. The number of OBD test cycles can be
increased accordingly according to the requirements of the manufacturer.
Each individual OBD test cycle is differentiated by engine OFF during the
verification process. The timing of the engine OFF until the next start-up shall
take into account any functionality inspection that may occur after the engine
OFF, as well as the necessary conditions for a functionality inspection that
occurs at the next start-up.
The test is considered complete as long as the response of the OBD system
meets the requirements of this Appendix.
F.7.2 Type test
The test cycle for type test of the OBD system includes an emission test cycle
and an OBD test cycle. The emission test cycle is a conventional emission test
cycle used for inspection of qualified deteriorated components or systems. The
OBD test cycle is a test cycle that verifies the OBD system's ability to monitor
failures.
F.7.2.1 Emission test cycle
The emission test cycle is the WHTC cycle in Annex CJ.
F.7.2.2 OBD test cycle
The OBD test cycle is the hot WHTC cycle in Annex CJ.
For a particular monitoring function, it may select an alternative OBD cycle for
verification (e.g., cold state WHTC cycle). The documents (technical factors,
simulations, test results, etc.) that enterprises shall provide to the competent
department of ecological environment under the State Council are as follows:
a) Test cycle conditions for verification of this monitoring function will occur
under actual driving conditions.
b) Hot state WHTC cycle is not suitable for monitoring of this failure (e.g.,
perform separate torque measurement when verifying the primary drivability
limit system.
At the end of each verification test, the manufacturer verifies that the engine
ECU has activated the torque limiter to the competent department of ecological
environment, the verification of the primary drivability limit system is finished.
F.7.4.3 Activation verification of severe drivability limit system
Verification of the severe drivability limit system shall begin after the activation
of the primary drivability limit system is activated; it can be used as a
continuation of the verification of primary drivability limit system. The engine
continues to operate. When the type A failure counter of the monitoring
system/emission aftertreatment device as specified in GB.4.1 reaches 100
hours, if the failure is not eliminated, it shall activate the severe drivability limit
system, to apply speed limit control of the vehicles according to the effective
conditions of the severe drivability limit system as set in G.5.4.
At the end of each verification test, if the manufacturer verifies that the engine
ECU has activated the vehicle speed limiter to the competent department of
ecological environment, the verification of the severe drivability limit system is
completed.
The manufacturer shall provide technical documents based on algorithms,
functional analysis and previous test results to the competent department of
ecological environment under the State Council, to prove the speed limit after
the activation of the severe drivability limit system. As an alternative method,
after reporting to the competent department of ecological environment under
the State Council, the manufacturer may choose to fix the whole vehicle on a
suitable test bench according to the requirements of GA.5.4 or verify the speed
limit on the test track according to the required control conditions.
Considering that the verification process of drivability limit system activation
requires the vehicle/engine to run for a long time, in order to reduce the burden
on the manufacturer, if possible, when performing functionality inspection on
these systems, it may select a counter simulation with a longer operating hours.
F.7.5 Test report
The test report shall contain at least the contents as required in Annex FD.
F.8 Document requirements
F.8.1 Type test materials
The manufacturer shall provide an OBD document that includes a description
of all OBD systems. The document shall be divided into two parts:
This information shall include the technical basis for the classification of type A,
B1, B2 failures as required by F.4.5.
F.8.1.3 Documents related to OBD family
The second part of the document shall contain, but is not limited to, the following
information for the OBD family:
It shall provide a description of the OBD family, which shall include a list of
engine types within the OBD family, a description of the OBD parent engine
system, all technical features that can represent the OBD family according to
the requirements of F.6.2.1 of this Appendix.
If the engine included in the OBD family belongs to a different engine family, it
shall provide a brief description of the engine family.
In addition, manufacturers shall list all electronic input/output lists and
communication protocols used by each OBD family.
F.8.2 Document description of engine equipped with an OBD system
installed in a vehicle
Engine manufacturers shall provide documentation to propose the
corresponding requirements for the installation of their engine systems, to
ensure that the vehicle meets the requirements of this Annex when used on the
road or elsewhere (if applicable). This document shall include but is not limited
to:
a) Detailed technical description, including the requirements for compatibility
of the OBD system of engine systems;
b) Verification process.
The degree of compliance with this installation requirement can be verified
during the type test process of engine system.
Note: This document is not required if the vehicle manufacturer directly
performs a type test on the engine's OBD system installed on the vehicle.
F.9 In-use monitoring performance
This paragraph describes the requirements for in-use monitoring performance
of the OBD system.
F.9.1 Technical requirements
F.9.1.1 Annex FG specifies the technical requirements for monitoring
performance of OBD systems, including relevant communication protocols,
Annex FC
(Normative)
Monitoring requirements
This Annex specifies the systems or components (if any) as monitored by the
OBD system as required by F.4.2. Unless otherwise specified, this requirement
apply to all types of engines.
FC.1 Monitoring of electrical / electronic component
The electrical/electronic components used to control or monitor the emission
control system shall be monitored according to F.4.2. It shall be composed of at
least a pressure sensor, a temperature sensor, an emission sensor and an
oxygen sensor (if any), a knock sensor, a fuel or reagent injector in the emission,
an exhaust burner or heater, a glow plug, an intake heater.
As long as there is feedback closed-loop control, the OBD system must monitor
its designed feedback control capability (for example, possible failures: no
feedback control is performed within the time interval as specified by the
manufacturer, or the system cannot perform feedback control, or feedback
control adjustment parameters exceed the setting range of the manufacturer) -
component monitoring.
In particular, if the reagent injection is closed-loop control, it shall also meet the
monitoring requirements of this clause, but the detected failure shall not be
classified as a type C failure.
Note: These requirements apply to all electrical-electronic components, even if
they belong to other different monitoring systems in this Appendix.
FC.2 DPF system
The OBD system shall monitor the components and performance parameters
of the DPF system:
a) DPF carrier: The OBD system shall detect failure when the DPF is unable
to capture particles (meaning that the DPF carrier is completely damaged,
removed, lost or the particle trap is replaced by a silencer or straight tube)
- Total functional failure monitoring;
b) DPF performance: DPF blockage - Total functional failure monitoring;
c) DPF performance: Monitor the DPF filtration and regeneration process.
When the DPF performance is degraded and the particulate emissions
exceed the OBD limit, the OBD system shall detect the failure - Emission
threshold monitoring;
Note: It is also necessary to monitor whether the DPF cyclic regeneration device
item may be exempted.
FC.11.3.2 If the CV valve is designed to be fastened directly to the crankcase,
the removal of the CV valve from the crankcase needs cut off the connection
between the CV valve and the intake pipeline, meanwhile the connection
between the CV valve and the intake pipeline has been monitored, then the
competent department of ecological environment may allow the manufacturer
not to monitor the disconnection failure between the crankcase and CV valve.
FC.11.3.3 If it can be confirmed that the connection between the crankcase and
the CV valve is as follows, and it is reported to the competent department of
ecological environment under the State Council, it may not implement
monitoring. The manufacturer shall submit technical data and/or engineering
evaluation documents.
a) It can prevent aging or accidental disconnection;
b) It is obviously more difficult to disconnect between the CV valve and the
crankcase than disconnect between the CV valve and the intake pipeline;
c) The maintenance and service of the manufacturer for the other part than
the CV system do not relate to the CV system.
FC.11.3.4 After reporting to the competent authority, under the following
conditions, it may not monitor the “disconnection” of the pipeline between the
CV valve and the intake pipeline. The manufacturer shall submit technical data
and/or engineering evaluation documents.
a) “Disconnection” of the pipeline between the CV valve and the intake
pipeline will cause the engine to stop immediately during idle operation;
b) Integrated design of CV valve and intake pipeline (for example, the
connecting pipe between CV valve and intake pipeline is the internal
passage of the engine, not the external pipeline) does not cause
"disconnection" of the pipeline between the CV valve and the intake
pipeline.
FC.11.4 If the manufacturer can prove that the failure monitoring of the CV
system requires additional monitoring hardware to clearly identify the failure of
CV system, then the stored diagnostic trouble code for the CV system need not
be specifically designated as a CV system (e.g., can be stored as a diagnostic
trouble code related to idle speed control or fuel system monitoring), but the
manufacturer must include inspection of the CV system in the repair program
of the failure detected.
FC.12 Monitoring of engine cooling system
Annex FF
(Normative)
Verification of performance monitoring
FF.1 General requirements
This Annex specifies the verification test procedures associated with
performance monitoring.
FF.2 Verification of performance monitoring
FF.2.1 Type test of failure classification
FF.2.1.1 According to the provisions of F.4.2.1.1, performance monitoring does
not need to test the corresponding actual emission value. However, the
competent department of ecological environment may require testing of
emission data in order to confirm the failure classification as described in F.6.3.
FF.2.2 Type test of the performance monitoring items as selected by the
manufacturer
FF.2.2.1 When conducting type test on the performance monitoring items
selected by the manufacturer, the competent department of ecological
environment shall consider the technical information as provided by the
manufacturer.
FF.2.2.2 The functionality thresholds of the monitoring items as selected by the
manufacturer shall be obtained by the verification test of the parent engine in
the OBD engine family:
FF.2.2.2.1 The verification test shall be carried out by the same method as
specified in F.6.4.2.
FF.2.2.2.2 It shall test the performance degradation of all the component being
evaluated and use it as the performance threshold of the parent engine of the
OBD engine family.
FF.2.2.3 The performance monitoring criteria for the type-tested parent engine
applies to all other engines in the OBD engine family without requiring re-
verification.
FF.2.2.4 It shall allow manufacturer to reach an agreement with the competent
department of the ecological environment, to adjust the above functionality
threshold of the members in the OBD engine family, to cover different design
parameters as much as possible (e.g., EGR cooler size). The agreement shall
be based on technical elements that indicate its relevance.
FF.2.2.4.1 At the request of the competent department of ecological
Annex FG
(Normative)
Technical requirements and verification of in-use monitoring
performance of on-board diagnostic system (OBD)
FG.1 Scope of application
This Annex specifies the technical requirements and verification methods for
the in-use monitoring performance of the on-board diagnostic system (OBD) of
engines and vehicles.
FG.2 Terms and definitions
FG.2.1 Numerator
The numerator of a monitoring function refers to the number of vehicle
operations when the monitoring conditions required for the monitoring function
are fully met.
FG.2.2 Denominator
The denominator of a monitoring function refers to the number of vehicle driving
cycles associated with the monitoring function, or the number of occurrences of
vehicle driving events related to the monitoring function.
FG.2.3 In-use monitoring frequency (IUPR)
FG.2.3.1 In-use monitoring frequency of a certain monitoring function m of OBD
system (IUPRm)
IUPRm = Numeratorm/Denominatorm
Where, Numeratorm is the numerator for monitoring function m, Denominatorm
is the denominator for monitoring function m.
FG.2.3.2 In-use monitoring frequency of a group of monitors (IUPRg)
IUPRg = Numeratorg / Denominatorg
Numeratorg is a numerator in a group of monitors g, which is the value of
numerator of the specific monitoring function m as corresponding to the
minimum IUPR value in a group of monitors g as installed on a specific vehicle;
Denominatorg is the denominator in a group of monitors g, which is the value of
denominator of the specific monitoring function m as corresponding to the
minimum IUPR value in a group of monitors g as installed on a specific vehicle.
FG.2.4 General denominator
use performance evaluation of individual vehicles.
FG.4 Calculation requirements for in-use monitoring frequency
FG.4.1 Calculation of in-use monitoring frequency
For each monitoring function m considered in this Annex, it shall use the formula
FG.2.3.1 to calculate the in-use monitoring frequency, wherein the numerator
m and the denominator m are gradually increased as specified in this paragraph.
FG.4.1.1 Ratio requirements for system calculation and storage
The value range of each IUPRm is minimum 0, and maximum 7.99527. The
value interval is 0.000122 (this value corresponds to the resolution 0x1 of the
maximum hexadecimal number 0xFFFF).
When a particular component has a corresponding numerator count of zero but
the denominator count is not zero, the ratio shall be zero.
When the denominator count corresponding to a specific component is zero or
the actual value as obtained by dividing the numerator by the denominator
exceeds the maximum value 7.99527, the ratio shall be taken as the maximum
value 7.99527.
FG.4.2 Numerator increase requirements
The increment of the numerator for each driving cycle cannot exceed 1.
The numerator for specific monitoring shall be increased within 10 s if and only
if the following conditions are met within one driving cycle:
a) All monitoring conditions required for failure monitoring and potential DTC
storage for specific component monitoring items, including start conditions,
presence of relevant DTCs, sufficiently long monitoring time, assignment
of diagnostic execution's priority (e.g., diagnostic "A" shall be prioritized
over the diagnostic "B"), etc. are satisfied;
Note: In order to increase the numerator of a specific monitor, only all the
monitoring conditions required for the monitor to confirm the elimination of
the failure may not be sufficient.
b) For monitors that require multiple phases or events for failure monitoring
within a driving cycle, all monitoring conditions required for all monitoring
events shall be met.
c) For monitors used for failure identification and is operated only after one
potential DTC storage, the numerator and denominator may be the same
as the count value of the monitoring item wherein the initial failure is
"on", "Open", "closed", "locked"), or the cumulative action time is more than or
equal to 10 seconds (whichever occurs first), its denominator shall be increased.
FG.4.3.2.5 DPF dedicated denominator
Except for the requirements of FG.4.3.1 a) and b), after the corresponding
denominator is increased last time, if the cumulative mileage of the vehicle is at
least 800 km or the engine accumulates running at least 750 minutes, the
corresponding denominator increases in at least one driving cycle. After
reporting to the competent department of ecological environment under the
State Council, the conditions for increasing the denominator of DPF may be
based on the accumulated mileage of the vehicle or the cumulative running time
of the engine set by the manufacturer. The manufacturer must provide technical
data such as test data, such as the average time of DPF regeneration cycle or
the cumulative mileage of the vehicle.
FG.4.3.2.6 Dedicated denominator for oxidation catalyst
Except for the requirements of FG.4.3.1 a) and b), if the command time of a
DPF regeneration event is more than or equal to 10 s, the denominator of the
oxidation catalyst for DPF active regeneration is increased in at least one
driving cycle.
FG.4.3.2.7 Hybrid dedicated denominator (reserved)
FG.4.4 Increase requirements for general denominator
The general denominator shall be incremented within 10s if and only if the
following conditions are met within a single driving cycle:
a) The cumulative time since the cycle started is more than or equal to 600
s, while satisfying:
1) The altitude is lower than 2500 m;
2) Ambient temperature is more than or equal to 266K (-7 °C)
3) Ambient temperature is less than or equal to 311K (38 °C)
b) The engine has a cumulative running time at a speed of 1150 r/min or
above is more than or equal to 300 s under the conditions of FG.4.4 a); or
as an alternative to the 1150 r/min speed, the manufacturer may choose
to operate the engine at 15% of the calculated load or above or operate
the vehicle at a speed of 40 km/h or above.
c) Under the condition of FG.4.4 a), the vehicle continuously idles (the driver
releases the accelerator pedal, the speed of the vehicle is less than or
equal to 1.6 km/h, the engine speed is lower than or equal to the speed of
In any other case, the general denominator's counting operation cannot be
interrupted.
FG.5 Tracking and recording requirements for in-use monitoring
performance data
For the monitoring function group as listed in FG.7, the OBD system shall
separately track the numerator and denominators for each monitoring function
of this group as listed in the Annex FC of Appendix F.
Simply report the corresponding numerator counter and denominator values for
the particular monitor which has the minimum IUPR ratio.
If two or more specific monitoring functions have the same ratio, it shall report
the corresponding numerator and denominator of the monitoring function with
the maximum denominator in the group.
In order to determine the minimum ratio of the monitoring function group
indiscriminately, only the monitoring specifically mentioned in this group of
monitoring functions is considered (for example, when determining the
monitoring function as listed in "SCR" in Annex FC.3, the NOx sensor shall be
considered in the "exhaust sensor group" of the monitoring function, not in the
"SCR" group of the monitoring function).
The OBD system shall also track and report the general denominator and the
ignition cycle counter.
Note: According to FG.3.1.1, the manufacturer is not required to separately
track and report the numerator and denominators of the continuously running
monitoring function through the software algorithm of the OBD system.
FG.6 Storage and communication requirements of in-use monitoring
performance data
Communication of in-use monitoring performance data is a new application
case, which is not included in three application cases for determining the
possibility of failure.
FG.6.1 Information of in-use monitoring performance data
The information related to the in-use monitoring performance data as recorded
by the OBD can be obtained offline according to FG.6.2.
This information shall provide the in-use monitoring performance data to the
competent department of ecological environment under the State Council.
The OBD system shall provide all information to the external IUPR test
equipment (according to the standards specified in Annex FH of Appendix F)
Appendix G
(Normative)
Requirements for proper operation of the NOx control system
G.1 Overview
This Appendix specifies the technical requirements for the proper
implementation of NOx control measures, including the requirements for vehicle
which needs to use reagent to reduce emissions.
G.2 General requirements
All engine systems within the scope of this Appendix shall be designed,
manufactured, installed to ensure that the requirements of this Appendix are
met during the service life and under normal conditions of use. For this reason,
deterioration of performance and monitoring system's monitoring performance
of engines that exceed the applicable useful life cycle as described in 6.6 of this
standard is acceptable.
G.2.1 Type test materials
G.2.1.1 The manufacturer shall submit a complete description of the
functionality of the engine system which covers the requirements of this
standard, in the form of Appendix GA.
G.2.1.2 In type test, the manufacturer shall specify the consumption
characteristics of all reagents in any emission control system. The
documentation shall also include the type, concentration (if applicable),
pressure of use (if applicable), temperature conditions of use, internationally
relevant standards on the reagent.
G.2.1.3 At the same time when the manufacturer proposes a type test, submit
a functionality description text of the driver alert system as described in G.4 and
the drivability limit system as described in G.5 in details.
G.2.1.4 When a manufacturer proposes a type test for an engine or engine
family as an independent technical unit, it shall include documents complying
with the requirements of A.3.5 of this standard, to ensure that both road or non-
road vehicles can meet the requirements of this standard. The documents shall
contain the following information:
a) Includes detailed technical requirements for all engine system monitoring,
activation of alert and drivability limit system that meet the requirements
of this standard.
for 72 hours to reduce the reagents to the required temperature or until the
reagent freezes (if using liquid reagent).
G.2.3.2.2.2 After the cold dipping is completed according to G.2.3.2.2.1, the
engine shall be idling for 10 ~ 20 minutes under the environmental conditions
of 256K (-17 °C) ~ 266K (-7 °C), after which it is running at a load of not more
than 40% for not more than 50 minutes.
G.2.3.2.2.3 After the completion of the test procedures of G.2.3.2.2.1 and
G.2.3.2.2.2, the reagent dosing system shall be capable of normal operation.
G.2.3.2.2.4 After reporting to the competent department of ecological
environment under the State Council, the test requirements of G.2.3.2.2 may
be completed in a low temperature warehouse equipped with an engine
dynamometer or a chassis dynamometer or at an automobile test site.
G.2.3.3 Non-heating reagent tanks and dosing systems
G.2.3.3.1 If there is no reagent supply under the ambient conditions ≤ 256K (-
17 °C), the driver alert system shall be activated as required by G.4.
G.2.3.3.2 If the vehicle is running without reagent supply within 70 minutes after
the vehicle is started under ambient conditions ≤ 256K (-17 °C), the severe
drivability limit system shall be activated according to G.5.4.
G.2.4 When a liquid reagent is used, each individual reagent tank on the vehicle
shall be equipped with a reagent sampling device for sampling. The sampling
operation shall not require any information that is not on the vehicle. The
sampling device shall be easy to sample without the need for specialized tools
or equipment. It is not a special tool or equipment to lock the corresponding
sampling device by the use of the key or system equipped with the vehicle.
G.3 Maintenance requirements
G.3.1 The manufacturer shall provide the new vehicle or engine owner with
instructions on the emission control system and proper operation as prepared
according to this standard.
G.3.2 The instruction manual shall indicate that when the vehicle's emission
control system is not working properly, the driver alert system will prompt the
driver to have a failure. If the alert is continuously ignored, the drivability limit
system will be activated and the vehicle will not work properly.
G.3.3 The instruction manual shall specify the requirements for proper use and
maintenance of the vehicle, to ensure its emission performance, including
proper use of reagents under appropriate conditions.
G.3.4 Instruction manual shall indicate whether the vehicle user is required to
an audible alert component to alert the driver. It allows the driver to eliminate
audible alerts.
G.4.5 The driver alert system shall be activated as required by G.6.2, G.7.2,
G.8.4, G.9.3.
G.4.6 When the conditions under which the driver alert system is activated no
longer exist, it shall be deactivated. If the activation conditions are not corrected,
the driver alert system cannot be automatically deactivated.
G.4.7 When an alert signal providing important safety information occurs, it may
temporarily interrupt this alert system.
G.4.8 On rescue vehicles, military vehicles, civil defense vehicles, fire engines
and armed vehicles that maintain public order, it allows the presence of
equipment that can impair visual alerts as generated by the alert system.
G.4.9 Annex GB specifies the activation and deactivation methods of the driver
alert system.
G.4.10 As part of the type test of this standard, the manufacturer shall verify the
operation of the driver alert system according to the provisions of Annex GA.
G.5 Drivability limit system
G.5.1 Vehicles shall include a two-stage drivability limit system, namely a
primary drivability limit system (performance limit) and a severe drivability limit
system (effectively limiting vehicle operation).
G.5.2 The drivability limit system is not applicable to first-aid, military, civil
defense, firefighting, and armed vehicle engines or vehicles that maintain public
order. The permanent deactivation setting of the drivability limit system can only
be done by the engine or vehicle manufacturer.
G.5.3 Primary drivability limit system
G.5.3.1 The primary drivability limit system reduces the maximum output torque
between the engine's maximum torque speed and the governor cut-off starting
speed to 75% of the external characteristic torque as required by the Annex GC.
After the primary drivability limit system is activated, the torque in the speed
section below the engine's peak torque speed cannot exceed the peak torque
after the torque limit.
G.5.3.2 When the activation conditions for primary drivability limit system
described in G.6.3, G.7.3, G.8.5, G.9.4 are met, the primary drivability limit
system shall be activated immediately after the first stop of the vehicle.
Note: When the vehicle decelerates to zero km/h, the vehicle can be regarded
G.6.1 Reagent indicator
The vehicle shall have a special indicator installed on the dashboard to inform
the driver of the reagent inventory of the reagent storage tank. The indicator
shall indicate at least the reagent inventory continuously and shall indicate the
amount of reagent available when the driver alert system as described in G.4
is activated. The indicator can be displayed in analog or digital form, telling the
amount of reagent inventory as a percentage of the tank capacity, or the amount
of reagent remaining, or estimating the mileage that the vehicle can continue to
travel normally.
The reagent inventory indicator shall be located near the fuel level indicator.
G.6.2 Activation of driver alert system
G.6.2.1 According to G.4, the driver alert system shall be activated when the
reagent inventory is less than 10% of the storage tank capacity, or less than the
higher storage tank capacity ratio as specified by the manufacturer.
G.6.2.2 The alert as given by the alert system shall clearly prompt the driver
that the reagent inventory is relatively low. If an alert message display system
is designed, it shall display an alert of lower reagent inventory (e.g., “low urea
level”, “low AdBlue level” or “low reagent inventory”).
G.6.2.3 The driver alert system does not need to be continuously activated at
the beginning. However, when the reagent inventory approaches the lower tank
inventory setting and when the activation condition for drivability limit system is
approached, the activation prompt shall tend to be strong and finally it is
continuously activated. The manufacturer shall, at another lower inventory of
the reagents (defined by manufacturer), inform the driver by the alert system in
the strongest warning mode, at this time, it shall be easier to attract the driver's
attention as compared with the activation of the drivability limit system as
described in G.6.3.
G.6.2.4 The continuous alert function shall not be easily prohibited or ignored.
However, it may be temporarily interrupted due to other important safety-related
information. The alert system includes an information display system that shall
display clear information (e.g., “Add urea”, “Add AdBlue”, or “Add reagent”).
G.6.2.5 Unless the reagents are re-added to the reagent inventory that
deactivates the driver's alert system, the driver alert system cannot be turned
off.
G.6.3 Activation of drivability limit system
G.6.3.1 If the reagent inventory is less than 2.5% of the nominal full capacity or
a higher value set by the manufacturer, the primary drivability limit system as
G.7.3.1 If, after the driver alert system is activated, the quality of the reagent
has not been corrected within 10 hours of continuous running of engine, the
primary drivability limit system as described in G.5.3 shall be enabled and
subsequently activated as required.
G.7.3.2 If, after the driver alert system is activated, the quality of the reagent
has not been corrected within 20 hours of continuous running of engine, the
severe drivability limit system as described in G.5.4 shall be enabled and
subsequently activated as required.
G.7.3.3 If the failure occurs repeatedly, it shall, according to the provisions of
Annex GB, reduce the operating hours before the drivability limit system is
activated.
G.8 Monitoring of reagent consumption and nozzle motion
G.8.1 Vehicles shall include methods for determining reagent consumption,
nozzle injection interruption, and providing off-line consumption information.
G.8.2 Reagent consumption and nozzle action counter
G.8.2.1 It shall have dedicated counters for reagent consumption (reagent
consumption counter) and calculation of nozzle action (nozzle action counter),
which can record the engine's running time at abnormal reagent consumption
and/or interruption of reagent nozzle.
G.8.2.2 Annex GB describes the requirements and principles for the activation
and deactivation of the reagent consumption counter and nozzle counter.
G.8.2.3 It shall, according to the standard method as specified in Annex GE,
obtain the information of the reagent consumption counter and the nozzle
counter.
G.8.3 Monitoring conditions when using liquid reagents such as urea
G.8.3.1 The system shall monitor single or cumulative reagent consumption
and nozzle motion. When urea is used as the reagent, the maximum monitoring
cycle time for insufficient reagent consumption is 5 hours or equivalent to a
duration of at least 2 L of reagent consumption, whichever is longer.
G.8.3.2 When the reagent consumption is monitored by at least one of the
following parameters:
a) The inventory of reagents in the vehicle's reagent tank, or
b) As permitted by the technology, it shall monitor the reagent flow or injection
amount as close as possible to the reagent injection position of the
emission aftertreatment system,.
proof system:
a) EGR valve stuck;
b) The tamper-proof monitoring system as described in G.9.2.1 fails.
G.9.2 Monitoring requirements
G.9.2.1 Tamper-proof monitoring systems shall monitor circuit faults, as well as
the failure to diagnose the other failures as mentioned from G.6 to G.8 due to
the removal of any sensor or any tampering that would cause sensor failure
(component monitoring).
A simple list of sensors that affect diagnostic capabilities includes sensors that
directly measure NOx concentrations, reagent quality sensors, environmental
sensors, sensors that monitor reagent feed actions, reagent inventory, or
reagent consumption.
G.9.2.2 EGR valve counter
G.9.2.2.1 Use a special counter to monitor the EGR valve stuck failure. The
EGR valve counter shall record any engine operation hours after the failure
related to EGR valve stuck is confirmed and active.
G.9.2.2.2 Annex GB describes the criteria and mechanisms for activation and
deactivation of EGR valve counters.
G.9.2.2.3 It shall use the standard method as specified in Annex GB to obtain
the information on the EGR valve counter.
G.9.2.3 Monitoring system counter
G.9.2.3.1 Each failure to be monitored as mentioned in G.9.1(b) shall have a
special counter. The monitoring system counter shall record the running hours
of engine after the failure related to monitoring system is confirmed and active.
It is allowed to treat multiple failures in groups and use a single counter to
monitor this group of failures.
G.9.2.3.2 Annex GB describes the criteria and related principles for activation
and deactivation of monitoring system counter.
G.9.2.3.3 It shall use the standard method as specified in Annex GE to obtain
the information on the monitoring system counter.
G.9.3 Activation of driver alert system
When the failure as specified in G.9.1 occurs, it shall activate the driver alert
system and prompt the driver for urgent repairs. When the alert system contains
GA.3.2.2.1 If the activation of the alert system is verified by the quantitative
dosing interruption, the manufacturer shall also provide additional algorithms,
functional analysis and previous test results to the competent department of
ecological environment under the State Council, to prove the abnormal
consumption of the reagents due to other reasons may also activate the alert
system.
GA.3.2.3 According to the provisions of G.9, in order to verify the failure of the
alert system verification due to tampering, it shall follow the requirements below
to select the test failure:
GA.3.2.3.1 The manufacturer shall provide a list of these potential failures to
the competent department of ecological environment under the State Council.
GA.3.2.3.2 The competent department of ecological environment selects the
test failure from the list of GA.3.2.3.1.
GA.3.3 Verification
GA.3.3.1 To verify the activation of the alert system, each fault as mentioned in
GA.3.1 shall be tested separately.
GA.3.3.2 During the test, there shall be no other failure than those being verified
during the test.
GA.3.3.3 Before the start of the test, all diagnostic trouble codes (DTC) shall
be cleared except for the permanent fault code.
GA.3.3.4 According to the requirements of the manufacturer, after reporting to
the competent department of ecological environment under the State Council,
the test failure can be simulated.
GA.3.3.5 Except for the failure of lack of reagents, once the failure has been
triggered or simulated, the failure shall be tested according to F.7.1.2.2.
GA.3.3.5.1 When the selected diagnostic trouble code is displayed as
"confirmed and active" state, the testing procedure shall stop.
GA.3.3.6 To verify the activation of the alert system in case of lack of the reagent,
it shall also follow the pre-judgement of the manufacturer, run the engine for
one or more operation processes.
GA.3.3.6.1 When conducting the verification test, the inventory of reagents
shall be the level agreed by both the manufacturer and the competent
department of ecological environment, but it shall be not less than 10% of the
normal capacity of the container.
GA.3.3.6.2 If the following conditions are met at the same time, the alert system
c) The activation of the primary drivability limit system requires a limit torque.
This verification can be done in conjunction with the engine performance
test required by this standard. No separate torque measurement is
required when performing the verification of drivability limit system. It shall
follow the requirements of G.5 to verify the speed limit when the severe
drivability limit system is activated.
GA.4.4 In addition, for failures in G.7, G.8 or G.9 that are not subject to test
verification according to GA.4.1 and GA.4.2, the manufacturer shall also verify
the activation of the drivability limit system at the time of the failure. This
additional verification can be carried out by submitting technical documents
based on calculations, functional analysis and previous test results to the
competent department of ecological environment under the State Council.
GA.4.4.1 These additional verifications are proof to the competent department
of ecological environment under the State Council that the correct torque
limiting mechanism is already included in the engine ECU.
GA.4.5 Verification of primary drivability limit system
GA.4.5.1 When the failure as selected by the competent department of
ecological environment is detected, the alert system or the “continuous” alert
system is activated, then the verification of the primary drivability limit system
is started.
GA.4.5.2 During the activation of the primary drivability limit system caused by
the failure of the missing reagents, the engine shall continue to operate, until
the reagent inventory reaches 2.5% of the nominal capacity of the container or
the nominal value as determined by the manufacturer according to G.6.3.1. The
primary drivability limit system below the reagent inventory setting shall be
activated.
GA.4.5.2.1 After reporting to the competent department of ecological
environment under the State Council, regardless of whether the engine is
running or shut down, the manufacturer can extract the reagents from the
container to simulate the continuous operation of the engine.
GA.4.5.3 In the activation of the primary drivability limit system activated by the
failure of the missing reagents, the engine shall be according to the operating
time in Table GB.2 or the operating time as specified by the manufacturer, until
the relevant counter reaches the value at which the primary drivability limit
system is activated.
GA.4.5.4 After each verification test required by GA.4.5.2 and GA.4.5.3, the
manufacturer shall prove to the competent department of ecological
environment under the State Council that the engine ECU has activated the
torque limiter, then the verification primary drivability limit system is complete.
the requirements in this Appendix for the test of severe drivability limit system
when complying with G.2.1.4 on ensuring the operation of the vehicle along
road or other appropriate locations.
GA.5.3 If the competent department of ecological environment is dissatisfied
with the correct verification conclusions of the severe drivability limit system as
provided by the manufacturer, the competent department of ecological
environment may request verification on a representative vehicle model, to
confirm the correct operation of the severe drivability limit system. This
verification shall be performed according to the requirements of GA.5.4.
GA.5.4 Additional verification for whole vehicle on the impact of activation
of severe drivability limit system
GA.5.4.1 When the competent department of ecological environment is
dissatisfied with the correct verification conclusion of the severe drivability limit
system as provided by the manufacturer, it shall perform this additional
verification at the request of the competent department of ecological
environment. After reporting to the competent department of ecological
environment under the State Council, it shall perform this verification as soon
as possible.
GA.5.4.2 After reporting to the competent department of ecological environment
under the State Council, the manufacturer shall select from the failures of G.6,
G.7, G.8 or G.9, introduce or simulate the failure on the engine system.
GA.5.4.3 The manufacturer shall have the drivability limit system in a state
where the primary drivability limit system has been activated but the severe
drivability limit system has not been activated.
GA.5.4.4 The vehicle shall continue to operate, until the counter value
associated with the selected failure reaches the operating hours as specified in
Table GB.2, or the reagents are used up or reach the inventory of 2.5% of the
nominal volume of the container as specified by the manufacturer, the shall
activate the severe drivability limit systems.
GA.5.4.5 If the manufacturer adopts the “limit after restart” strategy as
mentioned in G.5.4.1, the vehicle will run until the end of the current operation,
during which the vehicle speed may exceed 20 km/h. After the vehicle is
restarted, the speed shall be limited to 20 km/h.
GA.5.4.6 If the manufacturer adopts the “limit after refueling” strategy as
mentioned in G.5.4.2, when the vehicle's fuel tank has sufficient remaining
capacity to meet the refueling amount to the value as specified in G.5.4.2, the
vehicle shall cover only a small distance as specified by the manufacturer. The
running speed of the vehicle before refueling can exceed 20 km/h, but after the
added amount reaches the value as specified in G.5.4.2, the speed shall be
is OFF.
GB.2.2.1.3 When clears failure information including DTCs, any failure-related
counters and the non-deletable items as specified in Appendix G shall not be
deleted.
GB.3 Principles of activation and deactivation of driver's drivability limit
system
GB.3.1 After the alert system is activated, the counter associated with this type
of failure also reaches the value as specified in Table GB.2, the drivability limit
system shall be activated.
GB.3.2 When no failure has been detected that causes the drivability limit
system to activate, or if the DTCs information associated with the failure
activation and failure has been cleared by the scan-tool or maintenance tool,
the driver's drivability limit system shall be deactivated.
GB.3.3 After the evaluation of the reagent inventory in the reagent tank, it shall
follow the provisions of G.6 (reagent inventory) to immediately activate or
deactivate the driver alert system or drivability limit system. However, the
principle of activation and deactivation shall not depend on any related DTC
state.
GB.4 Counter mechanism
GB.4.1 Overview
GB.4.1.1 According to the requirements of Appendix G, the system shall include
at least 5 counters for recording the number of hours the engine is running when
the system detects the following failures:
a) The quality of the reagents is incorrect;
b) Abnormal consumption of reagents;
c) Interruption of the dosing of reagents;
d) EGR valve stuck;
e) Monitoring system failure as defined in G.9.1(b) and emission
aftertreatment device's type A failure as defined in F.4.2.3.
GB.4.1.2 Each counter shall be accumulated every hour, until the maximum
value that can be displayed by the 2-byte counter. Unless there is a condition
that allows the counter to reset to zero, the value shall be kept frozen.
GB.4.1.3 Manufacturers may use single or multiple monitoring system counters,
Annex GE
(Normative)
Access to “NOx control information”
GE.1 Overview
This Annex specifies the technical requirements for information access to check
the correct operating state of the vehicle's NOx control system (NOx control
information).
GE.2 Access method
GE.2.1 It only allows the provision of “NOx control information” according to the
standards used to extract engine system information from the OBD system.
GE.2.2 Access to “NOx control information” cannot rely on decoded information,
other devices or methods that can only be obtained from the manufacturer or
the supplier of the manufacturer. Interpretation of this information shall not
require any dedicated or special decoding information, unless such decoded
information is publicly available.
GE.2.3 It shall adopt the method of obtaining the OBD information as specified
in F.4.7.3 and shall be able to obtain all “NOx control information” from the
system.
GE.2.4 It shall use the test equipment for obtaining OBD information as
specified in F.4.7.3 and it shall be able to obtain all “NOx control information”
from the system.
GE.2.5 “NOx control information” shall be accessible for “read-only” access (i.e.,
no data is cleared, reset, deleted, modified).
GE.3 Information content
GE.3.1 “NOx control information” shall contain at least the following information:
a) Vehicle VIN (vehicle identification number);
b) State of alert system (activated; nonactivated);
c) State of primary drivability limit system (activated; enabled; nonactivated);
d) State of severe drivability limit system (activated; enabled; nonactivated);
e) The number of engine warm-up cycles and operating hours after the “NOx
control information” is cleared by self-maintenance or repair;
f) Type of counters associated with this Appendix (reagent mass, reagent
consumption, reagent metering-dosing system, EGR valve, type A failure
Appendix H
(Normative)
Durability of engine system
H.1 Overview
This Appendix specifies the test procedures for specifying the deterioration
factor and selecting the engine for the shortest mileage test to determine the
deterioration factor. According to the requirements of H.3.7, the deterioration
factor is applied to the emission value as measured in Appendix C.
H.1.1 This Appendix specifies the maintenance schedules which have or have
not relation to the emissions of the engine during the shortest mileage. These
maintenances shall comply with the maintenance requirements of the in-use
engine and inform the owner of the new engine/vehicle.
H.2 Selection of test engine for determining the deterioration factor within
the useful life cycle
H.2.1 It shall, from the engine family which complies with the requirements of
this standard, select engine for emission test, to obtain the deterioration factor
over the useful life cycle.
H.2.2 Based on the type of emission aftertreatment system used, engines of
different engine families may be combined into the same engine-aftertreatment
system family. In order to combine the engines of different cylinder numbers
and different cylinder configurations, but same technical specifications and
installation methods of emission aftertreatment system into one engine-
aftertreatment system family, the manufacturer shall provide information to
prove the emission reduction of these engine systems is similar.
H.2.3 According to the provisions of clause H.2.2, the manufacturer shall select
a representative engine in the engine-aftertreatment system family to carry out
the durability operation test as defined in Appendix H.3.2, inform the competent
department of ecological environment under the State Council before the start
of the test.
H.2.3.1 If the competent department of ecological environment under the State
Council considers that another engine can better represent the worst emission
level of the engine-aftertreatment system family, the competent department of
ecological environment under the State Council may select another engine for
durability test.
H.3 Determination of the deterioration factor within the useful life
regeneration process is resumed.
H.3.3.2.2 During the durability test, the engine shall be maintained according to
the requirements of H.4.
H.3.3.2.3 During the durability test, it may perform unplanned maintenance of
the engine or vehicle, for example: OBD system detects a failure that causes
the malfunction indicator (MI) to be activated.
H.3.4 Report
H.3.4.1 All emission tests (hot WHTC and WHSC) results during the durability
test shall be disclosed. If there is any invalid emission test, the manufacturer
shall explain the reason for the invalidity. In this case, it shall carry out a set of
hot WHTC and WHSC tests within the next 100 hours.
H.3.4.2 Records of all emissions testing and maintenance related information
involved during the durability test shall be retained. The information and the
results of the emission test shall be submitted to the competent department of
ecological environment under the State Council.
H.3.5 Determination of deterioration factor
H.3.5.1 During the durability test, the results of each of the emissions as
measured from the hot WHTC and WHSC tests at each test point are subject
to the “least squares method” to establish a linear regression equation. The
measurement result shall be one more than the decimal place of each emission
limit as shown in 6.3 of this standard. According to the requirements of H.3.2.1.4,
if only one test cycle (hot WHTC or WHSC) is used in the intermediate test point,
whilst two test cycles are used at the beginning and end of the durability test,
the regression analysis shall be carried out based on the results of the test cycle
which are carried out at all points.
H.3.5.2 Under the requirements of the manufacturer, and after reporting to the
competent department of ecological environment under the State Council, it
may use the nonlinear regression analysis.
H.3.5.3 It shall be based on the regression equation to calculate the emission
value of each pollutant at the starting point of the durability test and the end of
the useful life. If the durability test mileage is shorter than the useful life, it shall,
based on the regression equation as determined according to clause H.3.5.1,
use the interpolation method to determine the emission value at the end of the
useful life.
H.3.5.4 The deterioration factor of each pollutant is the ratio of the emission at
the end point of useful life to the emission at the starting point of the durability
test (multiplied deterioration factor). At the requirements of the manufacturer
In order to ensure the normal operation of the durability test, it shall follow the
maintenance manual of the manufacturer to conduct maintenance.
H.4.1 Planned maintenance items related to emissions
H.4.1.1 The mileage or equivalent time interval for emission-related planned
maintenance during the durability test shall be as described in the maintenance
manual provided by the manufacturer to the vehicle or engine user. If necessary,
it may update the maintenance schedule during the durability test. If a certain
maintenance has been performed on the engine during the durability test, the
maintenance item is not allowed to be removed from the updated maintenance
plan.
H.4.1.2 The manufacturer shall detail the schedule for adjustment, cleaning and
maintenance (if required) of the following components within the durability test:
a) Exhaust gas recirculation system, including associated filters, coolers;
b) Crankcase ventilation, if applicable;
c) Oil nozzle (only cleaning);
d) Oil injector;
e) Turbocharger;
f) Related sensors and actuators;
g) Particulate matter aftertreatment system (including related components);
h) deNOx system;
i) exhaust gas recirculation systems, including associated control valves and
piping;
j) Any other emission aftertreatment system.
H.4.1.3 The planned critical maintenance items related to emissions shall be
the same as those required by the manufacturer's vehicle maintenance
instructions.
H.4.2 Change of planned maintenance items
H.4.2.1 During the durability test, if the manufacturer needs to carry out a new
maintenance item, it shall promptly report to the competent department of
ecological environment under the State Council, submit the materials to explain
the new maintenance plan and the mileage (time) of the maintenance interval.
The new maintenance items shall also be changed in the vehicle's maintenance
instructions.
Appendix I
(Normative)
Requirements and inspection of production consistency assurance
I.1 Overview
To ensure that the emissions characteristics of a mass-produced vehicle or
engine are consistent with the model or engine model that has been type-tested,
the manufacturer shall have a production consistency assurance system,
including a quality management system and a production consistency
assurance plan.
I.2 Quality management system
I.2.1 The manufacturer shall establish a quality assurance system, to effectively
control the planning and procedures of the production process, to ensure the
production consistency control capability, thereby ensuring that the emission
control capability of the mass-produced vehicle models or engine models is
consistent with the type-tested vehicle models or engine models.
I.2.2 The quality management system of the manufacturer shall meet the
requirements of GB/T 19001 and have an effective quality assurance system
certificate, wherein the requirements for relevant design and development are
exempted.
I.2.3 The engine manufacturer shall provide the whole vehicle manufacturer
with the installation instructions for the complete engine and its aftertreatment
assembly. The whole vehicle manufacturer shall assemble according to the
installation instructions of the engine and its aftertreatment assembly, to ensure
the correct installation of the engine and its aftertreatment system on the whole
vehicle.
I.2.4 The manufacturer shall submit relevant materials and documents related
to the quality management system as described in I.2.1 to I.2.3 to the competent
department of ecological environment under the State Council, including:
- Quality assurance system certificate;
- Plans and procedures for effective control of the production process;
- Installation instructions for the engine and its aftertreatment assembly.
I.2.5 Any revisions to the validity and scope of the quality assurance system
certificate shall be reported to the competent department of ecological
environment under the State Council. Meanwhile it shall submit the descriptions
I.4.1 The competent department of ecological environment may, as needed,
inspect the production conformity assurance plan as implemented by the
manufacturer.
The inspection contents may include the quality management system as
specified in I.2 and the production consistency assurance plan as specified in
I.3 as well as their implementation.
I.4.2 At the request of the competent department of ecological environment, the
manufacturer shall provide test or inspection records and production records.
I.4.3 The competent department of ecological environment may randomly take
samples and conduct inspections in laboratories meeting the requirements of
this standard. The tests or inspections may include some or all of the test items
as specified in this standard. The inspection of the engine shall be carried out
according to I.4.4 ~ I.4.6. The inspection of the whole vehicle shall be in
accordance with the provisions of clause 9.3.
I.4.4 Inspection of engine's pollutant emissions
I.4.4.1 Sampling and qualification determination
I.4.4.1.1 It shall randomly take three engines from the batch products. The
manufacturer shall not make any adjustments to the extracted engines.
I.4.4.1.2 The competent department of ecological environment may conduct all
or part of the item tests as specified in 6.3.1 or 6.4.1 for the engine. The
measured gaseous pollutants and particulate matter emissions of the engine
shall be corrected (except for WNTE tests) by the corresponding deterioration
factor (DF), to meet the limit requirements as specified in Table 2 or Table 3.
I.4.4.1.3 The criteria for determining the production consistency by the
competent department of ecological environment are as follows:
- If the emission results of various pollutants of the three engines are less
than 1.1 times the limit, meanwhile the average value is less than the limit,
then the production consistency inspection is judged to be qualified.
- If the emission results of a certain pollutant in any of the three engines is
not less than 1.1 times the limit, or the average value is not less than the
limit, the production consistency inspection is judged to be unqualified.
I.4.4.2 Selection and preparation of engine
I.4.4.2.1 The test engine shall try to select the engine that was recently
produced.
I.4.4.2.2 At the request of the manufacturer, it may activate and run the
requirements of K.7.3.
I.4.5.2 If the OBD scan-tool is working properly according to Appendix F but
cannot read OBD information in an appropriate manner, the engine is
considered to be unqualified.
I.4.5.3 It shall follow the requirements of Annex BA to carry out the WHSC test,
to verify whether the ECU torque signal complies with the requirements of K.7.3
and K.7.4.3.
I.4.5.4 If the test equipment does not comply with the relevant requirements of
the Appendix of GB/T 17692, the measured torque shall be corrected according
to the correction method as specified in Appendix C.
I.4.5.5 If the calculated torque is within the tolerance as specified in K.7.4.3, the
ECU torque signal is considered to be sufficiently consistent.
I.4.5.6 The manufacturer shall perform the ECU information acquisition and
consistency inspection required for the in-use vehicle inspection of each engine
model in each engine family in a conventional manner.
I.4.5.7 When required by the competent department of ecological environment,
the manufacturer shall provide the survey results to the competent department
of ecological environment.
I.4.5.8 The manufacturer shall randomly select 1 ~ 3 prototypes from the same
model of engines to perform the tests as described in I.4.5.1 ~ I.4.5.4, to verify
the acquisition or consistency of engine ECU information for batch products.
I.4.5.9 If one of the three engines does not meet the requirements, it is
determined that the production consistency inspection is unqualified.
I.4.6 Inspection of on-board diagnostic system (OBD)
I.4.6.1 Randomly take 1 ~ 3 engines from mass-produced engines to carry out
test according to Appendix F. Prior to the test, the aftertreatment system of the
taken prototype may be activated for running for up to 30 hours.
I.4.6.2 If one of the three engines randomly selected does not meet the
requirements of 6.8, the production consistency inspection is judged to be
unqualified.
I.4.7 If during the inspection process, the production consistency is found to be
inconsistent, the manufacturer shall take all necessary measures to restore the
production consistency as soon as possible. It shall submit a report of the
corrective measures to the competent department of ecological environment
under the State Council and disclose the information.
J.2.2.7 All components of emission control system on the vehicle shall be
consistent with the information disclosed for the vehicle model.
J.2.2.8 The information collected by the manufacturer shall be sufficient, to
assess whether the in-use vehicle meets the normal conditions of use. When
selecting the source of prototype, it shall consider the differences in
environmental conditions, average road speed, driving along urban/highway.
J.2.2.9 When selecting the region of a prototype, the manufacturer can select
the vehicle from the region that is considered to be the most representative. In
this case, the manufacturer shall prove to the competent department of
ecological environment under the State Council that the selection is
representative (e.g., the annual sales volume of a certain vehicle family in the
region is the largest in the market).
J.2.3 The number of samples used for self-inspection of in-use compliance shall
comply with the provisions of JA.2 in Annex JA.
J.2.4 After the completion of the type test, the manufacturer shall, within 18
months after the first registration of the vehicle which is equipped with this family
of engine, begin self-inspection of the in-use compliance of the vehicle in which
the family of engine is installed.
J.2.5 The manufacturer shall submit the self-inspection report for in-use
compliance at least every two years and disclose the information. The self-
inspection target of the engine manufacturer shall be the same engine model
(family). The self-inspection target of the whole vehicle manufacturer is the
same vehicle model (vehicle family).
J.2.6 After 5 years of out-of-production of engines, the manufacturer may stop
submitting the self-inspection report for in-use compliance. If the annual output
of an engine which belongs to a certain engine model (family) is less than 300
sets, after reporting to the competent department of ecological environment
under the State Council, the manufacturer may reduce the number of vehicles
for the self-inspection of in-use compliance.
J.2.7 The self-inspection report for in-use compliance shall meet the
requirements of Annex JB.
J.2.8 When required by the competent department of ecological environment,
the manufacturer shall provide relevant information to the competent
department of ecological environment with the relevant information on the OBD
failure as recorded during the claim in the warranty period, the repair and
maintenance in the warranty period. The data shall detail the frequency and
cause of component and system failures associated with emissions.
J.2.9 The manufacturer shall provide the selection criteria for special vehicles
J.5.2 Corrective measures shall be applied to all in-use engines or vehicles to
the same vehicle model (vehicle family) and extended to the engine models
(families) and vehicle models (families) that may be affected by the same
defects. The plan for corrective measures as proposed by the manufacturer
shall be implemented after filing with the competent department of ecological
environment under the State Council and the relevant competent department
of ecological environment at provincial level.
J.5.3 The manufacturer shall provide all the materials related to the corrective
measures, keep records of environmental protection recalls, repairs or
alterations of each engine or vehicle, regularly submit progress report of
corrective measures to the competent department of ecological environment
under the State Council and the relevant competent department of ecological
environment at provincial level.
J.5.4 The plan of corrective measures shall include the contents of this clause.
The manufacturer shall assign a unique identification name or number to the
plan of corrective measures.
J.5.4.1 The plan of corrective measures shall include a description of each
relevant vehicle model (engine model).
J.5.4.2 Description of special improvements, replacements, repairs, corrections,
adjustments or other changes taken to achieve compliance with the vehicle,
includes the support data and introduction of techniques used by the
manufacturer to determine special corrective measures for substandard
engines (vehicles).
J.5.4.3 The method and content of the corrective measures as notified by the
manufacturer to the owner.
J.5.4.4 If the manufacturer uses the correct maintenance or correct use as the
conditions of repair in the plan of corrective measures, it shall detail the contents
of the correct maintenance or correct use, explain the causes to use these
conditions. It is not allowed to impose any maintenance or use conditions that
are not related to corrective actions.
J.5.4.5 In order to correct the non-compliance vehicle, the procedures to be
followed by the owner shall include: the start date of the corrective action to be
taken, the location of the repair shop and the time required to complete the
repair.
J.5.4.6 The method to ensure the supply of parts or systems as used by the
manufacturer to ensure the completion of corrective measures, as well as the
time to start supplying parts or systems.
J.5.4.7 Guidance document provided to the repairman.
requirements:
K.3.6.1.1 Dual-fuel engines or vehicles are required to subject to the PEMS test
for the dual-fuel mode according to this Appendix.
K.3.6.1.2 For Type 1B, 2B and 3B dual-fuel engines, an additional PEMS test
shall be carried out on the diesel mode immediately before or after the PEMS
test at dual-fuel mode. The basis for determining whether the vehicle is up to
standard or not is:
a) If the PEMS test results of both the dual-fuel mode and the diesel mode
are up to standard, the vehicle emission is determined to reach standard;
b) If any PEMS test result of either the dual-fuel mode or the diesel mode
exceeds the standard, the vehicle emission is determined to exceed
standard.
K.3.7 Hybrid electric vehicle
K.3.7.1 Hybrid electric vehicles shall be subjected to the PEMS test in the state
of maximum fuel consumption mode according to the requirements of this
Appendix. The vehicle shall have a visible fuel-only mode switch that is easy to
switch to pure fuel mode and can operate normally in pure fuel mode (including
idle speed), to facilitate the emission test. Meanwhile the position of switch shall
be stated in the vehicle's operating instructions.
K.3.7.2 Hybrid electric vehicles shall fully discharge the rechargeable energy
storage system (power battery, supercapacitor, electromechanical flywheel, etc.)
before the start of the test. The discharge may be carried out under the urban
conditions under the maximum power consumption mode, until the energy
storage device reaches the lowest state of charge.
K.3.7.3 Hybrid electric vehicles shall meet the general requirements of this
Appendix when conducting PEMS tests, such as environmental conditions, test
routes, load ratios, fuel and reagents, etc. The cumulative work of the engine
shall reach 4 ~ 7 times the WHTC cycle work of engine.
K.4 Test conditions
K.4.1 Environmental conditions
The test shall be carried out under environmental conditions that meet the
following requirements:
The altitude at stage 6a is not higher than 1700 m. The altitude at stage 6b is
not higher than 2400 m;
The ambient temperature shall not be lower than 266K (-7 °C), not more than
K.5.1.2 The composition of the test route shall be close to the distribution of
road running conditions during normal use of the vehicle.
K.5.1.3 Vehicle's test route shall include the urban road, suburban road,
highway. According to the type of vehicle, the specific distribution shall be
according to K.5.2 to K.5.5, which allows the actual composition ratio to have a
deviation of ± 5%. For some practical reasons, the manufacturers may also
adjust the test conditions according to the actual situation, but the relevant
situation shall be reported to the competent department of ecological
environment under the State Council. The above three types of roads shall be
distinguished according to the speed of the vehicle;
a) The test shall be carried out continuously based on the sequence of urban
- suburban - highway. The first short mileage with a vehicle speed
exceeding 55 km/h (refers to the driving process from the end of an idle
speed to the starting point of the next idle speed) is recorded as the
beginning of the suburb road (70 km/h for category M1, N1 vehicles). The
first short mileage with a vehicle speed exceeding 75 km/h is recorded as
the beginning of the highway (90 km/h for category M1, N1 vehicles);
b) Urban road: The average speed of vehicles is 15 ~ 30 km/h;
c) Suburban road: The average speed of vehicles is 45 ~ 70 km/h. The
average vehicle speed is 60 ~ 90 km/h for category M1, N1 vehicles;
d) Highway: The average vehicle speed is > 70 km/h. The average vehicle
speed is > 90 km/h for category M1, N1 vehicles.
K.5.2 For category M1, N1 vehicles (except for vehicles subject to GB 18352.6),
the test roads are composed of 34% urban roads, 33% suburban roads, 33%
highways.
K.5.3 For category M2, M3, N2 vehicles (excluding urban vehicles), the test
roads are composed of 45% urban road, 25% suburban road, 30% highway.
K.5.4 For urban vehicles, the operational roads in the test are composed of 70%
urban roads and 30% suburban roads.
K.5.5 For category N3 vehicles (excluding urban vehicles), the operational road
during the test is composed of 20% urban road, 25% suburban road, 55%
highway.
K.5.6 The difference of the altitude between the starting point and the end point
of the test shall not exceed 100 m, meanwhile the cumulative positive altitude
increase of the test vehicle shall not exceed 1200 m/100 km. The calculation
method of the cumulative altitude shall refer to Annex DH of GB 18352.6.
equipment cannot exceed the capacity of the vehicle's power supply
system;
b) The power required by the test equipment does not increase the engine
output by more than 1% of its maximum power.
K.6.6.2 It may install additional portable energy sources (such as batteries, fuel
cells, portable generators, etc.) instead of test vehicle's power supply. The
external power source can be connected to the test vehicle's power system, but
during the test, the vehicle power required by the test equipment shall not
increase the engine's output power by more than 1% of its maximum power.
K.6.7 The installation of PEMS equipment shall not affect the emissions and
performance of the vehicle.
K.6.8 It is recommended to carry out vehicle test under normal daytime traffic
conditions.
K.6.9 It shall, according to the provisions of KA.2.2, conduct data consistency
inspection. If the competent department of ecological environment is not
satisfied with the test result, it has the right to determine that the test is invalid.
K.7 ECU data stream
K.7.1 If the vehicle ECU's preliminary inspection finds one of the following
conditions, it determines that the vehicle is unqualified:
a) Vehicle has no communication interface of ECU data;
b) ECU data is lost;
c) It requires access via a non-standard data communication protocol;
d) Collection of ECU data may affect vehicle emissions or vehicle
performance.
K.7.2 For in-use vehicle testing, the calculated load (the percentage of engine
torque to maximum reference torque and the maximum torque at engine speed),
engine speed, engine's coolant temperature, transient fuel consumption,
engine's maximum reference torque shall be mandatory data stream
information, which is transmitted in real time through the OBD system at a
frequency of not less than 1 Hz.
K.7.3 The output torque can be estimated by the ECU built-in program by
calculating the internally generated torque and friction torque.
K.7.4 It requires verification of the validity and consistency of the ECU data
stream in the test of in-use vehicle.
K.8.3.1 Vehicle load
Vehicle load should be selected for reproducible loads, it may use simulated
loads. During the test, in stage 6a, the load of the vehicle shall be selected as
50% ~ 100% of the maximum load of the vehicle; in stage 6b, the load of the
vehicle shall be selected as 10% ~ 100% of the maximum load. The maximum
load refers to the maximum design loading mass as specified in GB/T 3730.2.
K.8.3.2 OBD system inspection. Once any diagnosed fault has been resolved,
it shall be recorded and submitted to the competent department of ecological
environment.
K.8.3.3 Replace fuel, lubricant and reagents, and any other items that need to
be replaced.
K.8.4 Installation of test equipment
K.8.4.1 Host unit
Follow the operating requirements of the PEMS manufacturer to install the
PEMS on the test vehicle, at a location which is minimally affected by the
following external conditions:
a) Changes in ambient temperature
b) Changes in ambient atmospheric pressure
c) Electromagnetic radiation
d) Mechanical vibration
e) Background THC - If using an FID analyzer which uses air as oxidant gas
(if applicable)
K.8.4.2 Exhaust flow meter (EFM)
The exhaust flow meter shall be connected to the tailpipe of the test vehicle and
its measurement range shall be matched to the range of possible exhaust flow
during the test. EFM and all devices that adjust and connect the tailpipe shall
not adversely affect the operation of the engine or emission aftertreatment
system. If necessary, it may use a short flexible connector for connection, but
the area of contact between the exhaust and the flexible connector shall be
minimized, to avoid affecting test results at high vehicle speeds and high engine
loads.
The length of straight tubes upstream and downstream the location where the
exhaust flow meter's sensor is located are at least twice the diameter of the
exhaust flow meter. It is recommended to install the exhaust flow meter behind
K.8.5.2 Cleaning of sampling system
To avoid system contamination, the PEMS sampling system shall be purged
and cleaned up to the start of sampling according to the PEMS equipment's
operating requirements.
K.8.5.3 Inspection and calibration of analyzer
It shall follow the operational requirements of the PEMS manufacturer to check
the leakage of the sampling system.
It shall use the calibration gas which meets the requirements of CB.3.3 to
calibrate and inspect the zero point and range of the analyzer according to the
requirements of CB.3.3.
K.8.5.4 Cleaning of exhaust flow meter (EFM)
Prior to testing, it shall follow the operating requirements of PEMS manufacturer
to purge the exhaust flow meter, to remove condensate and deposits from the
pressure line and pressure measurement port.
K.8.6 Emission test process
K.8.6.1 Test begins
PEMS shall start sampling before the vehicle starts, measure exhaust
parameters and record engine and environmental parameters. At the beginning
of the test, the engine's coolant temperature must not exceed 30 °C. If the
ambient temperature is above 30 °C, the engine's coolant temperature at the
start of the test must not exceed 2 °C above ambient temperature. When the
engine's coolant temperature is above 70 °C, or when the coolant temperature
changes less than 2 °C within 5 minutes, whichever comes first, but not later
than 20 minutes after engine start, the test begins formally.
K.8.6.2 Test runs
During the test, it shall continue performing the exhaust sampling, measuring
the emission parameters, recording the engine and environmental data. The
engine can be shut down or restarted, but exhaust sampling shall continue
throughout the test.
During the test, the analyzer's operating status is checked at least every 2 hours,
to confirm that the analyzer is working properly. However, the data as recorded
during the inspection shall be marked and not used for emission calculation.
K.8.6.3 Test ends
At the end of the test, it shall reserve sufficient time to ensure the response time
Annex KA
(Normative)
Emission calculation for PEMS test
KA.1 Overview
This Annex specifies the analytical calculation method for PEMS emission test
results.
KA.2 Emission calculation
The final test results shall be rounded off to one decimal place as indicated by
the applicable emission standard, plus a significant number. The intermediate
value of the final calculation result shall be allowed not to be rounded off.
KA.2.1 Alignment of data
When calculating the mass emission, to reduce the time offset between signals,
it shall follow the requirements of KA.2.1.1 ~ KA.2.1.4 to align the data as
related to emission calculation.
KA.2.1.1 Analyzer data
It shall follow the procedures of KA.2.1.4 to reasonably align the data of the
analyzer.
KA.2.1.2 Analyzer and EFM
It shall, according to the procedures of KA.2.1.4, properly align the analyzer
data and EFM data.
KA.2.1.3 PEMS and engine data
It shall, according to the procedures of KA.2.1.4, properly align the PEMS data
(analyzer and EFM) and the data in engine ECU.
KA.2.1.4 Improvement program of time alignment of PEMS data
The measurement data in Table KA.1 is divided into three categories:
a) Analyzer (concentration of NOx, CO, CO2, PN (optional for gas-fueled
vehicles), HC (optional), THC (optional for diesel vehicles), PM (optional));
b) Exhaust flow meter (exhaust mass flow and exhaust temperature);
c) Engine (torque, speed, temperature, fuel consumption rate, speed from
the ECU).
Time alignment of each category with other categories shall be confirmed by
KA.2.2.2 ECU torque data
According to the requirements of this Annex KD, the consistency of the ECU
torque data shall be confirmed by comparing the maximum value of the ECU
torque data at different engine speeds with the corresponding value on the
engine full load torque curve at the type test.
KA.2.2.3 Brake specific fuel consumption
The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) shall be checked using the
following data:
a) The fuel consumption calculated from the emission data (gas analyzer
concentration and exhaust mass flow);
b) Work calculated from ECU data (engine torque and engine speed).
KA.2.2.4 Driving speed
According to the driving speed as determined by the satellite navigation
precision positioning system, calculate the total driving distance, compare it
with the reference measurement as obtained by the sensor, effective ECU or
digital map, to perform the consistency inspection. It shall correct the data of
the satellite navigation precision positioning system with obvious error, retain
the original error data file, mark all corrected data. The corrected data shall not
exceed 120 s in a row, or the total time shall not exceed 300 s. The total driving
distance as calculated by the corrected data of the satellite navigation precision
positioning system shall deviate from any reference value for not more than
±4%. If the satellite navigation precision positioning system's data does not
meet the above requirements, it may use the other reliable speed sources that
have been subject to consistency inspection. Otherwise, the test results are
invalid.
KA.2.2.5 Altitude
If the altitude of the driving route may be higher than the provisions of K.4.1, or
when only one satellite navigation precise positioning system is used to
measure the altitude, it shall carry out the consistency inspection of the altitude
as measured by the satellite navigation precision positioning system. If
necessary, it shall make corrections. Compare the latitude, longitude, altitude
data as obtained by the satellite navigation precision positioning system with
the altitude as indicated by the digital map, to check and compare the data
consistency. It shall make manual correction for the measured value which
deviates from the altitude as described in the map for more than 40 m,
meanwhile mark it.
KA.2.3 Dry and wet base correction
Annex KB
(Normative)
Portable test equipment
KB.1 Overview
This Annex specifies the technical requirements for portable test equipment
suitable for actual road testing, including:
a) A gas analyzer, to measure the concentration of conventional gaseous
pollutants in the tail gas;
b) Exhaust mass flowmeter, whose working principle is based on the average
pitot tube or similar principle;
c) Satellite navigation precision positioning system;
d) Ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure sensors;
e) OBD reader connected to the vehicle's ECU.
KB.2 Measuring equipment
KB.2.1 Basic requirements for exhaust analyzer
The technical description of the gas analyzer of the PEMS system shall comply
with the requirements of CB.3.1 of this standard.
The technical description of the partial dilution system of particulate matter of
the PEMS system shall comply with the requirements of CB.4.1 a) ~ e),
CB.4.2.1 and CB.4.5 of this standard. Meanwhile the dilution air is allowed to
dehumidify before entering the dilution system (especially for dilution air with
higher humidity);
The technical description of the measuring equipment of particle number
emission shall meet the requirements of clause DB.6 of GB 18352.6-2016;
The sampling filter paper for the measurement of particle number emission shall
comply with the requirements of CB.4.3. The technical description of the
weighing chamber and analytical balance shall comply with the requirements of
CB.4.4.
KB.2.2 Measurement principles of analyzer
Gaseous pollutants shall be analyzed and measured by the technology as
specified in CB.3.2.
The principle of particle number measurement shall meet the requirements as
specified in DB.6 of GB 18352.6-2016.
Annex KD
(Normative)
Inspection method of signal consistency of ECU torque
KD.1 General requirements
This Annex specifies the method of checking the consistency of the ECU's
torque signal during in-use compliance PEMS test.
KD.2 “Maximum torque” method
KD.2.1 During the vehicle test, it is proved that the engine has reached 100%
± 5% of the maximum reference torque on the engine speed function curve.
KD.2.2 If during the PEMS test of in-use compliance, the maximum torque at a
certain point cannot reach 100% ± 5% of the maximum reference torque on the
engine speed function curve. After the in-use compliance PEMS emission test,
the manufacturer has the right to modify the vehicle load and / or test route to
describe this situation if necessary.
KD.3 According to the requirements of K.7.3, it shall use the external OBD scan-
tool as described in Appendix F to verify the obtaining of the data stream
information as required in K.7.2.
KD.3.1 If the scan-tool is working properly and still cannot read the information
in an appropriate manner, the engine is considered not to meet the
requirements.
KD.3.2 If following the measurement method of engine power as specified in
GB/T 17692 and the WHS test requirements as specified in Appendix C and
the provisions outside the laboratory cycle during the type test of Appendix E,
the ECU torque signal's consistency shall be verified by the engine family's
parent engine.
KD.3.2.1 If the engine power measurement method according to GB/T 17692
is used to inspect the consistency of the ECU's torque signal, it requires
verifying each model of the engine family. To this end, it shall verify several
other partial load and engine speed operating points (e.g., in WHSC mode and
other random points).
KD.3.3 If the engine does not meet the requirements of the relevant Appendix
of GB/T 17692 when testing, it shall be subject to the power correction
according to C.5.3.5.
KD.3.4 If the torque signal is within the deviation as specified by K.7.4.3, the
ECU's torque signal is proved to meet the requirements.
lighting strategy meets the requirements of F.4.6.2.
KE.2.3.2 Inspection of diagnostic interface
KE.2.3.2.1 Observe whether the shape of the diagnostic interface meets the
requirements of F.4.7.3.1.
KE.2.3.2.2 Observe whether the position of the diagnostic interface meets the
requirements of F.4.7.3.2.
KE.2.3.2.3 If the diagnostic interface is in a specific equipment box, it shall
check whether the door to the box can be manually opened without requiring
the use of tools, and whether the box has the "OBD" marking.
KE.2.3.3 Inspection of OBD information read function
KE.2.3.3.1 The use of the general diagnostic equipment shall be able to read
all OBD information as specified in F.4.7.
KE.2.4 Use the failure simulation to check the OBD monitoring function
KE.2.4.1 Select the failure according to the failure list as provided by the
manufacturer, to produce a failure for the vehicle.
KE.2.4.2 Depending on the type of failure selected, the failure simulation can
be done by disconnecting the connector of the sensor or actuator, plugging the
corresponding pipeline, replacing the qualified deteriorated component or
electronically simulated method.
KE.2.4.3 For the need to replace the qualified deteriorated components for
failure simulation, the corresponding qualified deteriorated components or
systems required shall be provided by the manufacturer.
KE.2.4.4 After the producing the failure, the OBD system shall be able to
correctly alert and record the corresponding diagnostic trouble code. It can
observe the malfunction indicator to verify whether it can correctly alert as
required by Appendix F; connect the universal scan-tool to verify whether the
OBD system correctly stores the corresponding diagnostic trouble code.
KE.2.5 Failure classification and inspection of alert light response
KE.2.5.1 According to the failure list as provided by the manufacturer, select
two items of type A failure, one item of type B failure, one item of type C failure
to produce failure, verify whether the corresponding malfunction indicator
complies with the light up requirements of F.4.6.2.
KE.2.6 Verification of IUPR basic function
Appendix M
(Normative)
Special requirements for type test of liquefied petroleum gas and natural
gas engines and vehicles
M.1 Type test of general fuel engine (vehicle)
M.1.1 For natural gas engines (vehicles), the parent engine shall have the
ability to adapt to any component of fuel on the market.
Natural gas fuels are divided into two categories, high calorific fuel (H-gas) and
low-calorific fuel (L-gas), both of which has a wide range of calorific values.
However, the Wobbe Index which represents the heat capacity and its λ-
conversion factor (Sλ) are very different. The calculation formulas for the Wobbe
Index and Sλ are given in 3.27 and 3.28. Natural gas which has a Sλ value of
0.89 ~ 1.08 (0.89 ≤ Sλ < 1.08) is considered to be in the high-calorific range;
Natural gas which has a Sλ value between 1.08 and 1.19 (1.08 ≤ Sλ ≤ 1.19) is
considered to be in the low-calorific range. The components of the baseline fuel
reflect the extreme changes in Sλ.
M.1.1.1 The parent engine shall meet the requirements of this standard when
using the reference fuel GR (reference fuel 1) and G25 (reference fuel 2) in
Appendix D. It is not allowed to readjust the fuel supply system between the
test of the two fuels. However, after replacing the fuel, it is allowed to carry out
an adaptive operation of WHTC hot start cycle (not tested). Before the test, the
parent engine shall adopt the program as provided in clause C.6.6.1 for cooling
down.
M.1.1.2 At the request of the manufacturer, the engine may be tested by a third
fuel (fuel 3) which has an Sλ value between 0.89 and 1.19. For example, fuel 3
is a commercially available fuel of natural gas as specified in GB 18047. The
results of this test can be used as a basis for evaluating production consistency.
M.1.2 Type test for parent engines that adapt to high and low calorific gas
by switching
For self-adapting natural gas-fueled engines, it may use both the gas of high-
calorific range and the gas of low-calorific range. It uses switch to achieve
switchover between the high-calorific range and low-calorific range. The parent
engine shall be in the switch position, using the two corresponding reference
fuels of each calorific range as specified in Appendix D to carry out test. The
gas of high-calorific value range is GR (reference fuel 1) and G23 (reference fuel
3). The gas of high-calorific value range is G25 (reference fuel 2) and G23
(reference fuel 3).
Appendix N
(Normative)
Technical requirements for diesel-gas dual-fuel engines and vehicles
N.1 Scope
This Appendix applies to diesel-gas dual-fuel engines and dual-fuel vehicles.
N.2 Terms and definitions
N.2.1 Gas energy ratio, GER
Refers to the percentage of energy of the gaseous fuel 1 to the energy of the
two fuels (diesel and gas fuel) of the dual-fuel engine.
N.2.2 Average gas ratio
Refers to the average gas energy ratio calculated by a specific operation
process.
N.2.3 Heavy-duty dual-fuel (HDDF) type 1A engine
Refers to a dual-fuel engine with an average gas ratio of not less than 90%
(GERWHTC ≥ 90%) in the WHTC test hot cycle, and the idle speed cannot use
diesel alone, without diesel mode.
N.2.4 Heavy-duty dual-fuel (HDDF) type 1B engine
Refers to a dual-fuel engine with an average gas ratio of not less than 90%
(GERWHTC ≥ 90%) in the WHTC test hot cycle, and in the duel-fuel mode the
idle speed cannot use diesel alone, without diesel mode.
N.2.5 Heavy-duty dual-fuel (HDDF) type 2A engine
Refers to a dual-fuel engine with an average gas ratio between 10% and 90%
(10% < GERWHTC < 90%) in the WHTC test hot cycle, without diesel mode; or
otherwise with an average gas ratio of not less than 90% (GERWHTC ≥ 90%) in
the WHTC test hot cycle, meanwhile the idle speed may use diesel alone,
without diesel mode.
N.2.6 Heavy-duty dual-fuel (HDDF) type 2B engine
____________________
1 Energy calorific value is based on low-calorific value.
If a dual-fuel engine is developed from a diesel engine that has been type-tested,
the diesel mode of the dual-fuel engine needs to be re-type-tested.
N.4.1.2 Conditions for heavy-duty dual-fuel engine (HDDF engine) to use
diesel alone at idle speed
N.4.1.2.1 For HDDF 1A engine, except for the warm-up and starting conditions
as specified in N.4.1.3, it shall not use diesel alone at idle speed.
N.4.1.2.2 For HDDF 1B engine, in the duel-fuel mode, it shall not use diesel
alone at idle speed.
N.4.1.2.3 For HDDF types 2A, 2B, 3B engines, it may use diesel alone at idle
speed.
N.4.1.3 Conditions for heavy-duty dual-fuel engine (HDDF engine) to use
diesel alone at warm-up and startup
N.4.1.3.1 During warmup and startup, the duel-fuel engines of types 1B, 2B, 3B
may use diesel alone. At this point, the engine shall be running in diesel mode.
N.4.1.3.2 During warmup and startup, the duel-fuel engines of types 1A, 2A
may use diesel alone. In this case, the strategy shall be declared as the AES
strategy and the following additional requirements shall be met:
N.4.1.3.2.1 When the coolant temperature reaches 70 °C or the strategy has
been running for 15 minutes (whichever comes first), the strategy shall be
stopped.
N.4.1.3.2.2 When this strategy is in effect, the service mode shall be activated.
N.4.2 Service mode
N.4.2.1 Conditions for dual-fuel engines and vehicles operating in service
mode
When a vehicle equipped with a dual-fuel engine is operating in a service mode,
the vehicle is subject to operating capability limits and is temporarily exempt
from the requirements of this standard for exhaust pollutants, OBD, NOX
control systems.
N.4.2.2 Operating capability limits in service mode
The operating capability limit for a dual-fuel engine in service mode is activated
by the “severe drivability limit system” as described in Appendix G.
The activation and failure of the alert and drivability limit system as described
in Appendix G does not invalidate the operating capability limit.
When the diagnostic system confirms that the failure is no longer present or
that the relevant DTC information is cleared by the scan-tool, the service mode
shall automatically fail or reactivate the dual-fuel mode.
N.4.2.3.2.1 If the failure counter (clause N.4.4) of the gas fuel supply system is
not zero, it indicates that the diagnostic system has detected that a failure may
reappear. At this time, the DTC is a potential diagnostic trouble code and it shall
activate the service mode or diesel mode.
N.4.2.3.3 Gas fuel failure - Abnormal gas fuel consumption
In dual-fuel mode, if the gas fuel consumption is abnormal (clause N.7.3), at
this time, the DTC associated with the failure is a potential diagnostic trouble
code, it shall activate the service mode or diesel mode.
N.4.3 Dual-fuel indicator
N.4.3.1 Dual-fuel working mode indicator
Dual-fuel engines and vehicles shall provide an indicator that is visible to the
driver and indicates the engine's operating mode (dual-fuel mode, diesel mode
or service mode).
The characteristics and mounting position of the indicator are determined by
the engine manufacturer or may be part of an existing visual indicator system.
The indicator can display information in the form of text messages. The
information display system may be same as the information system of the OBD
system, or NOx control system, or others for the purposes of maintenance.
The display equipment of the dual-fuel operating mode indicator shall not be
same as that of the OBD system, or NOx control system, or others for the
purposes of maintenance.
The display level of the safety alert always takes precedence over the work
mode indicator.
N.4.3.1.1 When the service mode is activated, the dual-fuel operating mode
indicator shall be set to the service mode at the same time. When the service
mode is activated, this indicator shall remain displayed in the service mode.
N.4.3.1.2 When the engine is operating in dual-fuel mode or diesel mode, the
dual-fuel indicator shall be set to dual-fuel mode or diesel mode immediately
and last for at least one minute. This indicator can also be displayed according
to the driver's request.
N.4.3.2 Gas fuel depletion alert system (dual-fuel alert system)
Only when the PEMS demonstration test in dual-fuel mode and the PEMS
demonstration test in diesel mode pass at the same time, can the type test pass.
N.4.7.3 Adaptation strategy
N.4.7.3.1 When meeting the following conditions, the dual-fuel engine can
adopt an adaptation strategy:
a) The HDDF types of engine (such as: type 1A or type 2B, etc.) are
consistent with those during type test.
b) For type 2 dual-fuel engines, the difference, in percentage, between the
highest GERWHTC value and the lowest GERWHTC value for the engine in
the family shall not exceed the value as specified in clause N.3.1.
c) These strategies have been stated and can ensure that vehicle emissions
meet the requirements of Appendix E.
N.5 Technical requirements
N.5.1 Emission limit of HDDF type 1A and type 1B engines
N.5.1.1 The emission limits for HDDF type 1A and type 1B engines in dual-fuel
mode are consistent with the limits for ignition engines in clause 6.3 of this
standard.
N.5.1.2 The emission limit of the HDDF type 1B engine in diesel mode is the
same as the limit of the compression ignition engine in clause 6.3 of this
standard.
N.5.2 Emission limits of HDDF type 2A and 2B engines
N.5.2.1 Emission limits of WHSC test cycles
N.5.2.1.1 For HDDF type 2A and 2B engines, in dual-fuel mode, the emission
limits for the WHSC test cycle are consistent with the limits for the WHSC test
cycle for compression ignition engines in clause 6.3 of this standard.
N.5.2.1.2 The emission limit of the HDDF type 2B engine in diesel mode is
consistent with the limit of the compression ignition engine in clause 6.3 of this
standard.
N.5.2.2 Emission limit of the WHTC test cycle
N.5.2.2.1 Emission limits of CO, NOx, NH3 and PM
For the CODF type 2A and HDDF type 2B engines in the dual-fuel mode, the
mass emission limits of CO, NOx, NH3 and PM in the WHTC test cycle are
consistent with the limits in the WHTC test cycle of the compression ignition
installed on whole vehicle
In addition to meeting the requirements for the installation of the engine on the
vehicle as specified in this standard, during the type test, it shall, based on
appropriate component design, test demonstration and so on, also carry out the
demonstration test according to the requirements of Annex NC, to prove that
the following contents meet the requirements of this Appendix:
a) Dual-fuel indicator and alert system (images specified in this Appendix,
activation scheme, etc.);
b) Fuel storage system;
c) Performance of the vehicle in service mode.
Both the indicator's display and the alert system's activation require an
inspection, but any inspection does not require disassembly of the engine
system (for example, power cutoff, etc.).
N.6.3 Demonstration requirements for type 2 dual-fuel engines
The engine manufacturer shall certify to the competent department of
ecological environment under the State Council that the GERWHTC of all engine
models in the dual-fuel engine family is within the percentage range as specified
in clause N.3.1 of this Appendix (e.g., by algorithm, functional analysis,
calculation, simulation, previous test results, etc.).
N.6.4 Additional demonstration requirements for type test of engine of
common fuel range
At the request of the manufacturer, it is possible to perform up to two adaptative
operations of the last 10 minutes of WHTC between tests.
N.6.5 Durability requirements for dual-fuel engine
Meet the requirements of Appendix H of this standard.
N.7 OBD requirements
N.7.1 OBD general requirements
For dual-fuel engines and vehicles, whether operating in dual-fuel mode or
diesel mode, it shall meet the requirements for diesel engines in Appendix F of
this standard.
If a dual-fuel engine is equipped with an oxygen sensor, the engine shall meet
the requirements for a gas fuel engine according to clause FC.13 of Appendix
F of this standard.
N.7.2 Monitoring of gas fuel supply system
For HDDF engines and vehicles, according to the requirements as specified in
FC.1, it shall monitor the gaseous fuel supply system inside the engine system
(including the signal from outside the engine system) - Component monitoring.
N.7.3 Monitoring of gaseous fuel consumption
Dual-fuel engines shall have a method for determining the consumption of
gaseous fuel and a passage for providing gaseous fuel consumption
information to the outside of the engine. Abnormal gas fuel consumption (e.g.,
the deviation of gaseous fuel consumption reaches 50% of normal conditions)
shall be monitored - Performance monitoring.
In dual-fuel mode, it shall continuously monitor the insufficiency of gaseous fuel
consumption. The maximum monitoring period is 48 hours.
This monitoring is not subject to the limit by IUPR requirements.
N.7.4 OBD defect
The requirements of Appendix F are applicable to the defects of diesel engine,
as well as the dual-fuel engine.
Defects that occur in both diesel mode and dual-fuel mode shall not be counted
separately in each mode.
N.7.5 Clearing failure information through scan-tools
N.7.5.1 Clearing information through scan-tools, including DTCs related to
failures, shall be performed according to Appendix F.
N.7.5.2 Clearing failure information can only be performed when the engine is
stopped.
N.7.5.3 When the failure information is related to the gas fuel supply system as
described in clause N.7.2 of this Appendix, when the diagnostic trouble code
(DTC) is cleared, the counter associated with the failure cannot be zeroed.
N.8 Requirements of NOx control system
N.8.1 The heavy-duty dual-fuel (HDDF) engines and vehicles, whether
operated in dual-fuel mode or d......
Related standard:   GB 15618-2018  GB 18285-2018
Related PDF sample:   GB 36886-2018
   
 
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