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GB/T 29729-2013 (GBT29729-2013)

GB/T 29729-2013_English: PDF (GBT 29729-2013, GBT29729-2013)
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BASIC DATA
Standard ID GB/T 29729-2013 (GB/T29729-2013)
Description (Translated English) Essential requirements for the safety of hydrogen systems
Sector / Industry National Standard (Recommended)
Classification of Chinese Standard G86
Classification of International Standard 71.020; 71.100.20
Word Count Estimation 28,248
Quoted Standard GB 2894; GB 4962-2008; GB 5099; GB 12014; GB 12358; GB 16808; GB/T 18442.1; GB/T 18442.2; GB/T 18442.3; GB/T 18442.4; GB/T 18442.5; GB/T 18442.6; GB/T 19773; GB/T 19774; GB 21146; GB/T 24499; GB 50058; GB 50177-2005; GB 50217; GB 50275; GB 50516-2010; JB/
Adopted Standard ISO/TR 15916-2004; NEQ
Drafting Organization Zhejiang University
Administrative Organization National Standardization Technical Committee hydrogen
Regulation (derived from) National Standards Bulletin No. 19 of 2013
Proposing organization National Hydrogen Standardization Technical Committee (SAC/TC 309)
Issuing agency(ies) General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People's Republic of China, Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of China
Summary This standard specifies: Hydrogen System category, hydrogen the basic characteristics of the hydrogen system risk factors and risk control basic requirements. This standard applies to: hydrogen preparation, storage and delivery systems design and use.

Standards related to: GB/T 29729-2013

GB/T 29729-2013
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 71.020; 71.100.20
G 86
Essential requirements for the safety of hydrogen
systems
(ISO/TR 15916:2004, Basic considerations for the safety of hydrogen
systems, NEQ)
ISSUED ON: SEPTEMBER 18, 2013
IMPLEMENTED ON: JANUARY 01, 2014
Issued by: General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and
Quarantine of PRC;
Standardization Administration of PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
1 Scope ... 4 
2 Normative references ... 4 
3 Terms and definitions ... 6 
4 Types of hydrogen systems ... 6 
5 Basic characteristics of hydrogen ... 7 
6 Hazard factors of hydrogen system ... 8 
7 Risk control ... 10 
Appendix A (Informative) Typical hydrogen production system ... 31 
Appendix B (Informative) Nature of hydrogen ... 35 
Appendix C (Informative) Combustion characteristics of hydrogen ... 39 
Appendix D (Informative) Commonly used metal materials in hydrogen
environment ... 41 
Essential requirements for the safety of hydrogen
systems
1 Scope
This standard specifies the categories of hydrogen systems, the basic
characteristics of hydrogen, the risk factors of hydrogen systems, the basic
requirements for risk control.
This standard applies to the design and use of hydrogen production, storage
and delivery systems.
2 Normative references
The following documents are essential to the application of this document. For
the dated documents, only the versions with the dates indicated are applicable
to this document; for the undated documents, only the latest version (including
all the amendments) are applicable to this standard.
GB 2894 Safety signs and guideline for the use
GB 4962-2008 Technical safety regulation for gaseous hydrogen use
GB 5099 Seamless steel gas cylinders
GB 12014 Static protective clothing
GB 12358 Gas monitors and alarms for workplace General technical
requirements
GB 16808 Combustible gas alarm control units
GB/T 18442.1 Static vacuum insulated cryogenic pressure vessels - Part 1:
General requirements
GB/T 18442.2 Static vacuum insulated cryogenic pressure vessels - Part 2:
Materials
GB/T 18442.3 Static vacuum insulated cryogenic pressure vessels - Part 3:
Design
GB/T 18442.4 Static vacuum insulated cryogenic pressure vessels - Part 3:
3 Terms and definitions
The terms and definitions as defined in GB/T 24499 as well as the following
terms and definitions apply to this document.
3.1
Hydrogen system
Hydrogen production, storage or delivery system.
3.2
Limit of detonation
The concentration range of flammable and explosive gas, steam or dust in
air/oxygen that can cause detonation explosive gas mixture.
3.3
Thermal stratification
The fluid stratification phenomenon in which the cold fluid is at the bottom
and the hot fluid is at the top, in the direction of gravity, due to the different
fluid density as caused by the different temperature.
3.4
Hydrogen storage in solid state
A method of hydrogen storage that chemically reacts with hydrogen in the
form of a solid substance or physically adsorbs it.
3.5
Confined space
A space with restricted access, poor ventilation, and danger.
4 Types of hydrogen systems
4.1 Hydrogen production system
The hydrogen production system mainly includes water electrolysis hydrogen
production system, fossil energy hydrogen production system, renewable
energy hydrogen production system. The fossil energy hydrogen production
system mainly includes natural gas steam conversion hydrogen production
5.2.2 The detonation limit of hydrogen in normal temperature and pressure air
is 18.3% ~ 59% (volume fraction); the detonation velocity is 1480 m/s ~ 2150
m/s.
6 Hazard factors of hydrogen system
6.1 Leakage and seepage
6.1.1 Hydrogen easily leaks through porous materials, assembly surfaces or
sealing surfaces. After the hydrogen leaks, it will diffuse rapidly, resulting in the
continuous expansion of combustible and explosive areas, meanwhile the
diffusion process is invisible to the naked eye. The main factors affecting
hydrogen leakage and diffusion include leakage location, ambient temperature,
ambient wind speed, ambient wind direction and obstacles.
6.1.2 After the leakage of the liquid hydrogen and hydrogen slurry system, the
liquid hydrogen and hydrogen slurry will quickly evaporate and diffuse, forming
a visible explosive mist, which may cause the system to form a negative
pressure and cause the surrounding air to enter the system to condense and
freeze, blocking the pipes, valves and other components of the system.
6.1.3 Hydrogen easily penetrates into some non-metallic materials and causes
hydrogen leakage. If hydrogen leakage occurs in the liquid hydrogen or
hydrogen slurry system, it can lead to hydrogen loss or damage to the vacuum
insulation layer.
6.2 Hazard factors related to combustion
6.2.1 If hydrogen, liquid hydrogen or hydrogen slurry is ignited, it will cause
hydrogen to burn or explode. Hydrogen combustion can cause deterioration of
the material properties of the hydrogen system, which may cause the hydrogen
system to fail due to a sharp increase in internal temperature and pressure.
6.2.2 Hydrogen deflagration can lead to the rapid expansion of the combustion
area and the rapid increase of the pressure in the confined space. The high-
speed detonation wave produced by hydrogen detonation can have a huge
impact on the environment outside the combustion zone, meanwhile it is
accompanied by the rapid propagation of high-temperature gas.
6.3 Hazard factors related to pressure
6.3.1 The failure of the hydrogen system can cause the rapid release of high-
pressure hydrogen storage energy, forming a shock wave, destroying
surrounding facilities.
6.3.2 The heat leakage of the liquid hydrogen and hydrogen slurry system will
the steel to form methane, causing steel decarburization and the formation of
microcracks, resulting in irreversible deterioration of steel properties. The
higher the temperature and the greater the hydrogen partial pressure, the more
severe the hydrogen corrosion of steel.
6.6.2 After the metal absorbs internal hydrogen or external hydrogen, when the
local hydrogen concentration reaches saturation, it will cause a decrease in
plasticity, induce cracks or delay fracture. The higher the temperature, the
greater the hydrogen partial pressure, the greater the strain rate, the more
serious the hydrogen embrittlement of the metal.
6.7 Physiological hazards
6.7.1 Human skin directly contacting low-temperature hydrogen, liquid
hydrogen or hydrogen slurry can cause frostbite; direct contact with high-
temperature hydrogen flames that are invisible to the naked eye can easily
cause high-temperature burns.
6.7.2 The large amount of ultraviolet radiation produced by hydrogen
combustion is easy to damage human skin; the secondary fire caused by
hydrogen fire can produce dense smoke or other harmful combustion products,
which endanger human health.
7 Risk control
7.1 Basic principles
The hydrogen system shall follow the following basic principles:
a) Under the premise of meeting demand, control the amount of hydrogen
used in storage and operation;
b) Develop corresponding operating procedures;
c) Reduce the number of people in hazardous environments and shorten
their time;
d) Avoid the accumulation of hydrogen/air (oxygen) mixture in confined
spaces;
e) Determine the explosion hazard area of the hydrogen system; the grade
definition of the explosion hazard area shall meet the requirements of GB
50058;
f) Ensure that there are no other debris in the explosion hazard area of the
hydrogen system and the passage is unblocked.
good low temperature toughness; its ductile brittle transition temperature shall
be lower than the operating temperature of the system.
7.2.2.3 The non-metallic materials used in the hydrogen system shall have good
resistance to hydrogen penetration.
7.2.2.4 When the shape or size of the material changes due to temperature or
pressure changes, the deformation between adjacent materials shall be
coordinated with each other, to ensure the sealing performance of the system
and the normal operation of each component.
7.2.2.5 Metal materials in direct contact with hydrogen in the hydrogen system
shall have good compatibility with hydrogen. When necessary, the hydrogen
compatibility test shall be carried out on the material within the temperature and
pressure range equivalent to the conditions of use.
7.2.2.6 For the hydrogen system, steel with low carbon content or strong
carbide forming elements should be selected.
7.2.2.7 Refer to Appendix D for commonly used metal materials in hydrogen
environment. In order to reduce the hydrogen embrittlement sensitivity of metal
materials, the following measures shall be taken:
a) Control the hardness and strength of the material at an appropriate level;
b) Reduce residual stress;
c) Avoid or reduce cold plastic deformation of materials;
d) Avoid fatigue failure of components subjected to alternating loads;
e) Use materials with low hydrogen embrittlement sensitivity such as
austenitic stainless steel and aluminum alloy.
7.2.3 Equipment
7.2.3.1 Hydrogen storage container
7.2.3.1.1 When designing hydrogen storage containers, full consideration shall
be given to the influence of atmospheric environmental temperature conditions
on the metal temperature of the container shell under normal working conditions;
the minimum design metal temperature shall not be higher than the lowest value
of the monthly average lowest temperature over the years .
7.2.3.1.2 The support and foundation of the hydrogen gas storage container
shall be non-combustible and secure; the grounding requirements of the
container shall comply with the provisions of 9.0.7 in GB 50177-2005.
to prevent explosion caused by static electricity.
7.2.3.2.4 The coating and transportation packaging of stationary liquid
hydrogen storage containers, mobile liquid hydrogen storage containers and
their parts shall comply with the provisions of JB/T 4711 and the technical
requirements of drawings.
7.2.3.2.5 The material selection, design, manufacturing, inspection and testing,
safety and protection of stationary liquid hydrogen storage containers shall
comply with the relevant provisions and standards such as TSG R0004, GB/T
18442.1 ~ 6.
7.2.3.2.6 The material selection, design, manufacture, inspection and testing of
mobile liquid hydrogen storage containers shall comply with relevant provisions
and standards such as TSG R0005, "Supervision provisions for safety of gas
cylinders".
7.2.3.2.7 The design of low-temperature insulated gas cylinders shall comply
with the relevant provisions and standards such as the "Supervision provisions
for safety of gas cylinders".
7.2.3.3 Hydrogen slurry storage container
In addition to the requirements of 7.2.3.2, the hydrogen slurry storage container
shall also meet the following requirements:
a) Prevent pollutants from entering the container; promptly dispose of the
solid hydrogen particle accumulation in the container;
b) Replenish or concentrate the hydrogen slurry in time, to ensure that the
mass fraction of solid hydrogen in the container meets the requirements.
7.2.3.4 Solid hydrogen storage container
In addition to the requirements of 7.2.3.1.4, 7.2.3.1.5 and 7.2.3.1.7, solid
hydrogen storage containers shall also meet the following requirements:
a) Prevent local accumulation of solid fillers during use;
b) The tube ends of the single tube or the tube shall be equipped with a filter
with a filtration accuracy that matches the particle size of the solid
hydrogen storage material;
c) Depending on the hydrogen storage capacity and the thermal effect of
solid hydrogen storage, the solid hydrogen storage container should be
designed as a heat exchanger structure.
7.2.3.5 Compressor
and shall not be laid on the same support with cables, conductive lines,
high-temperature pipelines;
g) When hydrogen pipelines are laid together with other pipelines or
arranged in layers, the hydrogen pipelines should be arranged on the
outside and placed on the upper layer; a certain safe distance shall be
maintained;
h) Pipes and buildings, structures or other pipelines shall maintain a certain
safe distance; indoor pipelines shall not be laid in trenches or directly
buried in the ground; outdoor pipelines laid in trenches; measures shall be
taken to prevent hydrogen leakage and accumulation.
7.2.4.2 Hydrogen pipeline
7.2.4.2.1 The laying of hydrogen pipelines in hydrogen stations, hydrogen
supply stations and workshops shall comply with the provisions of clause
12.0.10 in GB 50177-2005; when hydrogen pipelines are laid overhead, directly
buried in the ground and laid in open trenches, they shall comply with the
provisions of 12.0.11, 12.0.12 and 12.0.13 in GB 50177-2005; when hydrogen
pipelines are laid together with other pipelines or arranged in layers, they shall
comply with the provisions of 4.4.6 in GB 4962-2008.
7.2.4.2.2 Vent pipes, analysis sampling ports and purge replacement ports shall
be provided on the hydrogen pipeline; their positions shall meet the
requirements of gas discharge, sampling, purge and replacement in the pipeline.
7.2.4.3 Liquid hydrogen and hydrogen slurry pipeline
7.2.4.3.1 The pipeline insulation shall adopt high-vacuum multilayer insulation,
vacuum powder insulation or other insulation methods with excellent thermal
insulation effect.
7.2.4.3.2 When using a corrugated expansion joint, it shall be placed in a
vacuum jacket; the piping system shall have sufficient flexibility to avoid thermal
expansion and contraction causing pipeline failure or leakage.
7.2.4.3.3 Threaded connection shall not be used.
7.2.4.3.4 The liquid hydrogen and hydrogen slurry pipelines shall be provided
with safety relief devices where liquid may be retained; the liquid discharge
pipelines shall be provided with a slope.
7.2.4.3.5 Liquid hydrogen and hydrogen slurry pipelines shall be kept away
from flammable materials such as asphalt; materials that are prone to low-
temperature embrittlement around the pipeline shall be protected.
b) The movable part of the safety valve shall be flexible and movable when
it is unevenly heated or cooled; it shall not use the packing that may hinder
the normal operation of the safety valve;
c) Fully enclosed safety valves shall be selected; the product qualification or
quality qualification certificates shall be available; they can be installed
after being calibrated and qualified;
d) The safety valve shall be installed vertically on the discharge pipeline that
is convenient for observation and maintenance and close to the protected
container;
e) The installation of safety valves for liquid hydrogen and hydrogen slurry
systems shall meet the requirements of GB/T 18442.6.
7.2.5.1.3 Rupture discs shall also meet the following requirements:
a) The calibrated burst pressure of the rupture disc shall be greater than the
working pressure of the system; the parallel device of the rupture disc and
the safety valve shall meet the requirements of E8 in Appendix E of JB
4732-1995;
b) The rupture disc device assembled in the inner container of the liquid
hydrogen and hydrogen slurry storage container shall meet the
requirements of GB/T 18442.6;
c) Sparks and metal fragments shall not be generated when the rupture disc
is blasted;
d) The rupture disc shall be replaced regularly according to the service life of
the rupture disc;
e) Rupture discs shall be provided with safety protection covers.
7.2.5.1.4 When designing and installing auxiliary pressure relief devices, the
transient pressure caused by liquid hammer and cavitation shall be considered.
7.2.5.2 Valve
7.2.5.2.1 The hydrogen throttle valve shall adopt a self-starting device. When
the flow rate reaches the preset maximum value, the throttle valve shall
automatically close.
7.2.5.2.2 The shut-off valve of the hydrogen pipeline shall be a ball valve or a
shut-off valve.
7.2.5.2.3 The valve material and sealing packing shall be selected according to
the working pressure, working temperature and compatibility with hydrogen.
are working properly.
7.2.5.5.4 The liquid level indicator of the liquid level gauge used in the liquid
hydrogen and hydrogen slurry system shall be intuitive. When the scale
conversion type liquid level meter is used, the filling amount and scale
conversion table shall be marked in an obvious position.
7.3 Hydrogen facility requirements
7.3.1 Layout
7.3.1.1 The fire separation distance between hydrogen stations, hydrogen
supply stations, hydrogen tanks, and buildings and structures shall meet the
requirements of 3.0.2 in GB 50177-2005; the fire separation distances from
railways and roads shall meet the requirements of 3.0.3 in GB 50177-2005; the
fire separation distance between hydrogen tanks or tank areas shall meet the
requirements of 3.0.4 in GB 50177-2005; the fire separation distance of the
equipment and building layout in the process equipment of the hydrogen station
shall meet the requirements of 6.0.2 in GB 50177-2005 .
7.3.1.2 The fire separation distance between the facilities in the hydrogen
refueling station, the combined hydrogen refueling station, the combined
hydrogen refueling station shall meet the requirements of 5.0.1 in GB 50516-
2010.
7.3.1.3 The arrangement of the hydrogen filling chamber, hydrogen busbar
chamber, empty and solid bottles shall comply with the provisions of 4.1.15 in
GB 4962-2008.
7.3.1.4 The distance between the main passages and equipment of the
hydrogen production workshop shall meet the requirements of 6.0.11 in GB
50177-2005.
7.3.1.5 The distance between the main passages and compressors in the
hydrogen compressor workshop shall meet the requirements of 6.0.12 in GB
50177-2005.
7.3.1.6 When a hydrogen compressor and an oxygen compressor are installed
in the hydrogen station at the same time, they shall not be installed in the same
room.
7.3.1.7 The road setting in the hydrogen refueling station area complies with
the provisions of 5.0.4 in GB 50516-2010.
7.3.2 Building
7.3.2.1 General
exhaust fan shall meet the requirements of GB 50058, meanwhile it shall not
be lower than the level and group of the hydrogen explosive mixture.
7.3.2.4.2 The ventilation system shall avoid bringing hydrogen into the building.
7.3.2.4.3 When there are hydrogen storage or operation equipment in the
building, a ventilation system shall be provided.
7.3.2.4.4 The inlet of the ventilation system shall be located at the bottom of the
wall; the outlet should be located on the top of the wall or the top of the building
and shall face the safe area.
7.3.3 Restricted area
7.3.3.1 The hydrogen system and its surrounding area shall be designated as
restricted areas and fences shall be set up.
7.3.3.2 There shall be eye-catching warning signs around the restricted area.
7.3.3.3 Before entering the restricted area, operators shall dress in accordance
with provisions and take protective measures.
7.3.3.4 The entry and exit of personnel and equipment in the restricted area
shall be grasped; the number of persons in the restricted area shall be restricted.
7.3.4 Vent and torch
7.3.4.1 The hydrogen treatment method shall be determined according to the
site conditions and the hydrogen emission rate.
7.3.4.2 When the site conditions permit, the hydrogen emission rate is low (not
exceeding 0.23 kg/s), or the emission volume is small, it should select venting
for hydrogen treatment. The vent pipe shall comply with the provisions of 6.5.4
in GB 50516-2010.
7.3.4.3 When the hydrogen emission rate is high or the emission exceeds the
safe treatment range of the vent pipe, the ignition method should be used for
hydrogen treatment.
7.3.4.4 The appropriate safety distance shall be determined according to the
thermal radiation influence range of the torch.
7.3.5 Electrical equipment
7.3.5.1 Explosion-proof requirements shall meet the requirements of GB 50058,
meanwhile it shall not be lower than the level and group of hydrogen explosive
mixtures.
7.4.1.1 The hydrogen detection alarm shall be selected according to factors
such as accuracy, reliability, maintainability, detection range, response time,
etc., and meet the requirements of GB 12358 and GB 16808.
7.4.1.2 A fixed combustible gas detection alarm should be installed in the
following locations:
- Locations where hydrogen leaks or liquid hydrogen overflows may occur;
- Locations where hydrogen may accumulate;
- Vents of buildings that may release hydrogen;
- The suction port of the building that may inhale hydrogen.
7.4.1.3 The hydrogen system shall be equipped with a portable hydrogen
detection alarm device.
7.4.1.4 Both fixed combustible gas detection and alarm devices and portable
combustible gas detection and alarm devices shall be calibrated regularly.
7.4.1.5 When the hydrogen content in the air reaches 25% of the lower
flammable limit of hydrogen, the hydrogen detection alarm device shall give an
alarm.
7.4.2 Hydrogen flame detection
7.4.2.1 The hydrogen flame detection alarm shall be selected based on the
response time, detection distance, coverage, sensitivity and other factors,
meanwhile comply with the requirements of GB 50058.
7.4.2.2 The hydrogen system shall be equipped with a portable hydrogen flame
detection alarm device.
7.5 Fire and explosion risk control
7.5.1 Prevent accidental mixing of hydrogen/oxygen
Avoiding the formation of hydrogen/oxygen mixtures is an important method to
prevent fires and explosions. The specific requirements are as follows:
a) Regularly perform hydrogen leak detection on the system;
b) Use forced ventilation in confined spaces that are likely to cause hydrogen
accumulation;
c) Prevent outside air from entering the liquid hydrogen and hydrogen slurry
system;
- Mechanical shock or friction;
- Metal fracture;
- Mechanical vibration.
7.5.3 Prevent the production of oxygen-enriched concentrates
When using low-temperature insulated pipelines for liquid hydrogen or
hydrogen slurry transportation, ensure that all parts of the pipeline are fully
insulated to prevent the material around the pipe becomes flammable due to
the production of oxygen-enriched concentrate as caused by the condensation
of air outside the pipeline.
7.6 Operational requirements
7.6.1 Operating procedures
7.6.1.1 The operator shall operate in accordance with the prescribed operating
procedures.
7.6.1.2 Operation procedures shall be established for operations such as
cleaning, purging, cooling, storage (especially filling), transportation, leak
detection, equipment repair and transformation.
7.6.1.3 The operating procedures shall be periodically evaluated to ensure their
effectiveness.
7.6.2 Operator
7.6.2.1 Operators shall wear flame-retardant and anti-static overalls that meet
the requirements of GB 12014 and anti-static shoes that meet the requirements
of GB 21146 when they take up their posts; they shall wear necessary personal
protective equipment.
7.6.2.2 Operators shall undergo on-the-job training and hold a certificate after
passing the examination. Special operation personnel shall undergo
professional training, hold a special operation qualification certificate, hold a
certificate within the validity period.
7.6.2.3 Operators shall be retrained regularly; the training items shall be
reviewed regularly to ensure that the training program is effective in real time.
7.6.2.4 Operators shall be able to deal with emergencies related to equipment
and systems, including evacuation of personnel during emergencies such as
hydrogen leakage and fire, prevention of accidental injuries, emergency rescue.
7.6.2.5 Operators shall have no color blindness or other physical defects or
f) The liquid hydrogen and hydrogen slurry storage containers shall neither
be overfilled, nor shall they be rapidly cooled;
g) The area around the hydrogen system shall be kept clean;
h) Ignition sources in storage and operation areas shall be eliminated;
meanwhile roadblocks and warning signs shall be used to control the
storage and operation areas.
7.6.6 Transportation
7.6.6.1 Hydrogen transportation shall meet the national and local laws and
provisions on the transportation of dangerous (flammable) products.
7.6.6.2 Passenger vehicles shall not be used for hydrogen transportation. When
using cargo ships, the hydrogen storage container shall be separated from the
accommodation area.
7.7 Emergency
7.7.1 Emergency handling
7.7.1.1 Leakage
7.7.1.1.1 The leak source shall be cut off in time; the leaked contaminated area
shall be ventilated to eliminate possible ignition sources in the leaked
contaminated area. Operators shall wear personal protective equipment when
entering the leaked contaminated area.
7.7.1.1.2 If the source of the leak cannot be cut off, the personnel in the leaked
contaminated area shall be evacuated immediately; the ventilation of the leaked
contaminated area shall be maintained; the fire department and the higher-level
department shall be notified immediately.
7.7.1.2 Fire and explosion
7.7.1.2.1 The hydrogen source shall be cut off in time. If the hydrogen source
cannot be cut off immediately, the hydrogen system shall be maintained at a
positive pressure to prevent backfire in the hydrogen system; the fire-fighting
water mist shall be used to force the fire equipment to cool.
7.7.1.2.2 Effective measures shall be taken to prevent the expansion of the fire;
fire-fighting water mist shall be used to spray other igniting substances and
adjacent equipment.
7.7.1.2.3 In the event of overpressure failure of the containers and pipelines of
the hydrogen system or explosion of the hydrogen system due to fire, the
personnel in the dangerous area shall be evacuated immediately; the fire
...