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GB/T 22131-2022 PDF in English

GB/T 22131-2022 (GB/T22131-2022, GBT 22131-2022, GBT22131-2022)
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GB/T 22131-2022: PDF in English (GBT 22131-2022)

GB/T 22131-2022
ICS 77.140.85
CCS J 32
Replacing GB/T 22131-2008
Practice for ultrasonic examination from bored surfaces of
cylindrical forgings
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 6
2 Normative references ... 6
3 Terms and definitions ... 6
4 Requirements for test personnel ... 7
5 General requirements ... 7
6 Ultrasonic testing equipment ... 7
7 Preparation of forgings for ultrasonic testing ... 9
8 Testing procedures ... 9
9 Requirements for recording ... 9
10 Test report ... 10
This document was drafted in accordance with the rules given in GB/T 1.1-2020,
Directives for standardization - Part 1: Rules for the structure and drafting of
standardizing documents.
This document replaces GB/T 22131-2008 Practice for ultrasonic examination from
bored surfaces of cylindrical forgings; compared with GB/T 22131-2008, in addition to
structural adjustments and editorial changes, the main technical changes are as follows:
a) Change “flaw detection” to “detection” (see full text);
b) Change the scope of this document (see Chapter 1; Chapter 1 of the 2008 edition);
c) Add the chapter “Normative references” (see Chapter 2);
d) Add the chapter “Terms and definitions” (see Chapter 3);
e) Add the chapter “Requirements for test personnel” (see Chapter 4);
f) Change “inspection specifications” to “technical requirements” (see 5.1; 2.1 of the
2008 edition);
g) Delete the requirement that the acceptance criteria shall be clearly stated in the
order requirements (see 2.2 of the 2008 edition);
h) Add contents that shall be specified in the contract or technical requirements (see
i) Change the requirements for probes (see 6.2; 2.3, 3.6, 4.4 of the 2008 edition);
j) Change “mechanical behaviors” to “mechanical properties” (see 5.4; 3.2 of the
2008 edition);
k) Change “on the machine tool or on the roller tire” to “on a lathe or the roller” (see
5.6; 3.4 of the 2008 edition);
l) Change the general requirements when scanning the bored surfaces (see 5.7; 3.5
of the 2008 edition);
m) Delete the requirement that the diameter of the inner hole of the forging and the
calibration hole shall be specified in the drawing or contract (see 3.7 of the 2008
n) Delete the content about flaw detectors, amplifiers, and signal attenuators in the
chapter “Pulse-echo ultrasonic equipment and auxiliary equipment” (see 4.1, 4.2,
4.3 of the 2008 edition);
Practice for ultrasonic examination from bored surfaces of
cylindrical forgings
1 Scope
This document describes the basic practice for ultrasonic examination from bored
surfaces of forgings by longitudinal wave dual-crystal probes using the pulse reflection
method, including requirements for test personnel, general requirements, ultrasonic
testing equipment, preparation for ultrasonic testing of forgings, testing procedures,
recording requirements and testing report.
This document applies to the manual inspection method of cylindrical forgings with an
inner diameter of ≥64 mm, but does not limit the use of other inspection methods, such
as mechanized or automated inspection methods.
2 Normative references
The following documents are normatively referenced in this document and are
indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the version corresponding
to that date is applicable to this document; for undated references, the latest version
(including all amendments) is applicable to this document.
GB/T 8541, Terminology of forging and stamping
GB/T 9445, Non-destructive testing - Qualification and certification of NDT
GB/T 12604.1, Non-destructive testing - Terminology - Terms used in ultrasonic
GB/T 27664.1, Non-destructive testing - Characterization and verification of
ultrasonic test equipment - Part 1: Instruments
GB/T 27664.3, Non-destructive testing - Characterization and verification of
ultrasonic test equipment - Part 3: Combined equipment
3 Terms and definitions
Terms and definitions determined by GB/T 8541 and GB/T 12604.1 are applicable to
this document.
4 Requirements for test personnel
The personnel who implement the test shall be qualified according to the requirements
of GB/T 9445, and shall obtain the qualification certificate of the corresponding test
method level. The work performed by the test personnel at various levels shall be
compatible with their qualification levels and methods.
5 General requirements
5.1 When it is required in the contract or technical requirements that ultrasonic
examination shall be performed from the bored surface, whether the forgings can be
accepted shall be judged from the number of defects, defect amplitude, position, or a
combination of the three.
5.2 The contract or technical requirements shall specify the following:
a) scope of detection parts;
b) requirements for calibration holes;
c) testing procedures;
d) terms of acceptance.
5.3 Ultrasonic testing shall be carried out on the entire bored surface. Due to the
presence of fillets at the step, or due to other local shape reasons, some small parts of
the inner hole surface may not be detected.
5.4 Ultrasonic testing shall be carried out after the final austenitizing treatment and
tempering heat treatment to obtain the mechanical properties of the forging; it can also
be carried out before or after any subsequent stress relief heat treatment.
5.5 Radial incident ultrasound beams shall be used for a comprehensive scan.
5.6 Forgings can be tested in a stationary state or in a rotating state on a lathe or the
5.7 When scanning the bored surfaces, there shall be at least 20% overlap of the probe
chip width between two adjacent scans.
6 Ultrasonic testing equipment
6.1 Equipment
Ultrasonic testing equipment shall have the following properties:
6.4.1 Calibration holes can be drilled on material of similar acoustic properties to the
forging to be inspected; calibration holes can also be drilled on the length margin of the
forging. The calibration holes drilled shall be parallel to the inner hole of the forging.
6.4.2 The scanning surface of the probe on the material drilled with calibration holes
shall have the same curvature as the forging to be inspected. The location and number
of calibration holes shall be set to meet the testing requirements.
7 Preparation of forgings for ultrasonic testing
7.1 When performing ultrasonic testing, the bored surfaces of the forging shall be
smooth and free from scratches, loose scale, wear debris or other foreign matter.
7.2 The surface roughness of forgings to be inspected is required to be Ra≤3.2 μm.
8 Testing procedures
When testing, the following procedures shall be followed:
a) Use the calibration holes specified by the demand side to determine the detection
sensitivity, and adjust the amplitude of the calibration holes to 100% of the full
screen height of the instrument, as the sensitivity;
b) Perform distance correction to ensure system linearity;
c) Connect the probe to the pulse delay block, and mark the position of the signal
reflected from the curved surface of the plexiglass wedge as the bored surface;
d) Record the distance from the bored surface to the side of the calibration hole;
e) Adjust the scanning range so that the maximum detection range is about 3/4 of the
scanning line range of the instrument;
f) Record the axial and circumferential positions of all signals up to 10% of the
calibration hole sensitivity;
g) Move the probe perpendicular to the sound insulation layer of the probe, and scan
manually at regular intervals or use other structural devices to support the probe
for automatic scanning.
9 Requirements for recording
The following defect information shall be recorded:
a) the amplitude of all signals up to 10% of the calibration hole sensitivity;
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.