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GB 12456-2021 (GB12456-2021)

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BASIC DATA
Standard ID GB 12456-2021 (GB12456-2021)
Description (Translated English) National food safety standard - Determination of total acid in foods
Sector / Industry National Standard
Classification of Chinese Standard C53
Word Count Estimation 9,969
Date of Issue 2021-02-22
Date of Implementation 2021-08-22
Older Standard (superseded by this standard) GB/T 12456-2008
Regulation (derived from) National Health Commission Announcement No. 3 of 2021

Standards related to: GB 12456-2021

GB 12456-2021
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
National food safety standard - Determination of total
acid in foods
ISSUED ON: FEBRUARY 22, 2021
IMPLEMENTED ON: AUGUST 22, 2021
Issued by: National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China;
State Administration for Market Regulation.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
1 Scope ... 4 
Method One -- Acid-base indicator titration ... 4 
2 Principle ... 4 
3 Reagents and materials ... 4 
4 Instruments and equipment... 5 
5 Analysis steps ... 6 
6 Result calculation ... 7 
7 Precision ... 8 
Method Two -- Potentiometric titration with pH meter ... 8 
8 Principle ... 8 
9 Reagents and materials ... 8 
10 Instruments and equipment... 9 
11 Analysis steps ... 9 
12 Result calculation ... 10 
13 Precision ... 10 
Method Three -- Automatic potentiometric titration ... 10 
14 Principle ... 10 
15 Reagents and materials ... 10 
16 Instruments and equipment... 10 
17 Analysis steps ... 11 
18 Result calculation ... 11 
19 Precision ... 11 
National food safety standard - Determination of total
acid in foods
1 Scope
This Standard specifies the determination method for total acid in fruit and
vegetable products, beverages, alcohol and condiments.
Method One of this Standard is applicable to the determination of total acid in
fruit and vegetable products, beverages (clear and transparent), white wine,
rice wine, white wine, beer and white vinegar.
Method Two of this Standard is applicable to the determination of total acid in
fruit and vegetable products, beverages, alcohol and condiments.
Method Three of this Standard is applicable to the determination of total acid in
fruit and vegetable products, beverages, alcohol and condiments.
Method One -- Acid-base indicator titration
2 Principle
According to the principle of acid-base neutralization, use lye to titrate the acid
in the test solution. Use phenolphthalein as indicator to determine the end point
of titration. Calculate the total acid content in the food according to the
consumption of lye.
3 Reagents and materials
Unless otherwise specified, the reagents used in this method are analytically
pure, and the water is grade two water specified in GB/T 6682.
3.1 Reagents
3.1.1 Ethanol (C2H5OH): 95%.
3.1.2 Phenolphthalein (C20H14O4).
3.1.3 Sodium hydroxide (NaOH).
3.2 Reagent preparation
5 Analysis steps
5.1 Preparation of specimen
The specimen is placed, sealed and stored at room temperature.
5.1.1 Liquid sample
Samples without carbon dioxide: Mix well and place them in a closed glass
container.
Samples with carbon dioxide: Take at least 200g of sample (to the nearest of
0.01g) in a 500mL beaker. Shake under reduced pressure for 3min~4min to
remove carbon dioxide in the liquid sample.
5.1.2 Solid sample
Take at least 200g of representative sample (to the nearest of 0.01g). Place in
a mortar or tissue masher. Add the same amount of carbon dioxide-free water
as the sample. Use a mortar or a tissue masher to crush. Mix it into a slurry and
place it in a closed glass container.
5.1.3 Solid-liquid mixed sample
Take at least 200g according to the solid and liquid ratio of the sample (to the
nearest of 0.01g). Use a mortar or a tissue masher to crush. After mixing well,
place in a closed glass container.
5.2 Preparation of test solution
5.2.1 Liquid sample
Weigh 25g (to the nearest of 0.01g) or pipette 25.0mL of specimen into a 250mL
volumetric flask. Use carbon dioxide-free water to set volume to the scale mark.
Shake well. Use a quick filter paper to filter. Collect the filtrate for determination.
5.2.2 Other samples
Weigh 25g of specimen (to the nearest of 0.01g). Place in a 150mL conical flask
with condenser. Add about 50mL of carbon dioxide-free water at 80°C. Mix well.
Place in a boiling water bath and boil for 30min (shake 2~3 times to make all
the organic acids in the specimen dissolve in the solution). Take out. Cool to
room temperature. Use carbon dioxide-free water to set volume to 250mL. Use
a quick filter paper to filter. Collect the filtrate for determination.
5.3 Analysis steps
1000 - The conversion factor.
The calculation result is expressed as the arithmetic mean of two independent
measurement results obtained under repeatability conditions. The result is
rounded to two decimal places.
7 Precision
The absolute difference between two independent determination results
obtained under repeatability conditions shall not exceed 10% of the arithmetic
mean.
Method Two -- Potentiometric titration with pH meter
8 Principle
According to the principle of acid-base neutralization, use sodium hydroxide
standard titration solution to titrate the acid in the test solution. When the
specimen solution is neutralized to pH 8.2 (if the acid is phosphoric acid, the
end point is 8.7~8.8), it is determined as the end point of the titration. Calculate
the total acid content in the food according to the consumption of lye.
9 Reagents and materials
Unless otherwise specified, the reagents used in this method are analytically
pure, and the water is grade two water specified in GB/T 6682.
9.1 Reagents
9.1.1 Sodium hydroxide (NaOH).
9.1.2 Dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (K2HPO4).
9.1.3 Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4).
9.2 Reagent preparation
9.2.1 Sodium hydroxide standard titration solution (0.1mol/L): same as 3.2.
9.2.2 pH8.0 buffer solution: Take 5.59g of dipotassium hydrogen phosphate and
0.41g of potassium dihydrogen phosphate. Use water to set volume to 1000mL.
12 Result calculation
Same as the requirements of Chapter 6.
13 Precision
The absolute difference between two independent determination results
obtained under repeatability conditions shall not exceed 10% of the arithmetic
mean.
Method Three -- Automatic potentiometric titration
14 Principle
According to the principle of acid-base neutralization, use sodium hydroxide
standard titration solution to titrate the acid in the test solution. When the sample
solution is neutralized to pH 8.2, it is determined as the end point of the titration.
Calculate the total acid content in the food according to the consumption of lye.
15 Reagents and materials
Unless otherwise specified, the reagents used in this method are analytically
pure, and the water is grade two water specified in GB/T 6682.
15.1 Reagents
15.1.1 Sodium hydroxide (NaOH).
15.2 Reagent preparation
Same with 3.2.
16 Instruments and equipment
16.1 Analytical balance: Resolution is 0.01g and 0.1mg.
16.2 Potentiometric titrator.
16.3 Agitator.
...