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JTG D20-2017 (JTGD20-2017)

JTG D20-2017_English: PDF (JTGD20-2017)
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BASIC DATA
Standard ID JTG D20-2017 (JTGD20-2017)
Description (Translated English) Design Specification for Highway Alignment
Sector / Industry Highway & Transportation Industry Standard
Classification of Chinese Standard P66
Classification of International Standard 93.080
Word Count Estimation 103,195
Date of Issue 2017-09-28
Date of Implementation 2018-01-01
Older Standard (superseded by this standard) JTG D20-2006
Drafting Organization CCCC First Highway Survey, Design and Research Institute Co., Ltd.
Administrative Organization People's Republic of China Ministry of Transport
Regulation (derived from) Ministry of Transport Announcement 2017 No. 38
Summary This standard is applicable to new and modified highway design.

Standards related to: JTG D20-2017

JTG D20-2017
JTG
INDUSTRIAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
Design specification for highway alignment
ISSUED ON: SEPTEMBER 28, 2017
IMPLEMENTED ON: JANUARY 01, 2018
Issued by: Ministry of Transport of PRC
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 7 
1 General ... 9 
2 Highway classification and class selection ... 11 
2.1 Highway functions and classification ... 11 
2.2 Technical class of highway and selection of design speed ... 12 
2.3 Control access ... 15 
3 Highway traffic capacity ... 16 
3.1 General requirements... 16 
3.2 Service level ... 18 
3.3 Designed hourly traffic volume ... 20 
3.4 Design traffic capacity of expressways and first-class highway segments ... 22 
3.5 Traffic capacity of interchange ... 23 
3.6 Traffic capacity of second-class and third-class highways ... 24 
4 Overall design ... 26 
4.1 General provisions ... 26 
4.2 Highway functions and technical standards ... 26 
4.3 Construction scale and construction plan ... 27 
4.4 Environmental protection and resource conservation ... 31 
4.5 Design inspection and safety evaluation ... 32 
5 Route selection ... 33 
6 Lateral section of highway ... 36 
6.1 General provisions ... 36 
6.2 Lane ... 38 
6.3 Medial strip ... 40 
6.4 Shoulders ... 42 
6.5 Slope of road camber ... 44 
6.6 Highway construction boundaries ... 45 
6.7 Scope of highway land utilization ... 50 
7 Highway plane ... 50 
7.1 General provisions ... 50 
7.2 Straight-line ... 51 
7.3 Circular curve ... 51 
7.4 Spiral line ... 52 
7.5 Superelevation of circular curve ... 53 
7.6 Widening of circular curve ... 56 
7.7 Superelevation and widened transitional segments of fourth-class highway 58 
7.8 Length of planar curve... 59 
7.9 Sight distance ... 59 
7.10 Turnaround curve ... 61 
8 Longitudinal section of highway ... 62 
8.1 General provisions ... 62 
8.2 Longitudinal slope ... 64 
8.3 Slope length ... 65 
8.4 Climbing lane ... 67 
8.5 Resultant slope... 68 
8.6 Vertical curve ... 69 
9 Alignment design ... 70 
9.1 General provisions ... 70 
9.2 Design of planar alignment ... 71 
9.3 Design of longitudinal alignment ... 74 
9.4 Design of lateral section ... 76 
9.5 Design of alignment combination ... 78 
9.6 Coordination of alignment with bridges and tunnels ... 80 
9.7 Coordination of alignment and facilities along the route ... 81 
9.8 Coordination between alignment and environment ... 81 
10 Level crossing between highway and highway ... 82 
10.1 General provisions ... 82 
10.2 Alignment of highway at level crossing ... 87 
10.3 Sight distance ... 88 
10.4 Turning design ... 90 
10.5 Additional lanes and traffic islands ... 91 
10.6 Reconstruction of level crossing ... 94 
11 Level crossing between highway and highway ... 95 
11.1 General provisions ... 95 
11.2 Sight distance ... 99 
11.3 Ramp design ... 100 
11.4 Number of basic lanes AND balance of number of lanes ... 112 
11.5 Turnout and confluence of primary line AND diversion and confluence of
ramps ... 113 
11.6 Level crossing between the ramp of interchange and the intersected highway
... 117 
11.7 Separated vertical crossing ... 117 
12 Crossing between highways and railways, country roads, pipelines ... 120 
12.1 General provisions ... 120 
12.2 Vertical crossing between highways and railways ... 121 
12.3 Level crossing between highway and railway ... 124 
12.4 Crossing between highway and country road ... 125 
12.5 Crossing between highway and pipeline ... 129 
13 Facilities along the highway ... 130 
13.1 General provisions ... 130 
13.2 Toll station ... 131 
13.3 Service area, parking area ... 132 
13.4 Passenger car stop ... 135 
13.5 U-turn facilities on expressways ... 137 
Explanation of terms used in this specification ... 139 
Design specification for highway alignment
1 General
1.0.1 In order to guide highway design, reasonably determine highway's
functions, technical classes, construction scale, main technical indicators, this
specification is hereby formulated.
1.0.2 This specification is applicable to the design of newly constructed,
reconstructed, expanded highways.
1.0.3 For the highway design, it shall determine the highway function, through
comprehensive analysis, based on regional characteristics, traffic
characteristics, highway network structure. It shall be based on the highway
functions, combining the traffic capacity and terrain conditions, etc., to select
technical grades and main technical indicators.
1.0.4 All classes of highways shall be subject to overall design. The overall
design shall run through all stages of the highway construction project, from the
feasibility study to the construction drawing design; cover all relevant disciplines
of the highway construction project.
1.0.5 For the highway design, it shall be based on highway functions, use tasks,
roles in the highway network, comprehensively consider multiple transportation
modes, such as railways, waterways, aviation, pipelines, etc., as well as the
relationship between highways and cities & towns, farmland planning, to
implement the comprehensive transport development requirements, AND
reasonably demonstrate and determine the route direction and corridor belt.
1.0.6 For the alignment plan, it shall, based on the selected corridor belt AND
the main control points, carry out the layout and overall design, to rationally use
the technical indicators. The feasible alignment plan shall be compared and
selected, to determine the design plan. When different design speeds, technical
indicators or design plans have obvious impacts on operational safety,
engineering cost, natural environment, social and economic benefits, etc.,
THEN, it shall carry out the technical and economic demonstrations, of the
same depth.
1.0.7 For the line position of the alignment, it shall make full investigation on the
engineering geology, hydrogeology, meteorological conditions, natural
disasters, highway construction materials, ecological environment, natural
landscapes, etc., according to the topography and ground conditions. It shall
be selected based on the study of regional climate characteristics, along the
2 Highway classification and class selection
2.1 Highway functions and classification
2.1.1 Highways are classified, according to the traffic functions, into arterial
highways, distribution highways, branch highways. Arterial highways are
divided into primary arterial highways and secondary arterial highways.
Distribution highways are divided into primary distribution highways and
secondary distribution highways.
2.1.2 Highways are classified into five technical classes: expressways, first-
class highways, second-class highways, third-class highways, fourth-class
highways, according to traffic characteristics and ability to control interference.
1 The expressway is a multi-lane highway, exclusively for vehicles to drive in
different directions and lanes, wherein all accesses are controlled. The
designed traffic volume of the expressway should be more than 15000
small passenger cars/day.
2 The first-class highway is a multi-lane highway, where cars can drive in
different directions and lanes, access can be controlled as needed. The
designed traffic volume of the first-class highway should be more than
15000 small passenger cars/day.
3 The second-class highway is a two-lane highway for vehicles to drive. The
designed traffic volume of the second-class highway should be 5000 ~
15000 small passenger cars/day.
4 The third-class highway is a two-lane highway, for mixed driving of
automobile and non-automobile traffic. The designed traffic volume of the
third-class highway should be 2000 ~ 6000 small passenger cars/day.
5 The fourth-class highways are two-lane or single-lane highways, for mixed
driving of automobile and non-automobile traffic. The designed traffic
volume of a two-lane fourth-class highway should be less than 2000
passenger cars/day; the design traffic volume of a single-lane fourth-class
highway should be less than 400 small passenger car/day.
2.1.3 For the geometric design of the crossing between highway alignment and
alignment, the design vehicles used shall be selected according to factors such
as highway functions, vehicle composition. The outline dimensions are as
shown in Table 2.1.3, which shall meet the following requirements:
1 Arterial highways and primary distribution highways shall meet the traffic
requirements of all designed vehicles.
comprehensive transportation system, within the corridor belt.
2.2.2 The selection of highway's technical class shall be determined, on the
basis of demonstration and determination of highway functions, combined with
the demonstration and determination of the comprehensive transportation
system, long-term development plan, design traffic volume, in the region where
the project is located. Meanwhile, it shall follow the following principles:
1 When the primary arterial highways are the main passages, which have
the highest structural level in the highway network, it shall select the
expressways.
2 When the secondary arterial highway is used as a supplement to primary
arterial highways, it shall select the highways of second-class and above.
1) When the designed traffic volume reaches 15000 small passenger
cars/day, it shall select the highways of the first-class and above.
2) When the designed traffic volume reaches 10000 small passenger
cars/day, meanwhile there is large interference in longitudinal and
lateral direction along the route, it should select the first-class highway.
3) When the designed traffic volume is less than 10000 small passenger
cars/day, it may select the second-class highways. When there is a high
mixing rate of trucks, it should set overtaking lanes at intervals, to
reduce longitudinal interference.
3 When the primary distribution highways connect the arterial highways and
the branch highways, it should select the first-class and second-class
highways.
1) When the designed traffic volume reaches 15000 small passenger
cars/day, it may select the first-class highway.
2) When the designed traffic volume is 5000 ~ 15000 small passenger
cars/day, it may select the second-class highway. When the designed
traffic volume reaches 10000 small passenger cars/day, meanwhile the
longitudinal and lateral interference along the route is large, it should
select the first-class highway.
3) When the designed traffic volume is less than 5000 small passenger
cars/day, it should select the second-class highways.
4 When the secondary distribution highways serve the regional traffic of the
county and township, it should select the second-class highways and
third-class highways.
restricted by topography and geological conditions, it can be 20 km/h.
2.2.4 Different technical levels can be selected segmentally, for the same
highway project. Different design speeds can be selected segmentally, for the
same technical level. Between the designed segments, which have different
technical levels and different design speeds, it shall select reasonable
connection position or location; the transition shall be smooth; the connection
shall be coordinated.
2.2.5 When using the running speed for testing, the difference between the
running speeds of adjacent segments shall be less than 20 km/h. The difference
between the design speed and the running speed, in the same segment, should
be less than 20 km/h.
2.2.6 For the speed limit of highway, it shall be determined, based on
comprehensive demonstration of factors such as design speed, running speed,
roadside interference, environment.
2.3 Control access
2.3.1 The expressway shall be a highway that controls all the access. It only
provides access to the selected service facilities of the intersected highway,
urban highway or expressway. In the intersections with the highway, urban
highway, country road, railway, pipeline, etc., it must set vertical crossing. It
must provide isolation facilities, to prevent pedestrians, vehicles, livestock, etc.
from entering.
2.3.2 The access control of the first-class highway shall meet the following
requirements:
1 When a first-class highway is used as a secondary arterial highway, partial
access control shall be implemented.
2 When the first-class highway is used as a distribution highway, it shall
implement the access management; reasonably control the location,
quantity, form of entrances and exits.
2.3.3 When adopting access control measures, the installation of isolation
facilities shall meet the following requirements:
1 The isolation facilities at the following locations can be in various forms,
such as no-entry fences and green fences:
1) The boundary of land used for the highways at both sides of the
segment, where the access is controlled;
increases, it shall be increased by an even number.
4.2.5 For the highways at all classes, it may, according to the topography,
geology and natural conditions along the alignment of project, select the
segmented design speed. Meanwhile, it shall meet the following requirements:
1 The length of the highway segment of the same design speed should not
be too short; the change of different design speeds, in the same highway,
shall not be frequent.
2 The locations or sites, where highway segments of different technical levels
and different design speeds are connected, shall be selected in front of or
behind the large structures, interchanges, level crossings, the main village
and town nodes along the route, or where the roadside environmental
conditions change significantly.
4.2.6 It shall, according to the factors, such as the design speed of the segment,
topography along the route, geology, environment and traffic needs, etc.,
reasonably determine the main control indicators, such as the horizontal and
vertical plane, line of sight, superelevation, widening of the route.
4.2.7 It shall determine comprehensively the composition and width of the
lateral section of the highway roadbed, according to the technical level of the
highway, the designed traffic volume, the environment along the route, the
functions of the various components of the lateral section.
4.2.8 For the reconstructed and expanded highway, it shall adopt the technical
standards and indicators of the reconstructed and expanded highways. For
highway segments that use the original highways, if the increase in design
speed may induce engineering geological diseases, increase engineering costs,
or adversely affect environmental protection and cultural relics, THEN, through
demonstration, it may maintain the original design speed and indicators, at
these local highway segments. However, the length should not exceed 15 km
for the expressway; it should not exceed 10 km for the first and second-class
highways. The technical level shall not be lowered.
4.3 Construction scale and construction plan
4.3.1 It shall, based on highway network planning and highway functions,
comprehensively consider the layout and planning of railways, waterways,
aviation, pipelines and other integrated transportation systems, within the
corridors belts of the route, the status quo and development plans of cities and
industrial and mining enterprises, the development and utilization of natural
resources. It shall determine, through study, the start and end points of the route,
the main control points, the length of the route, the number of crossings, the
3 The second-class highway, third-class highway, fourth-class highway shall
select the form of integral roadbed section.
4 For the first-class and second-class highways, it shall demonstrate the
conditions for setting up slow lanes, based on the functions, mixed traffic
volume, traffic composition; meanwhile determine their setting methods,
lateral section forms, widths.
5 For different section forms and width changes of highways, it shall set
necessary transition segments, the location of which should be selected
at nodes such as cities & towns and crossings.
6 The layout of the lateral section of the highway roadbed shall meet the
requirements for setting the traffic engineering and safety facilities, etc.
4.3.4 For the mutual arrangement relationship between highways, neighboring
railways and pipelines, it shall be reasonably determined, on the basis of
investigating and grasping the direction and location of railways and various
pipeline facilities. Meanwhile it shall meet the following requirements:
1 It shall reasonably reduce the number of crossings, between highways and
railways, pipelines, etc. When crossing is necessary, it shall determine,
through demonstration, the location and method of crossing; use a larger
crossing angle. At the same time, it shall be ensured that, the railways,
pipelines and ancillary facilities shall neither intrude into the boundary of
highway construction, nor affect the visual distance of highway.
2 When the highway is adjacent to the railway and pipeline facilities in
parallel, it shall maintain the necessary distance, meanwhile ensure that,
the railway, the pipeline and its auxiliary facilities shall not enter the
construction control area on both sides of the highway.
4.3.5 For the crossing method between the highway project and the related
highways along the route, it shall be determined comprehensively, according to
the function, class and traffic organization method of the highway. Meanwhile,
it shall meet the following requirements:
1 For highways, that assume the function of arterial lines, they shall fully
integrate existing highway network conditions; reduce the number of
various crossings AND increase crossing spacing, through measures
such as merging, diversion, setting up auxiliary lanes, to improve the
efficiency and safety of highway traffic.
2 When an expressway crosses highways of other classes, it must use the
vertical crossing method. It shall be based on the conversion needs of
traffic flow, to demonstrate the use of interchange or separate vertical
crossing.
priority to the plans, which have less resource occupation and little
environmental impact.
4.4.3 It shall reasonably set the borrowing yards. The sol borrowing from
roadside should not be too close to the roadbed. For the borrowing yard, it shall
avoid direct excavation of the roadside hillside slope. When the soil or slag spoil
from roadbed and tunnel is large, it shall, combining the construction program
of the project, maximize the utilization of the spoil soil and slag. Where it is hard
to make use of them, it shall reasonably set up the spoil yard; do well in item
design, to ensure its stability and prevent soil erosion.
4.4.4 It shall enhance the topsoil collection and utilization, within the highway
construction scope AND the soil borrowing & spoil yard. It shall do well in the
protection and recovery of the plant, in the temporary land, such as the soil
borrowing & spoiling yard and construction ramp.
4.4.5 It shall enhance the treatment capacity of the production and domestic
sewage, from the highway ancillary facilities such as service areas and parking
areas; adopt advanced technology, to ensure that sewage meets the standard
before reuse OR centralized collection and storage, thereby achieving the water
recycling. In the design of highway operation, management and service
facilities, it shall make rational use of the renewable energy, such as wind
energy, solar energy, geothermal energy.
4.4.6 It shall enhance the recycling of steel and composite materials. It shall
promote the comprehensive utilization of fly ash, construction waste, etc. in
highway roadbed filling and concrete pouring. It shall advocate the recycling of
asphalt and cement concrete payment AND members which are dismantled
from structures.
4.5 Design inspection and safety evaluation
4.5.1 The highway design shall use the running speed method, to analyze and
inspect the alignment design, geometric indicators, combination design of line
shapes, to inspect the coordination and consistency of the running speed.
4.5.2 For the expressways, first-class highways, second-class arterial highways,
it shall carry out the traffic safety evaluation, during design. For other highways,
when conditions permit, it may also carry out traffic safety evaluation. It shall,
according to the conclusions of the traffic safety evaluation, adjust and optimize
the selection and use of the line shape design and the geometric indicators;
inspect and improve the traffic safety facilities and management measures.
Meanwhile, it shall meet the following requirements:
1 For the uphill direction of the continuous long and steep longitudinal slope
segment, it shall, focusing on the traffic volume, vehicle composition,
change of running speed, analyze and evaluate the traffic capacity and
service level of the uphill segment; propose the traffic organization and
management measures plan; demonstrate the addition of climbing lane, if
necessary.
2 For the downhill direction of the continuous long and steep longitudinal
slope segment, it shall, focusing on the comprehensive performance
conditions including the traffic volume, the vehicle composition, the types
of main trucks, analyze and evaluate the traffic safety of the continuous
downhill of vehicles; improve and strengthen the traffic work of the
segment and the roadside safety facilities, accordingly; propose the traffic
organization management and speed control measures plan of the
segment; demonstrate the addition of the truck escape ramp, if necessary.
3 In the highway segments where there is roadside water, cliff, high filling, it
shall, combining with such factors as the project functions, design speed,
traffic volume, according to the setting plan of safety facility, analyze the
roadside safety risks; improve the roadside safety protection design;
propose the traffic safety management facilities AND improve the roadside
safety protection grade, if necessary.
5 Route selection
5.0.1 Route selection shall include the whole process, of determining the basic
direction of the route, the corridor zone of route, the route plan to the selected
route position.
5.0.2 The route direction and the selection of main control points shall meet the
following requirements:
1 For the starting and ending points of the route, the locations of towns,
important parks, industrial and mining enterprises, comprehensive
transportation hubs, special extra-long bridges and extra-long tunnels,
that must be connected, they shall be the control points for the basic
direction of the route.
2 For the locations of extra-large bridges, large bridges, extra-long tunnels,
long tunnels, interchanges, railway crossings, etc., they shall be the
control points of route direction, which, in principle, shall obey the route's
basic direction.
3 For the locations of medium and small bridges and culverts, medium and
short tunnels, as well as general structures, they shall follow the route.
5.0.3 In different design stages, the route selection work shall have different
...