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GB/T 19951-2019

Chinese Standard: 'GB/T 19951-2019'
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BASIC DATA
Standard ID GB/T 19951-2019 (GB/T19951-2019)
Description (Translated English) Road vehicles--Disturbances test methods for electrical/electronic component from electrostatic discharge
Sector / Industry National Standard (Recommended)
Classification of Chinese Standard T36
Classification of International Standard 43.040.10
Word Count Estimation 38,385
Date of Issue 2019-06-04
Date of Implementation 2020-01-01
Older Standard (superseded by this standard) GB/T 19951-2005
Drafting Organization China Automotive Technology Research Center Co., Ltd., Suzhou Taisite Electronic Technology Co., Ltd., China Electronics Technology Standardization Research Institute, Changchun Automobile Testing Center, Shanghai Volkswagen Automotive Co., Ltd., Xiangyang Daan Automobile Testing Center, Shanghai Electric Apparatus Research Institute, Yanfeng Visteon Electronics Technology (Shanghai) Co., Ltd., SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile Co., Ltd., Zhengzhou Yutong Bus Co., Ltd., Shanghai Automotive Group Passenger Car Company, Shanghai Automobile Commercial Vehicle Technology Center, Brilliance Auto Group Holdings Co., Ltd., Pan Asia Automotive Technology Center Limited Company, China Testing and Testing Technology Co., Ltd., Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Co., Ltd., Shenzhen Hangsheng Electronics Co., Ltd., FAW-Volkswagen Automotive Co., Ltd., Chery Automobile Co., Ltd., Guangqi Honda Automobile Co., Ltd., Great Wall Steam
Administrative Organization National Automotive Standardization Technical Committee (SAC/TC 114)
Regulation (derived from) National Standard Announcement No.7 of 2019
Proposing organization Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of the People's Republic of China
Issuing agency(ies) State Administration of Markets and China National Standardization Administration

GB/T 19951-2019
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 43.040.10
T 36
Replacing GB/T 19951-2005
Road vehicles - Disturbances test methods for
electrical/electronic component from electrostatic
discharge
道路车辆 电气/电子部件对静电放电抗扰性的试验方法
(ISO 10605:2008, Road vehicles - Test methods for electrical disturbances
from electrostatic discharge, MOD)
ISSUED ON: JUNE 04, 2019
IMPLEMENTED ON: JANUARY 01, 2020
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
1 Scope ... 6 
2 Normative references ... 6 
3 Terms and definitions ... 6 
4 Test conditions ... 7 
5 Test location ... 7 
6 Test apparatus and instrumentation ... 8 
7 Discharge modes ... 12 
8 Component test method (DUT powered-up) ... 13 
9 Component test method (DUT unpowered) ... 18 
10 Vehicle test method ... 21 
11 Test report ... 24 
Annex A (Normative) Verification of ESD generator ... 25 
Annex B (Informative) Guidelines for current target design ... 29 
Annex C (Informative) Function performance status classification (FPSC) and
example severity levels ... 42 
Annex D (Informative) Selection guidance for test method of component
discharge ... 45 
Annex E (Informative) Optional test set-up and procedure for components
(powered-up test) ... 48 
Foreword
This Standard is drafted in accordance with the rules given in GB/T 1.1-2009.
This Standard replaces GB/T 19951-2005. The main differences between this
Standard and GB/T 19951-2005 are as follows:
- Adjust the terms (see Clause 3; Clause 3 of the 2005 edition);
- ADD test conditions, test location, and discharge modes (see Clauses 4, 5,
and 7);
- There are major modifications to the provisions on test apparatus and
instrumentation (output voltage, discharge resistance, and reduction of
apparatus variety specified) (see Clause 6; Clause 4 of the 2005 edition);
- MAKE major adjustments to the test methods, including component
powered-up test method and vehicle test method (see Clauses 8 and 10;
Clauses 5 and 6 of the 2005 edition);
- Adjust the requirements for evaluation of test results and test report (see
Clauses 8, 9, and 11; Clauses 5~7 of the 2005 edition);
- ADD “Guidelines for current target design”, “Selection guidance for test
method of component discharge”, and “Optional test set-up and procedure
for components (powered-up test)”, to specify the calibration, test methods,
and test procedure of the device (see Annexes B, D, and E);
- CHANGE the function performance status classification to an informative
annex (see Annex C; Annex B of the 2005 edition).
This Standard uses the redraft law to modify and adopt ISO 10605:2008 “Road
vehicles - Test methods for electrical disturbances from electrostatic discharge”.
The structural adjustment of this Standard compared with ISO 10605:2008 is
as follows:
- No subclauses under 6.3;
- No subclauses under 9.3.3;
- ADD 9.3.7;
- Delete C.3 and C.4;
- The content of Annex F of the source text is adjusted to Annex E.
There are technical differences between this Standard and ISO 10605:2008.
The clauses involved in these differences have been marked by a vertical single
line (|) at the blank of the outer margin.
The technical differences between this Standard and ISO 10605:2008 and their
reasons are as follows:
- About normative references, this Standard has made adjustments with
technical differences, to adapt to the technical conditions of China. The
adjustments are reflected in Clause 2 “Normative references”, as follows:
 Delete ISO 7637-1 and ISO 11452-1;
 ADD a reference to GB/T 29259-2012.
- GB/T 29259-2012 has included the terms of electrostatic discharge, human
ESD model, reference plane, and electrostatic discharge simulator
(generator), so delete the 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, and 3.10 contents of the source text.
- In order to clearly describe the contact discharge current waveform, and to
facilitate understanding of the meanings of t1 and t2 in Table 2, with
reference to the relevant standard, below Table 2, ADD Figure 3 “Schematic
diagram for contact discharge mode waveform parameters”. The
subsequent figure numbers change in order.
- ADD the functional requirements after component test, as post-test result
judgement, see 9.3.7.
- The 6.3.2 content of the source text is unnecessary statement, and is easy
to cause misunderstanding, so it is deleted.
This Standard makes the following editorial changes:
- Modify the standard name;
- INCORPORATE the amendments of ISO 10605:2008/Amd 1:2014 and ISO
10605:2008/Cor. 1:2010. The clauses involved in these amendments have
been marked by a vertical double line (ǁ) at the blank of the outer margin;
- For ease of understanding, GIVE a note to the current/test voltage (A/kV)
in Table 2;
- The description of test voltage in 8.4.5 of the source text is the same as that
in 8.3.6. This Standard does not repeat the description but refers to 8.3.6
instead. 9.3.3, 9.3.4, 9.3.5, 9.3.6, 10.3.3 are all treated in this way;
- Delete the comment for “1” in Figure B.1c) “Cut side view” in Annex B of the
source text and change “1” to “M3 screw hole”;
- In order to maintain the unification of expression and understanding of
function performance status classification (FPSC) between several
standards of electromagnetic immunity series, the content of function
performance status classification (FPSC) of Annex C is directly referred to
GB/T 33014.1;
- The source text’s Annex E “Rationale for air discharge generator verification”
is not directly related to the technical requirements and test methods of the
standard, and the drafting is extremely non-standard and so deleted.
This Standard was proposed by Ministry of Industry and Information Technology
of the PRC.
This Standard shall be under the jurisdiction of National Technical Committee
of Auto Standardization (SAC/TC 114).
Responsible drafting organizations of this Standard: China Automotive
Technology and Research Center Co., Ltd., Suzhou 3C-Test Electronic Co., Ltd.,
China Electronics Standardization Institute, Changchun Automotive Test Center
Co., Ltd., Shanghai Volkswagen Co., Ltd., Xiangfan Da An Automobile Test
Center, Shanghai Electrical Apparatus Research Institute, Yanfeng Visteon
Electronics Technology (Shanghai) Co., Ltd., SAIC GM Wuling Automobile Co.,
Ltd., Zhengzhou Yutong Bus Co., Ltd., SAIC Motor Passenger Vehicle
Company, SAIC Motor Commercial Vehicle Technical Center, Brilliance Auto
Group Holdings Co., Ltd., Pan Asia Technical Automotive Center Co., Ltd.,
Centre Testing International Group Co., Ltd., Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group
Corp., Ltd., Shenzhen Hangsheng Electronics Co., Ltd., FAW-Volkswagen
Automotive Co., Ltd., Chery Automobile Co., Ltd., Guangqi Honda Automobile
Co., Ltd., Great Wall Motor Co., Ltd., Guangzhou GRG Metrology & Test Co.,
Ltd.
Participating drafting organizations of this Standard: Bosch Automotive
Products (Suzhou) Co., Ltd., Toyota Motor Technical Center (China) Co., Ltd.,
BMW (China) Services Ltd., Mercedes-Benz (China) Automobile Sales Co., Ltd.,
Volkswagen (China) Investment Co., Ltd., Ford Motor (China) Co., Ltd., Jaguar
Land Rover China, Daimler Greater China Ltd., Peugeot Citroen (Shanghai)
Management Co., Ltd.
Main drafters of this Standard: Xu Xiuxiang, Hu Xiaojun, Cui Qiang, Liu Xin, Lin
Yanping, Liu Xinliang, Liu Ketao, Liu Yuan, Cui Weidong, Deng Fuqi, Lu
Changjun, Wu Dingchao, Cao Shanggui, Zou Aihua, Chu Yangang, Li Zheng,
Liu Yingli.
Road vehicles - Disturbances test methods for
electrical/electronic component from electrostatic
discharge
1 Scope
This Standard specifies the test methods for the tolerance of vehicle’s
electrical/electronic components against electrostatic discharge (ESD), which
may be caused by assembly, service, and occupants inside and outside the
vehicle, including component and vehicle level tests.
This Standard applies to electrical/electronic components for type M, N, O, L
vehicles (unlimited vehicle power systems, such as spark ignition engines,
diesel engines, motors).
2 Normative references
The following documents are indispensable for the application of this document.
For the dated references, only the editions with the dates indicated are
applicable to this document. For the undated references, the latest edition
(including all the amendments) are applicable to this document.
GB/T 29259-2012 Road vehicle - Electromagnetic compatibility terminology
3 Terms and definitions
The terms and definitions defined in GB/T 29259-2012 and the following apply
to this document.
3.1 Device under test; DUT
Single component or combination of components as defined to be tested.
3.2 Air discharge
Test method characterized by bringing the test generator charging electrode
close to the device under test (DUT); the discharge is by arcing on the DUT.
3.3 Contact discharge
Test method characterized by contact of the test generator electrode with the
DUT, where discharge is initiated by the generator discharge switch.
3.4 Direct discharge
Test method for discharging directly on the DUT.
3.5 Indirect discharge
Test method for discharging on a coupling plane near the DUT. It is generally
used to simulate discharge by a human being on items near the DUT.
3.6 Surface
Uninterrupted housing area, gap or opening of DUT, such as tip switches, points
of contact, air vents, speaker openings.
3.7 Holding time
Interval of time within which the decrease of the test voltage due to leakage,
prior to the discharge, is 10 %.
3.8 Horizontal coupling plane; HCP
Metal plane oriented in horizontal direction, to which discharges are applied to
simulate discharge to objects adjacent to the DUT.
4 Test conditions
The environmental conditions during the test are as follows. When other test
conditions are used, they shall be recorded in the test report:
- Ambient temperature: (25 ± 10) °C;
- Relative humidity between 20 % and 60 % (20 °C and 30 % relative humidity
preferred).
The user shall specify the test level, see Annex C.
5 Test location
It shall be carried out in a laboratory which meets environmental conditions.
Special locations, such as a shielded room or an anechoic chamber, may be
used.
Note: ESD testing creates transient fields, which can interfere with sensitive electronic
devices or receivers, even at a distance of a few meters. It is advisable that this be
considered when choosing a test location.
6 Test apparatus and instrumentation
6.1 ESD generator
The ESD generator should be able to generate a repetition rate of at least 10
discharges per second. Regardless of automatic or manual control, any
degradation of the discharge current waveform shall not occur. In cases where
a 2 m length of the discharge return cable is insufficient (e.g. for tall DUTs), a
length not exceeding 3 m may be used and compliance with the waveform
specifications shall be guaranteed. The characteristic parameters of the ESD
generator are shown in Table 1.
Note: When an ESD generator is supplied from an external supply source or controlled by
a separate unit, this/these cable(s) is/are not combined (bundled) with the ESD
generator discharge return cable, to avoid unintended current flowing through
this/these cable(s).
Table 1 -- Characteristic parameters of ESD generator
6.2 Discharge electrodes
6.2.1 Contact discharge electrode
The electrode for contact discharge is typically made of stainless steel, as
shown in Figure 1.
Dimensions in millimeters
Key:
1 - Sharp point.
Figure 1 -- Contact discharge mode electrode of the ESD generator
6.2.2 Air discharge electrode
The electrode for air discharge is shown in Figure 2. For air discharge at test
voltages higher than 15 kV, larger electrode tip (e.g. 20 mm to 30 mm diameter)
can be used to avoid pre-discharge.
Dimensions in millimeters
Key:
1 - Body of ESD generator.
Figure 2 -- Air discharge mode electrode of the ESD generator
6.3 Contact discharge mode current verification
The contact discharge mode currents shall be verified according to Annex A.
The contact discharge mode waveform parameters shall be in accordance with
Table 2. Examples of calculated contact discharge waveforms in accordance
with Table 2 are given in Figures 4a) and b).
Table 2 -- Contact discharge mode waveform parameters
Figure 3 -- Schematic diagram for contact discharge mode waveform
parameters
Note 1: The peak current is obtained from actual measurement.
Note 2: t1 and t2 are the two times of the falling edge of current pulse. t1=R×C(1-40%); t2=R×C(1+20%); as shown in
Figure 3. It is used to determine whether the current pulse amplitude corresponding to t1 and t2 meets the
requirements of GB/T 17626.2.
Note 3: The current/test voltage (A/kV) is a scaling factor. The current at different test voltages is multiplied by the
scaling factor.
Ipeak
I at t1
I at t2
Key:
X - Time, ns;
Y - Current, A;
1 - 330 pF/330 Ω;
2 - 150 pF/330 Ω.
a) 150 pF/330 pF, 330 Ω
Figure 4 -- Examples of calculated contact discharge waveform (5 kV
test voltage)
Key:
X - Time ,ns;
Y - Current, A;
1 - 330 pF/2 kΩ;
2 - 150 pF/2 kΩ.
b) 150 pF/330 pF, 2 kΩ
Figure 4 (continued)
6.4 Horizontal coupling plane and ground/reference plane
The horizontal coupling plane (HCP) and ground/reference plane (GRP) shall
be metallic sheets (e.g. copper, brass or aluminium) and a minimum thickness
of 0.25 mm. If aluminium is used, care is taken that oxidation does not prevent
a good ground connection. GRP is placed under the non-conductive table.
The HCP shall extend the projected geometry of the DUT (including the cables
connected to the DUT) by at least 0.1 m. The size should be at least 1.6 m ×
0.8 m. The height of the HCP above the GRP shall be between 0.7 m and 1.0
m. The GRP should have at least the dimensions of the HCP.
6.5 Insulation block
Insulation blocks, if used, shall be constructed of clean non-hygroscopic
material (e.g. polyethylene). The relative permittivity should range between 1
and 5. The blocks shall be (50 ± 5) mm in thickness and extend beyond the test
set-up by at least 20 mm on all sides.
6.6 Insulation support
Insulation support, if used, shall be constructed of clean non-hygroscopic
material (e.g. polyethylene) with a relative permittivity between 1 and 5. The
support shall be between 2 mm and 3 mm in thickness and project beyond the
test set-up by at least 20 mm on all sides. Care shall be taken that support
prevents dielectric breakdown up to 25 kV of discharge voltage.
7 Discharge modes
7.1 General
During the test, discharges can be applied by two discharge modes: contact
and air. See Annex D for guidance on air versus contact discharge modes.
7.2 Contact discharge
In contact discharge mode, before applying the discharge, the tip of the ESD
generator’s discharge electrode is brought in contact with the DUT.
7.3 Air discharge
In air discharge mode, the discharge electrode is charged to the test voltage
and then brought with the demanded speed of approach to the DUT, applying
the discharge through an arc that happens when the tip approaches close
enough to the DUT to break down the dielectric material between the tip and
test point.
The speed of approach of the discharge electrode is a critical factor in the rise
time and amplitude of the injected current during an air discharge. The speed
of approach should be between 0.1 m/s and 0.5 m/s. In practice the ESD
generator should approach the DUT as quickly as possible until the discharge
occurs or the discharge tip touches the discharge point without causing damage
to the DUT or generator.
8 Component test method (DUT powered-up)
8.1 General
These tests consist of direct and indirect types of application of discharges to
the DUT, as follows:
- direct type discharges (contact or air discharge mode) are applied directly
to the DUT or to the remote parts that are accessible, e.g. switches and
buttons;
- indirect type discharges (contact discharge mode) simulate discharges that
occur to other conductive objects in the vicinity of the DUT and are applied
through an intervening metal, such as an HCP.
Note: An optional test set-up and procedure using direct discharge test method are
described in Annex E.
The ESD generator shall be configured with the 330 pF or 150 pF capacitor,
depending on the DUT location in the vehicle, and the 330 Ω resistor. If the DUT
location is not specified, the 330 pF capacitor shall be used.
Conductive surfaces shall be tested using contact mode discharges. For
contact discharge, use the contact discharge tip (see Figure 1). Air discharge
may also be applied to conductive surfaces, if required in the test plan. Non-
conductive surfaces shall be tested using air mode discharges. For air
discharge, use the air discharge tip (see Figure 2).
Before applying any discharges to the DUT, according to Annex A, it shall
periodically verify the ESD generator.
8.2 Test plan
Prior to performing the test, generate a test plan, including the following:
- the detailed test set-up;
- test points;
- mode of operation of DUT;
- any special instructions and changes from the standard test.
8.3 Test procedure for direct discharges
8.3.1 General
Discharges shall be applied to all specified test points with the equipment
operating in normal modes. Product response may be affected by the polarity
of the discharge. Both polarities of discharge shall be used.
8.3.2 Test set-up
Place the DUT on the HCP (see Figure 5). If the DUT is, when installed, directly
connected to the body, during the test, it shall be placed directly on the HCP. If
it is not connected to the body during installation, during the test, an insulation
support shall be placed between the DUT and the HCP.
For testing, the DUT shall be connected to all peripheral units necessary for
functional testing. The line lengths used should be between 1.50 m and 2.50 m.
If vehicle intent peripheral units are not available for testing, substitute
peripheral units and test discharge points shall be addressed in the test plan.
All components on the test table shall be a minimum distance of 0.2 m from
each other. The lines shall be laid in such a way that they run parallel to the
HCP edges and they shall be a distance of 0.1 m away from the HCP edges.
The lines should be bundled and shall be secured on an insulating block. The
wiring type is defined by the actual vehicle. The supply battery shall be on the
test table, with the negative terminal of the battery directly connected to the
HCP. The explosion hazard of the battery shall be taken into account and
appropriate protective measures taken.
For direct discharge, the discharge return cable of the ESD generator shall be
connected to the HCP. The discharge return cable of the generator shall be kept
at least 0.2 m away from the DUT and all cables connected to the DUT (to
reduce coupling from this cable which might affect the test results). The ESD
test bench (test surface) shall be a minimum of 0.1 m from other conductive
structures, such as the surfaces of a shielded room.
Figure 5 -- Test set-up for direct discharge
8.3.3 Electrode connections for direct discharge method
8.3.3.1 Contact discharge
Before contact discharges, the tip of the discharge electrode of ESD generator
shall touch the DUT.
Where painted surfaces cover a conducting substrate, if the coating is not
declared to be an insulating coating by the equipment manufacturer, then the
pointed tip of the generator penetrates the coating so as to make contact with
the conducting substrate.
8.3.3.2 Air discharge
In the case of air discharges, the tip of the discharge electrode shall be brought
sufficiently close to the DUT as quickly as possible.
Note: When the case is a non-conductive surface, or the coating is declared to be an
insulating coating for the conductive surfaces, then the surface is tested as an
insulating surface using the air discharge mode.
8.3.4 Orientation of ESD generator
For direct discharge, the ESD generator’s discharge tip is held perpendicular to
the surface of the DUT when possible; if not possible, an angle of at least 45°
to the surface of the DUT is preferred.
8.3.5 Number of discharges and time between ESD events
At least 3 discharges shall be applied to all direct discharge test points for each
specified test voltage and polarity (see Annex C). The time interval between
successive single discharges shall be as long as necessary, not less than 1 s,
in order to ensure that the charges are removed before new discharge. The
methods for removing the charges described below can be applied.
- Charge build-up of the DUT can be eliminated by briefly connecting a
bleeder wire with resistance (≥ 1 MΩ) in the following sequence: (1)
between the discharge location and ground, and (2) between the ground
point of the DUT and ground. If there is evidence that the tandem
connection of 1 MΩ wire does not have any impact on the test result, it can
remain connected to the DUT.
- If the time interval is lengthened between two successive discharges, the
build-up charge vanishes due to the natural charge decay.
- Air-ionizers may be used to speed up the “natural” discharging process of
the DUT. The ionizer shall be turned off when applying an air discharge test.
8.3.6 Test voltage
The test voltages shall be increased, using at least two values, up to the
maximum test level.
Note: Some products have the tendency to exhibit susceptibility responses when exposed
to specific test voltages, but not necessarily at other test voltage levels.
8.4 Test procedure for indirect discharges
8.4.1 General
Discharges to objects placed or installed near the DUT are simulated by
applying contact discharges of the ESD generator to a horizontal coupling plane
(HCP). Contact discharges shall be applied to the HCP at points on each side
of the DUT. The ESD pulse should be applied to the edges of the HCP. The
DUT shall be positioned on the HCP such that its closest surface is 0.1 m from
the edge of the HCP receiving the discharge. The DUT may need to be
repositioned during the test, when applying ESD to the edge of the HCP, in
order to maintain this 0.1 m spacing between the DUT edge and the edge of
the HCP.
8.4.2 Test set-up
Place the DUT on the HCP (see Figure 6). If the DUT is, when installed, directly
connected to the body, during the test, it shall be placed directly on the HCP. If
it is not connected to the body during installation, during the test, an insulation
support shall be placed between the DUT and the HCP.
For testing, the DUT shall be connected to all peripheral units necessary for
functional testing. The line lengths used should be between 1.50 m and 2.50 m.
If vehicle intent peripheral units are not available for testing, substitute
peripheral units and test discharge points shall be addressed in the test plan.
All components on the test table shall be a minimum distance of 0.2 m from
each other. The lines shall be laid in such a way that they run parallel to the
HCP edges and the plane and they shall be a distance of 0.1 m away from the
HCP edges. The lines should be bundled and shall be secured on an insulating
block. The wiring type is defined by the actual vehicle. The supply battery shall
be on the test table, with the negative terminal of the battery directly connected
to the HCP. The explosion hazard of the battery shall be taken into account and
appropriate protective measures taken.
For indirect discharge, the discharge return cable of the ESD generator may be
connected to the HCP or to the GRP (as defined in the test plan). The discharge
return cable of the generator shall be kept at least 0.2 m away from the DUT
and all cables connected to the DUT (to reduce coupling from this cable which
might affect the test results). The ESD test bench (test surface) shall be a
minimum of 0.1 m from other conductive structures, such as the surfaces of a
shielded room.
Figure 6 -- Test set-up for indirect discharge
8.4.3 Number of discharges and time between ESD events
50 discharges shall be applied to all indirect discharge test points for each
specified test voltage and polarity (see Annex C). For discharges to the HCP,
the time intervals between successive single discharges shall be longer than
50 ms.
8.4.4 Orientation of ESD generator
For discharges to HCP, the discharge tip is in the same plane as the HCP while
making contact with the edge of the plane. No discharge is made to the flat
surface of the HCP.
8.4.5 Test voltage
It shall be in accordance with 8.3.6.
9 Component test method (DUT unpowered)
9.1 General
The test shall subject the DUT to simulated direct discharges from humans
during the assembly process or in the service case.
Before applying any discharges to the DUT, according to Annex A, it shall
periodically verify the ESD generator. The ESD generator shall be configured
with the 150 pF capacitor and the resistor value specified in the test plan.
9.2 Test plan
Prior to performing the test, generate a test plan, including the following:
- the detailed test set-up;
- test points;
- mode of operation of DUT;
- any special instructions from the standard test.
9.3 Test procedure
9.3.1 General
The test shall be performed by contact discharge on all pins and contacts,
and/or air discharge mode on all surfaces and points that can be touched during
the assembly process or in the service case.
Apply the ESD at (as a minimum) each connector pin (including recessed
connector pin of DUT), case, button, switch, display, case screw and case
opening that is accessible during handling. To access recessed connector pins,
an insulated solid wire with a cross-section between 0.5 mm2 and 2 mm2 and a
maximum length of 25 mm shall be used.
Discharge on pins of a connector with closely-spaced pins may be difficult. In
this case, it is possible to use insulated solid wire with a cross-section between
0.5 mm2 and 2 mm2, and a maximum length of 25 mm to access.
Direct discharges shall be applied to all specified test points in the test plan.
Product response may be affected by the polarity of the discharge. Both
polarities of discharge shall be used.
9.3.2 Test set-up
The ESD test set-up is shown in Figure 7. The safety ground connection (item
7 in Figure 6) may include 2 × 470 kΩ resistors. The DUT shall be tested without
periphery, as delivered by the supplier.
If required in the test plan, a static dissipative mat shall be used between DUT
and HCP. The size of the mat shall be greater than the horizontal projection size
of DUT. The surface resistivity of this material shall be between 107 Ω per
square and 109 Ω per square.
For direct discharge, the discharge return cable of the ESD generator shall be
connected to the HCP. The discharge return cable of the generator should be
positioned at least 0.2 m away from the DUT and all cables connected to the
DUT (to reduce coupling from this cable which might affect the test results). The
ESD test bench (test surface) shall be a minimum of 0.1 m from other
conductive structures, such as the surfaces of a shielded room.
Figure 7 -- DUT test set-up example (DUT unpowered)
9.3.3 Electrode connections for direct discharge method
It shall be in accordance with 8.3.3.
9.3.4 Orientation of ESD generator
It shall be in accordance with 8.3.4.
9.3.5 Number of discharges and time between ESD events
It shall be in accordance with 8.3.5.
9.3.6 Test voltage
It shall be in accordance with 8.3.6.
9.3.7 Post-test functional requirements
(including 2 × 470 kΩ resistors)
After the test, the DUT shall be fully functionally-tested. Its functions shall be
normal without permanent damage. In addition, it shall verify the effectiveness
of the electromagnetic compatibility protection circuit (For example, it shall
ensure the input capacitance of electromagnetic immunity and emission
respectively).
10 Vehicle test method
10.1 General
Choose a generator capacitance of 330 pF for areas that can easily be
accessed only from the inside of the vehicle and resistance of 330 Ω or 2 kΩ.
The maximum test voltage can be limited in this case to 15 kV. Choose a
capacitance of 150 pF for points that can easily be touched only from the
outside of the vehicle and resistance of 330 Ω or 2 kΩ. In this case, the
maximum test voltage is 25 kV. Areas that can be touched both from the outside
and inside shall be tested with both generator capacitance values and 15 kV
and 25 kV maximum test voltage, respectively.
Before applying any discharges to the component, according to Annex A, it shall
periodically verify the ESD generator.
Conductive surfaces shall be tested using contact mode discharges. For
contact discharge, use the contact discharge tip. Air discharge may also be
applied to conductive surfaces, if required in the test plan. Non-conductive
surfaces shall be tested using air mode discharges. For air discharge, use the
air discharge tip.
10.2 Test plan
Prior to performing the test, generate a test plan, including the following:
- test points;
- mode of operation of component;
- vehicle modes of operation (e.g. drive, idle, cruise);
- any special instructions and changes from the standard test.
10.3 Test procedure
10.3.1 General
During the test, discharges shall be applied to all specified test points with the
equipment operating in normal modes. Product response may be affected by
the polarity of the discharge. Both polarities of discharge shall be used.
10.3.2 Test set-up
For areas accessible only from the inside of the vehicle, the discharge return
cable of ESD generator shall be connected directly to the grounded metallic
part of the body (e.g. seat railing, door latch). Figure 8 a) provides an example
of test set-up for an internal point.
For areas accessible from the outside of the vehicle, the discharge return cable
of ESD generator can be connected directly to the nearest grounded metallic
part of the body, or directly to a metal plate placed under the wheel closest to
the application point. Figure 8 b) provides an example of test set-up for an
external point.
For areas that can be touched both from the outside and inside of the vehicle,
according to Figures 8 a) and b) respectively, carry out the test set-up.
During the test, the engine of the vehicle shall be running in drive or idle mode.
If the test sequence involves tests of systems (e.g. cruise control) at road
speeds using a dynamometer, specify the speed in the test plan.
a) Internal point
b) External point
Figure 8 -- Vehicle ESD test set-up
Discharge return cable of ESD generator
Discharge return cable of ESD generator
10.3.3 Electrode connections for direct discharge method
10.3.3.1 Contact discharge
It shall be in accordance with 8.3.3.1.
10.3.3.2 Air discharge
It shall be in accordance with 8.3.3.2.
10.3.4 Orientation of ESD generator
It shall be in accordance with 8.3.4.
10.3.5 Number of discharges and time between ESD events
It shall be in accordance with 8.3.5.
10.3.6 Test voltage
It shall be in accordance with 8.3.6.
10.3.7 Selection of test points
Discharge is performed on and in the vehicle on all areas that can be reached
by the person using the vehicle (e.g. switches, displays, surfaces, steering lock,
controls, antennas).
11 Test report
The test report shall include detailing information regarding the test equipment
(in particular discharge network values), test levels, test area, systems tested,
discharge points, environmental conditions, grounding conditions, DUT
operating mode, DUT monitoring conditions, system interactions and any other
relevant information regarding the test.
Annex A
(Normative)
Verification of ESD generator
A.1 Input impedance of current target
The current target used to measure the discharge current of ESD generators,
measured between the inner electrode and ground, shall have an input
impedance at d.c. of no more than 2.1 Ω.
Note 1: The target is supposed to measure the ESD current into a perfect ground plane.
To minimize error caused by the difference between a perfectly conducting plane
and the input impedance of the target, a 2.1 Ω limit is set for the input impedance.
However, if the input impedance of the target is too low, the output signal will be
very small, which can cause errors due to coupling into the cables and the
oscilloscope. Furthermore, if a much lower resistance value is taken, parasitic
inductance becomes more severe.
Note 2: Annex B provides a detailed description for the current target.
A.2 Verification of ESD generator
A.2.1 General
Correlation of the results of an ESD evaluation is extremely important,
particularly when tests are to be conducted using ESD generators from different
manufacturers, or when testing is expected to extend over a long period of time.
It is essential that repeatability be a driving factor in the evaluation. The ESD
generator shall be verified in defined time periods in accordance with a
recognized quality assurance system. The ESD generators shall meet all
specifications at any specified repetition rate.
A.2.2 Equipment for verification
The following equipment is required for calibrating ESD generators:
- oscilloscope with at least 1 GHz analogue bandwidth;
- current target;
- high-voltage meter capable of measuring voltages of at least 25 kV with at
least 5 % accuracy; it may be necessary to use an electrostatic voltmeter
to avoid loading the output voltage;
- reference plane at least 1.2 m × 1.2 m, with the coaxial current target
mounted such that there is a distance of at least 0.6 m from the target to
any edge of the plane;
- attenuator(s), as required.
A.2.3 Procedure for contact mode generator verification
A.2.3.1 Prior to verifying the discharge current, the amplitude of the ESD
generator’s test voltage should be determined using a high-voltage meter at the
electrode tip. The accuracy of the test voltage measurement shall be as
specified in Table 1.
Note: The verification of electrode output voltage should consider electrical structure of
ESD generator (e.g. electrical circuit structure) and specification (e.g. input
impedance and input stray capacitance) of high-voltage meter for correct measuring.
A.2.3.2 The environmental conditions for verification shall be in accordance
with the provisions of Clause 4.
A.2.3.3 The current target shall be mounted at the center of the vertical
verification plane of at least 1.2 m × 1.2 m (see Figure A.1). The connection for
the ESD generator discharge return cable to the verification plane shall be
made directly below the target, at a distance of 0.5 m below the target. The
discharge return cable shall be pulled backwards at the middle of the cable,
forming an isosceles triangle. The discharge return cable shall not lie on the
floor during verification.
A.2.3.4 The measurement discharge current procedure is shown in Table A.1.
The following parameters shall be measured, in order to verify whether or not
the current waveform of an ESD generator is within specifications:
- Ip, the peak value of the discharge current, in A,
- I1, the value of the current at t1, in A (from Table 2),
- I2, the value of the current at t2, in A (from Table 2),
- tr, the rise time of the current, in ns.
The average value of a parameter Xx is indicated by Xx. Ip signifies the average
of the peak current values.
A.2.3.5 The shielded enclosure, with a ground reference plane of at least 1.2 m
× 1.2 m in which the target is mounted in order to shield the oscilloscope used,
may not be necessary if it can be proven by measurement that indirect coupling
paths onto the measurement system will not influence the verification results.
When the oscilloscope is set to a trigger level that is ≤ 10 % compared to the
resulting peak output voltage from the first peak current, and the ESD generator
is discharged to the outer ring of the target (instead of to the inner ring) and no
triggering of the oscilloscope results, then the verification system can be
declared sufficiently immune and no shielded enclosure is needed.
Table A.1 -- Contact discharge current waveform verification procedure
Table A.1 (continued)
Because there will be
some discharge-to-
discharge variations,
it shall carry out
multiple
measurements.
TAKE the average of
10 times discharge
measurement
parameters.
Whether to
meet Table 2
Whether to
meet Table 2
Whether to
meet Table 2
Whether to
meet Table 2
Whether to
meet Table 2
Whether to
meet Table 2
Whether to
meet Table 2
Whether to
meet Table 2
Whether to
meet Table 2
Whether to
meet Table 2
Dimensions in millimeters
Figure A.1 -- Typical arrangement for verification of ESD generator
Annex B
(Informative)
Guidelines for current target design
B.1 Standard target
Figures B.1 to B.5 illustrate a method or design for a target that meets the
requirements of Annex A.
This target is designed to give a flat insertion loss if 1 m of RG 400 cable is
used. It is suggested to connect an attenuator of at least 6 dB to the output port
of the target in order to avoid multiple reflections. The target does not need to
be identical to the one illustrated in Figures B.1 to B.5.
Dimensions in millimeters
a) Top view
Figure B.1 -- Central brass part of a current target
Dimensions in millimeters
b) Bottom view
c) Cut side view
Figure B.1 (continued)
M3 screw hole
Dimensions in millimeters
a) Printed circuit board
b) Enlargement of the resistor region
Figure B.2 -- Printed circuit board of a current target
. The parameters are as follows:
Dimensions in millimeters
Note: Part has symmetry of rotation.
a) Polyethylene plastic (Teflon) (PTFE) part I
Note: Part has symmetry of rotation.
b) Center conductor, brass
Figure B.3 -- Center conductor and connection accessories of a current
target
Dimensions in millimeters
Note: Part has symmetry of rotation.
c) Top part of center conductor, stainless steel
d) PTFE part II: Top view
e) PTFE part II: Cut side view
Figure B.3 (continued)
Dimensions in millimeters
Note: A similar N-type connector can be used instead.
f) Coaxial RF (SMA) connector
Figure B.3 (continued)
Dimensions in millimeters
a) Top view
b) Cut side view
Figure B.4 -- A current target - Cover, stainless steel
Figure B.5 -- Assembly structure of a current target
B.2 Current target specification
B.2.1 Insertion loss of current target
Instead of specifying the insertion loss of the current target, the insertion loss
of the measurement chain consisting of the target, attenuator and cable is
specified. This simplifies the measurement system characterization, as only this
chain and the oscilloscope need to be characterized, instead of each element
individually.
The variation of the insertion loss of the target-attenuator-cable chain shall be
less than ± 0.5 dB between d.c. and 1 GHz.
Note: Different verification time intervals can be used for the d.c. transfer impedance and
the more involved insertion loss measurements. If a repeated d.c. transfer
impedance measurement shows a result which differs from the original
measurement by less than 1 %, the user can assume the insertion loss of the target-
attenuator-cable chain has not changed, providing the same cable and attenuator
are used and no other indications (e.g. loose or damaged connectors) indicate
otherwise.
B.2.2 Target adapter line
The target adapter line shown in Figure B.6 may be used to connect a 50 Ω
cable to the input of the current target. Geometrically, it smoothly expands from
the diameter of the coaxial cable to the target diameter. If the impedance
calculated from the diameter ratio d to D (see Figure B.7) is not equal to 50 Ω,
the target adapter line shall be made such that the outer diameter of its inner
conductor equals the diameter of the inner electrode of the current target. The
impedance shall be calculated using the relative permittivity of the material that
fills the adapter line (typically air). The impedance of adapter line shall maintain
50×(1±2%)Ω within a 1 GHz bandwidth. The reflection coefficient of two target
adapter lines placed face-to-face shall be greater than 30 dB up to 1 GHz. The
insertion loss of the two target adapter lines placed face to face shall be less
than 0.3 dB from d.c. to 1 GHz.
Note: Interfacing with other connectors fulfilling the impedance and loss demands is
possible.
Figure B.6 -- Target adapter line attached to current target
Figure B.7 -- Front side of a current target
B.2.3 Determining the insertion loss of a current target-attenuator-cable
chain
The insertion loss of the chain is determined by comparing a through connection
to the chain (see Figure B.8). The preferred measurement equipment is a
network analyzer. A spectrum analyzer with tracking generator or other systems
to measure magnitude insertion loss may also be used.
To avoid reflections between the matched signal sources and the highly
reflecting target, it may be necessary to insert well-matched attenuators
between the signal source and the target. Typically, a 20 dB attenuator on each
side is sufficient. It is also important to avoid coaxial adapters between the
attenuator and the target or the target adapter line, as they may introduce
reflections. By changing the cable lengths between the measurement system
and the target, it can be determined if reflections are sufficiently suppressed.
Those reflections will show up as periodic undulations on the insertion loss
versus frequency curve.
Note: The ESD current target, attenuator A and the coaxial cable are the target-attenuator-
cable chain, which is verified using this set-up.
Figure B.8 -- Measurement of insertion loss
The measurement procedure for the insertion loss is to calibrate the network
analyzer at the verification points shown in Figure B.8.
Note 1: If no network analyzer is used, the procedure is modified accordingly:
- connect a target adapter line to the target-attenuator-cable chain and insert it as
shown in Figure B.8;
- measure the insertion loss.
The variation of the insertion loss of the target-attenuator-cable chain shall be
less than ± 0.5 dB, between d.c. and 1 GHz.
Note 2: Instead of d.c., the lowest frequency available with the network analyzer is used.
The d.c. characteristics are measured separately.
Note 3: See note to B.2.1.
B.2.4 Determining the d.c. transfer resistance of a target-attenuator-cable
(between attenuator A and network analyzer and between attenuator B and network analyzer)
chain
The d.c. transfer resistance of a target-attenuator-cable chain is defined as the
ratio between the current injected to the input of the target and the voltage
across a precision 50 Ω load at the output of the cable (i.e. placed at the end of
the cable instead of the oscilloscope). The circuit diagram is illustrated in Figure
B.9.
In an ESD measurement, an oscilloscope displays a voltage Vosc if a current Isys
is injected into the target. To calculate the unknown current from the displayed
voltage, the voltage is divided by a d.c. system transfer resistance Zsys.
Figure B.9 -- Circuit diagram to determine the d.c. system transfer
resistance
The d.c. system transfer resistance of the target-attenuator-cable chain can be
determined by the method below.
- Inject a current Isys of approximately 1 A into the front side of the current
target. The front side is the side to which discharges are made. The current
shall be known within ± 1 %. Larger currents may be used if they do not
thermally stress the target beyond its specifications. Measure the voltage
ammeter between attenuator A and network analyzer and between attenuator B and network analyzer
across the precision 50 Ω load.
- Calculate the transfer impedance according to Equation (B.1):
Note: To verify the influence of thermal voltages on the result, the measurement can be
done with positive and negative current. A check is made that the two results are
within 0.5 % of each other.
Other methods to determine the transfer characteristics of the whole target-
attenuator-cable chain may be used.
Annex C
(Informative)
Function performance status classification (FPSC) and example severity
levels
C.1 Function performance status
See GB/T 33014.1-2016.
C.2 Test signal severity level
The test signal severity levels shall be determined by negotiation between the
vehicle manufacturer and supplier. Tables C.1 to C.7 provide examples of test
severity levels.
Table C.1 -- Component test - Example severity levels for direct contact
discharge
Table C.2 -- Component test - Example severity levels for direct air
discharge
Table C.3 -- Component test - Example severity levels for indirect
contact discharge
Table C.4 -- Vehicle test - Example severity levels for contact discharge
(test points accessible only from inside vehicle)
Table C.5 -- Vehicle test - Example severity levels for air discharge (test
points accessible only from inside vehicle)
Table C.6 -- Vehicle test - Example severity levels for contact discharge
(test points accessible only from outside vehicle)
Table C.7 -- Vehicle test - Example severity levels for air discharge (test
points accessible only from outside vehicle)
Annex D
(Informative)
Selection guidance for test method of component discharge
D.1 Resistor value selection
Testing with 2 kΩ resistor represents the discharge of a human body directly
through the skin. Testing with 330 Ω resistor represents the discharge of a
human body through a metallic part (e.g. tool, key, ring). A test with a 330 Ω
resistor is more severe than testing with 2 kΩ.
Selection of the discharge resistance to be used for the test should be specified
in the test plan.
D.2 Test method selection
The particular test method (air or contact) selected should be determined by
analysis of the information that will be gained from the ESD test. D.3 to D.5
provide an overview of the two approaches, in conjunction with the advantages
and disadvantages of each approach.
D.3 Air discharge
D.3.1 General
The air discharge method virtually replicates ESD, as it would occur in the
actual environment. The impulse current waveforms delivered to the DUT are
allowed (and expected) to vary significantly from pulse to pulse.
D.3.2 Air discharge advantages
The main benefit is that any insulating surfaces or air gaps in the DUT that
prevent ESD can be evaluated for breakdown voltage. Another advantage of
the air discharge method is that DUT responses will be caused by phenomena
that are similar to actual ESD events. This means that for a given test voltage,
one ESD pulse may cause a DUT response, while another pulse may not. When
the DUT does respond, the response may be different from discharge to
discharge. Finally, air discharge simulates the non-linear relationship between
amplitudes of voltage and current found in natural ESD.
D.3.3 Air discharge disadvantages
The main disadvantage is that this method requires a tedious test series. The
air discharge test may require several hours of test time because of the need
to apply (possibly) hundreds of pulses to a DUT in order to fully (adequately)
evaluate and understand the responses of the DUT and their probabilities of
occurrence. Apart from the disadvantage of test time, the DUT may respond
inconsistently to the ESD excitations. This produces serious repeatability
problems in the test results, requiring further ESD tests to ultimately determine
the performance profile of the DUT.
D.4 Contact discharge
D.4.1 General
The contact discharge method simulates ESD, but it does not replicate all of
the characteristics of the actual ESD phenomena. The contact discharge
method provides a more repeatable ESD test simulation. In effect, the impulse
waveforms delivered to the DUT will remain relatively consistent from pulse to
pulse.
The variability associated with the air gap at the time of discharge will generally
be avoided and will not depend on the characteristics of the DUT surfaces,
provided that the DUT surfaces are not fully nonconductive in construction.
D.4.2 Contact discharge advantages
The major advantage of the contact discharge method is that the consistency
and repeatability of the ESD test waveforms usually result in a more consistent
and repeatable DUT performance. The contact discharge test method is less
tedious than the air discharge method, since it can be performed in a more
automated manner, with the impulses applied to the DUT at a relatively fast
pulse repetition rate (if it is guaranteed that the charge built up in the meantime
between two discharges can vanish). In practice, the use of the contact
discharge method permits the evaluation of DUT susceptibility to ESD to be
made in a manner that significantly conserves test time.
D.4.3 Contact discharge disadvantages
The major disadvantage is that it requires a surface conductivity at the point of
test application. In addition, contact discharge testing may not provide an
estimate of DUT response to actual-use voltages, since the random variations
in the ESD waveform are not reproduced. Finally, the ESD voltage and current
become directly proportional during these tests, whereas the relationship
between voltage and current in naturally occurring ESD is non-linear.
D.5 DUT surfaces
D.5.1 General
The choice of test method may be made partly on the basis of whether the
surfaces of the DUT are conductive or non-conductive.
D.5.2 Conductive surfaces
Conductive surfaces and coupling planes may be subjected to either the air or
the contact discharge. Due to better reproducibility, contact mode discharge
should be used for conductive surfaces.
D.5.3 Non-conductive surfaces
For insulating surfaces, the air discharge method (by its inherent nature) is
predominantly used. The air discharge method is also useful in determining the
breakdown voltages of surfaces that have a conducting substrate (subsurface),
with an insulating surface layer. If the contact discharge method is used in this
latter situation by penetrating the insulating surface layer, it may result in excess
current being applied to the DUT, compared to the current in air discharge, since
the arc path impedance will be missing. For fully insulating surfaces, the contact
discharge test method may be used, but it will be an indirect test that is
performed by applying the contact ESD to a conductive plane that is adjacent
to the non-conductive surface.
D.5.4 Indirect ESD tests
When performing indirect ESD testing, considering that contact discharges are
more reproducible and require less time between discharges, only contact
mode discharges are used.
Annex E
(Informative)
Optional test set-up and procedure for components (powered-up test)
E.1 Background
This annex provides an additional approach for the ESD powered-up test,
detailing the test set-up, test procedure, and suggested test severity levels. This
approach is intended to produce more repeatable test results and to better
correlate with vehicle level ESD tests and the real world environment, above all
in comparison with the HCP test.
Considering the maturity of the test method, in addition to the ESD powered-up
test as described in Clause 8, this test method is for reference only.
E.2 General
Prior to performing the test, generate a test plan, including the following:
- the detailed test set-up;
- test points;
- modes of operation;
- any special instructions from the s......
Related standard:   GB 15742-2019  GB/T 28046.2-2019
Related PDF sample:   GB/T 28046.2-2019  GB/T 38444-2019
   
 
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