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GB 18352.5-2013 PDF in English


GB 18352.5-2013 (GB18352.5-2013) PDF English
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GB 18352.5-2013English1110 Add to Cart 0-9 seconds. Auto-delivery. Limits and measurement methods for emissions from light-duty vehicles (CHINA 5) (Replaced by GB 18352.6-2016, Valid through July 2025) Obsolete


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GB 18352.5-2013: PDF in English

GB 18352.5-2013
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 13.040.50
Z 64
Replacing GB18352.3-2005
Limits and measurement methods for
emissions from light-duty vehicles
(CHINA 5)
ISSUED ON: SEPTEMBER 17, 2013
IMPLEMENTED ON: JANUARY 01, 2018
Issued by: Ministry of Environmental Protection of the PRC;
General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection
and Quarantine of the PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
1 Scope of application ... 7 
2 Normative references ... 8 
3 Terms and definitions ... 9 
4 Type-approval application and approval ... 15 
5 Specifications and tests ... 16 
6 Extensions to type approvals ... 27 
7 Conformity of production ... 31 
8 In-service conformity ... 36 
9 Implementation of the standard ... 37 
Annex A (Normative) Information on application for type approval ... 39 
Annex B (Informative) Format of type-approval certificate (Maximum size: A4
(210 × 297 mm)) ... 58 
Annex C (Normative) Test of exhaust emissions after a cold start at normal
temperature (Type I test) ... 65 
Annex D (Normative) Two-speed idle test or free acceleration smoke test
(Type II test) ... 143 
Annex E (Normative) Test of crankcase emissions (Type III test) ... 147 
Annex F (Normative) Test of evaporative emissions (Type IV test) ... 150 
Annex G (Normative) Durability test of pollution control devices (Type V test)
... 172 
Annex H (Normative) Emission test of CO and THC in the exhaust after a cold
start at low temperature (Type VI test) ... 187 
Annex I (Normative) Onboard diagnostic (OBD) system ... 194 
Annex J (Normative) Specifications of reference fuels ... 220 
Annex K (Normative) Special requirements for a vehicle fuelled by LPG or NG
... 226 
Annex L (Normative) Type-approval of replacement pollution control device as
separate technical unit ... 229 
Annex M (Normative) Requirements for ensuring conformity of production . 243 
Annex N (Normative) In-service conformity ... 250 
Annex O (Normative) Technical requirements for vehicles that use a reagent
for the exhaust after-treatment system ... 269 
Annex P (Normative) Emissions test procedure for a vehicle equipped with a
periodically regenerating system ... 274 
                                        
Foreword
For the purpose of implementing the Environmental Protection Law of the
People's Republic of China and the Law of the People's Republic of China on
the Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution, this Standard is
established to prevent and control the environmental pollution by exhaust
pollutants from motor vehicles and to improve ambient air quality.
This Standard specifies the requirements for type approval of the emissions
from light-duty vehicles in the Stage V, check and verification methods of
conformity of production and in-service conformity.
This Standard is modified in relation to the technical content contained in the
REGULATION (EC) No 715/2007 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND
OF THE COUNCIL on type approval of motor vehicles with respect to
emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles (Euro 5 and Euro 6)
and on access to vehicle repair and maintenance information, COMMISSION
REGULATION (EC) No 692/2008 implementing and amending Regulation (EC)
No 715/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council on type-approval
of motor vehicles with respect to emissions from light passenger and
commercial vehicles (Euro 5 and Euro 6) and on access to vehicle repair and
maintenance information, and ECE R83-06 (2011) Uniform provisions
concerning the approval of vehicles with regard to the emission of pollutants
according to engine fuel requirements as well as their amendments.
The following significant changes have been made in this Standard to the
above EU directives:
- The definition and category of light-duty vehicles follow the requirements in
GB 18352.3-2005;
- REVISE the previous Type II test and smoke test.
- ADD the test requirements for effective volume and initial working capacity
of canister;
- ADD the test requirements for substrate volume and precious metal
content of catalytic converter;
- REVISE and adopt the related requirements for access to the OBD system
and vehicle maintenance/repair information;
- REVISE the method of verifying the conformity of production; ADD the
requirements for checking conformity of production of carbon canister and
catalytic converter;
- ADD the requirements for checking evaporative emissions with regard to
in-service conformity;
- Exclude the test requirements for flexible fuel vehicles and biodiesel
vehicles, etc.;
- The technical requirements for test fuels.
This Standard specifies the requirements for type-approval of the emissions
from light-duty vehicles in the Stage V, check and verification methods of
conformity of production and in-service conformity.
Compared with the Stage IV, the significant changes are as follows:
- The application scope of the standard extends to the vehicles with
reference mass of not exceeding 2610 kg and specifies that the light-duty
hybrid electric vehicles shall comply with the requirements of this
Standard;
- Improve the emission control requirements of Type I test; REVISE the
measurement method of particulate matter mass and add the
measurement requirements of particle numbers;
- Categorize the two-speed idle test of positive ignition vehicles and free
acceleration smoke test of compression ignition vehicles as the Type II
test;
- Improve the distance requirements for durability in Type V test; ADD the
standard road cycle and bench ageing test method for positive ignition
engines;
- ADD the test requirements for effective volume and initial working capacity
of canister;
- ADD the test requirements for substrate volume and precious metal
content of catalytic converter;
- REVISE the requirements for monitoring items and limit values of the OBD
system and the onboard diagnostic techniques of bi-fuel vehicles;
- REVISE the related requirements for access to the OBD system and
vehicle maintenance/repair information;
- REVISE the method of verifying the conformity of production; ADD the
requirements for checking conformity of production of carbon canister and
catalytic converter;
- REVISE the related requirements for in-service conformity check; ADD the
requirements of checking OBD system and evaporative emissions;
- ADD the technical requirements for vehicles that use a reagent for the
exhaust after-treatment system;
- ADD the procedure for emission test of vehicles equipped with periodically
regenerating systems;
- REVISE the technical requirements for test fuels.
Annexes A, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, and P in this Standard are
Normative Annexes, while Annex B is an Informative Annex.
This Standard was organized and formulated by the Department of Science,
Technology and Standards of Ministry of Environmental Protection.
This Standard was drafted by Chinese Automotive Technology and Research
Center and Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences.
This Standard was approved by the Ministry of Environmental Protection on
May 27, 2013.
From the issuance date of this Standard, this Standard can be deemed as the
basis for type approval. From the date of January 1, 2018, all light-duty
vehicles sold and registered shall comply with the requirements in the
Standard.
From the date of January 1, 2018, this Standard replaces Limits and
measurement methods for emissions from light-duty vehicles (CHINA III, IV)
(GB 18352.3-2005). Prior to January 1, 2023, the “In-service conformity check”
for light-duty vehicles of Stage III and IV shall follow the relevant requirements
stated in GB 18352.3-2005.
This Standard is interpreted by the Ministry of Environmental Protection.
Limits and measurement methods for
emissions from light-duty vehicles
(CHINA 5)
1 Scope of application
This Standard specifies the limits and measurement methods for exhaust
emissions at normal and low ambient temperature, exhaust emissions at
two-speed idle condition, crankcase emissions, and evaporative emissions,
and technical requirements and measurement methods for the durability of
pollution control devices and onboard diagnostic (OBD) systems of light-duty
vehicles equipped with positive-ignition engines.
This Standard specifies the limits and measurement methods for exhaust
emissions at normal ambient temperature and free acceleration smoke, and
technical requirements and measurement methods for the durability of
pollution control devices and OBD systems of light-duty vehicles equipped with
compression-ignition engines.
This Standard specifies the requirements for type-approval of light-duty
vehicles, check and verification methods of conformity of production and
in-service conformity.
This Standard also specifies the special requirements for light-duty vehicles
fueled by LPG or NG.
This Standard also specifies the type-approval procedure for replacement
pollution control devices as separate technical units intended to be fitted on
light-duty vehicles with respect to pollutant emissions.
This Standard also stipulates the technical requirements for vehicles that use a
reagent for the exhaust after-treatment system and the procedure for emission
test of vehicles equipped with periodically regenerating systems.
This Standard applies to light-duty vehicles, including hybrid electric vehicles,
powered by positive-ignition engines or compression-ignition engines, with the
maximum design speed of being greater than or equal to 50 km/h.
At the manufacturer's request, type approval may be performed for Category
M1, M2, and N2 vehicles with the maximum mass exceeding 3500 kg and a
reference mass not exceeding 2610 kg in accordance with this Standard; as
for the vehicles type approval granted under this Standard may be extended
from vehicles mentioned above to M1, M2, N1 and N2 vehicles with a reference
mass not exceeding 2840 kg and which meet the conditions laid down in this
Standard.
This Standard does not apply to the vehicles whose type had been approved in
accordance with GB 17691-2005 (China Stage V).
2 Normative references
The following documents or contained provisions which, through reference in
this Standard, constitute provisions of this Standard. For all undated
references, the valid edition applies to this Standard.
GB 1495 Limits and measurement methods for noise emitted by
accelerating motor vehicles
GB 3847-2005 Limits and measurement methods for exhaust smoke from
C.I.E. (Compression Ignition Engine) and vehicle equipped
with C.I.E.
GB 7258 Safety specifications for power-driven vehicles operating on
roads
GB/T
15089-2001
Classification of power-driven vehicles and trailers
GB
17691-2005
Limits and measurement methods for exhaust pollutants from
compression ignition and gas fuelled positive ignition engines
of vehicles (III, IV, V)
GB 18285 Limits and measurement methods for exhaust pollutants from
vehicles equipped ignition engine under two-speed idle
conditions and simple driving mode conditions
GB/T
19001-2008
Quality management systems - Requirements
GB/T 19755 Measurement methods for emissions from light-duty hybrid
electric vehicles
HJ/T 390 Technical Requirement for Environmental Protection Product
- Control System of Fuel Evaporative Pollutants from Vehicle
WITH Petrol Engine
HJ 509 Determination of Platinum, Palladium and Rhodium loading in
the vehicle-used ceramic catalytic converters Inductive
Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry and
Inductive Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry
ISO
2575-1982
Road vehicles - Symbols for controls, indicators and tell-tales
ISO
8422-1991
Sequential sampling plans for inspection by attributes
ISO 9141-2 Road vehicles - Diagnostic systems - Part 2: CARB
requirements for interchange of digital information
ISO 14230-4 Road vehicles - Diagnostic systems - Keyword Protocol 2000
- Part 4: Requirements for emission-related systems
ISO 15031-3 Road vehicles - Communication between vehicle and
external equipment for emissions-related diagnostics - Part 3:
Diagnostic connector and related electrical circuits,
specification and use
ISO 15031-4 Road vehicles - Communication between vehicle and
external equipment for emissions-related diagnostics - Part 4:
External test equipment
ISO 15031-5 Road vehicles - Communication between vehicle and
external equipment for emissions-related diagnostics - Part 5:
Emissions-related diagnostic services
ISO 15031-6 Road vehicles - Communication between vehicle and
external equipment for emissions-related diagnostics - Part 6:
Diagnostic trouble code definitions
ISO 15031-7 Road vehicles - Communication between vehicle and
external equipment for emissions-related diagnostics - Part 7:
Data link security
ISO 15765-4 Road vehicles - Diagnostics on Controller Area Network
(CAN) - Part 4: Requirements for emissions-related systems
EN 1822 High efficiency air filters (EPA, HEPA and ULPA)
SAE J1850 Class B data communications network interface
SAE J2186 E/E data link security
3 Terms and definitions
For the purpose of this Standard, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
Light-duty vehicle
The category M1, M2, and N1 vehicles with the maximum mass of not
exceeding 3500 kg.
3.2
Vehicle of category M1, M2, N1 and N2
According to GB/T 15089-2001,
Vehicle of category M1 refers to the passenger vehicle with no more than 9
seats, including the driver's seat.
Vehicle of category M2 refers to the passenger vehicle with more than 9 seats
including the driver's seat and whose maximum design mass does not exceed
5000 kg.
Vehicle of category N1 refers to the goods vehicle with the maximum design
mass of not exceeding 3500 kg.
Vehicle of category N2 refers to the goods vehicle with the maximum design
mass of more than 3500 kg but not more than 12000 kg.
3.3
Vehicle of category I
The vehicle of category M1 with no more than 6 seats including the driver's
seat and whose maximum mass of not exceeding 2500 kg.
3.4
Vehicle of category II
All vehicles covered by this Standard except the vehicle of category I.
3.5
Vehicle type
Type of motor vehicle. The same type shall not differ in the following respects:
(1) The equivalent inertia determined in accordance with the reference
mass as prescribed in C.5.2.1; and
(2) The engine and vehicle characteristics as defined in Annex A.
3.6
Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV)
The vehicle that can be powered from at least the following two types of
on-vehicle stored energy:
- A consumable fuel;
- A rechargeable energy/power storage device.
3.7
Bi-fuel vehicle
The vehicle that can use both gasoline and one gaseous fuel, but not both
fuels.
3.8
Mono-fuel gas vehicle
The vehicle that can only use one type of gaseous fuel (LPG or NG), or the
vehicle that can use both gaseous fuel (LPG or NG) and petrol, but may also
have a petrol system for emergency purposes or starting only, where the petrol
tank does not contain more than 15 liters of petrol.
3.9
Reference mass (RM)
The "unladen mass" of the vehicle plus 100 kg.
3.10
Maximum mass
The technically permissible maximum mass declared by the vehicle
manufacturer.
3.11
Equivalent inertia (I)
Mass that is equivalent to the inertia which is recorded by the inertia simulator
equipped on the chassis dynamometer during vehicle driving and moving.
3.12
Gaseous pollutants
The exhaust emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOX)
expressed in nitrogen dioxide (NO2) equivalent and hydrocarbons (THC and
NMHC) assuming hydrocarbon ratio of:
(a) C1H1.85 for petrol,
(b) C1H1.86 for diesel,
(c) C1H2.525 for LPG,
(d) CH4 for NG.
3.13
Particulate matter (PM)
Components of the exhaust gas which are removed from the diluted exhaust
gas at a maximum temperature of 325 K (52 °C) by means of the filters
described in Attachment CE.
3.14
Particle numbers (PN)
The total number of particles of a diameter greater than 0.023 μm present in
the diluted exhaust gas after it has been conditioned to remove volatile
material, as described in Attachment CF.
3.15
Exhaust emissions
Gaseous pollutants and particulate matter emitted from vehicle exhaust pipes.
3.16
Evaporative emissions
The hydrocarbon vapors lost from the fuel (petrol) system of a motor vehicle
other than those from exhaust emissions, including:
(1) "Hot soak losses" are hydrocarbon emissions arising from the fuel
system of a stationary vehicle after a period of driving, expressed as
C1H2.20 equivalent.
(2) "Tank breathing losses" are hydrocarbon emissions caused by
temperature changes in the fuel tank, expressed as C1H2.33 equivalent.
3.17
Crankcase
The spaces in or external to an engine which are connected to the oil sump by
internal or external ducts through which gases and vapor can escape.
3.18
Cold start device
The device that temporarily enriches the air/fuel mixture of the engine thus
assisting the engine to start.
3.19
Starting aid
The device which assists engine start up without enrichment of the air/fuel
mixture of the engine, e.g. glow plug, injection timing change, etc.
3.20
Engine capacity
The nominal engine swept volume for reciprocating piston engines; twice the
nominal swept volume for rotary piston engines.
3.21
Pollution control devices
Components of a vehicle that control or limit exhaust or evaporative emissions.
3.22
Onboard diagnostic system
Onboard diagnostic (OBD) system for emission control, referred to as OBD
system. It shall have the function of identifying areas where a malfunction may
exist and storing this information in the memory of the electronic control unit by
means of malfunction code.
3.23
Access to information
The availability of all vehicle OBD and vehicle repair and maintenance
information, required for the inspection, diagnosis, servicing or repair of the
vehicle.
3.24
Malfunction indicator (MI)
A visible or audible indicator that clearly informs the driver of the vehicle in the
event of a malfunction of any emission-related component connected to the
OBD system, or of the OBD system itself.
3.25
Misfire
Lack of combustion in the cylinder of a positive ignition engine due to absence
of spark, poor fuel metering, poor compression or any other cause.
3.26
Defeat device
Any element of design which measures or senses vehicle speed, engine
rotational speed, transmission gear, temperature, air inlet manifold vacuum or
any other parameter for the purpose of activating, to activate, modulate, delay,
or deactivate the operation of any part or the function of the emission control
system, so that the effectiveness of the emission control system is reduced
under conditions which may reasonably be expected to be encountered in
normal vehicle operation and use.
Such an element of design may not be considered as a defeat device:
(1) The device required for protecting the engine against damage or
accident and for safe operation of the vehicle; or
(2) The device that functions only when the engine is started;
(3) The device that does work in Type I or IV tests.
3.27
Properly maintained and used
"Properly maintained and used" means, for the purpose of a test vehicle, that
such a vehicle satisfies the criteria for acceptance of a selected vehicle laid
down in NA.2.
3.28
Reagent
Any product other than fuel that is stored on the vehicle and is provided to the
exhaust after-treatment system upon request of the emission control system.
3.29
Periodically regenerating system
A pollution control device (e.g. catalytic converter, particulate trap) that
requires a periodical regeneration process in less than 4000 km of normal
vehicle operation.
During cycles where regeneration occurs, emission standards can be
exceeded. If a regeneration of a pollution control device occurs at least once
per Type I test and that has already regenerated at least once during vehicle
preparation cycle, it will be considered as a continuously regenerating system
and not suitable for the test procedures for periodically regenerating system
specified in Annex P.
If the manufacturer provides data to the type-approval authority that, during
cycles where regeneration occurs, emissions remain below the standards
given in 5.1.3.4, at the request of the manufacturer, after agreement of the
testing organization, the test procedure specific to periodically regenerating
systems will not apply to a regenerative system.
3.30
Fuel
The type of fuel normally used by the engine:
- Petrol,
- LPG (liquefied petroleum gas),
- NG (natural gas),
- Both petrol and LPG,
- Both petrol and NG,
- Diesel fuel.
Wherein, liquid fuel refers to petrol or diesel, while gaseous fuel refers to LPG
or NG.
4 Type-approval application and approval
4.1 Application for type-approval
4.1.1 Vehicle manufacturer engaged in manufacturing and selling vehicles
shall apply for and obtain type-approval of vehicle emission control in China.
The application for type-approval of a vehicle type with regard to exhaust
emissions, crankcase emissions, evaporative emissions, durability of pollution
control devices, as well as to its OBD system shall be submitted by the vehicle
manufacturer.
4.1.2 Technical documents for type-approval shall be submitted in accordance
with Annex A of this Standard. Documents of ensuring conformity of production
shall be submitted in accordance with Annex M of this Standard.
4.1.2.1 The application concerning an onboard diagnostic (OBD) system the
following information shall be attached.
(1) In the case of vehicles equipped with positive-ignition engines, in Type I
test as described in Annex C, the percentage of misfires that would
either result in emissions exceeding the limits given in Table I.1 of I.3.3.2,
or that could lead to an exhaust catalyst, or catalysts, overheating prior
to causing irreversible damage.
(2) Detailed written information fully describing the functional operation
characteristics of the OBD system, including a listing of all relevant parts
of the vehicle emission control system.
(3) A description of the malfunction indicator used by the OBD system.
(4) A declaration that the OBD system complies with the provisions of
paragraph IA.7 related to in-use performance under all reasonably
foreseeable driving conditions.
(5) A plan describing the detailed technical criteria and justification for
incrementing the numerator and denominator of each monitor that shall
fulfill the requirements of paragraphs IA.7.2 and IA.7.3, as well as for
disabling numerators, denominators and the general denominator under
the conditions outlined in paragraph IA.7.7.
(6) A description of the provisions taken to prevent tampering with and
modification of the emission control electronic control unit.
(7) If applicable, the particulars of the vehicle family as referred to in
Attachment IB.
(8) Where appropriate, copies of other type approvals accompanied by the
relevant data to enable extension of approvals.
4.1.2.2 For the tests described in paragraph I.3, a vehicle representative of the
vehicle type or vehicle family fitted with the OBD system to be approved shall
be submitted to the testing organization responsible for the type approval test.
If the testing organization determines that the submitted vehicle does not fully
represent the vehicle type or vehicle family described in Attachment IB, an
alternative and if necessary, an additional vehicle shall be submitted for test in
accordance with paragraph I.3.
4.1.3 Where appropriate, copies of other type approvals with the relevant data
to enable extensions of approvals and establishment of deterioration factors
shall be submitted.
4.1.4 For the tests described in Clause 5, a vehicle representative of the
vehicle type to be approved shall be submitted to the testing organization
responsible for the approval tests. For the type IV test, two sets of same
carbon canisters shall be provided. For the type V test, two sets of same
catalytic converters shall be provided.
4.2 Approval of type-approval
If the vehicle type submitted for approval meets the technical requirements
described in Clause 5, approval of that vehicle type shall be granted by the
approval authority, and a certificate will be issued as well. A format of
type-approval certificate is included in Annex B.
5 Specifications and tests
5.1 General
5.1.1 The components liable to affect the exhaust emissions, crankcase
emissions and evaporative emissions shall be so designed, constructed and
assembled as to enable the vehicle, in normal use, despite the vibration to
which they may be subjected, to comply with the provisions of this Standard.
5.1.2 The technical measures taken by the manufacturer shall be such as to
ensure that in conformity with the provisions of this Standard, exhaust
emissions, crankcase emissions, and evaporative emissions are effectively
limited throughout the normal life of the vehicle and under normal conditions of
use. This will include the security of those hoses and their joints and
connections, used within the emission control systems, which shall be so
constructed as to comply with the original design intent.
All vehicles shall be equipped with OBD systems. The design, production and
installation of such system shall ensure that the vehicle is able to recognize
and record the types of deterioration or malfunction during the life period of
vehicle.
These provisions are deemed to be met if the provisions of paragraph 5.3
(Type approval), Clause 7 (Conformity of production), and Clause 8 (In-service
conformity) respectively are complied with.
The use of a defeat device is prohibited.
During the normal life period, without the authorization of the type-approval
authority, any refit liable to affect emissions shall be prohibited for the technical
measures taken by the manufacturer and OBD system installed on the vehicle
5.1.3 Provisions shall be made to prevent excess evaporative emissions and
fuel spillage caused by a missing fuel filler cap. This may be achieved by using
one of the following:
(1) An automatically opening and closing, non-removable fuel filler cap;
(2) Design features which avoid excess evaporative emissions in the case
of a missing fuel filler cap;
(3) Any other provision which has the same effect. Examples may include,
but are not limited to, a tethered filler cap, or one utilizing the same
locking key for the filler cap as for the vehicle's ignition. In this case, the
key shall be removable from the filler cap only in the locked condition.
5.1.4 Provisions for electronic control system security
5.1.4.1 Any vehicle with an electronic control unit for emission shall include
features to deter modification, except as authorized by the manufacturer. The
manufacturer shall authorize modifications if these modifications are
necessary for the diagnosis, servicing, inspection, retrofitting or repair of the
vehicle. RECORD them in the in-service conformity materials in detail and
submit to the type-approval authority for filing. Any reprogrammable computer
codes or operating parameters shall be resistant to illegal tampering and afford
a level of protection at least as good as the provisions in ISO 15031-7, “Road
Vehicles - Communication Between Vehicle and External Equipment For
Emissions-related Diagnostics - Part 7: Data Link Security” dated October
1998 (SAE J2186 dated October 1996). Any removable calibration memory
chips shall be potted, encased in a sealed container or protected by electronic
algorithms and shall not be changeable without the use of specialized tools
and procedures. Only the functional requirements directly related to emission
calibration or vehicle security shall comply with such protection requirements.
5.1.4.2 Computer-coded engine operating parameters shall not be changeable
without the use of specialized tools and procedures (e.g. soldered or potted
computer components or sealed (or soldered) computer enclosures).
5.1.4.3 In the case of mechanical fuel-injection pumps fitted to
compression-ignition engines, manufacturers shall take adequate steps to
p......
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.